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write in this book or ma 
c>ncil. Penalties are imp-> 
' of the Comv ; * n 

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Popular Recreator. 



In-door and Out-door Amusements. 





Cassell, Petter & Galpin 

London, Paris ^vNw'YgreLK :»; '; 

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Angling, Articles on, i., 44, 97, 

165, 206, 267, 349 ; ii., 13, 120, 

161, 241, 319, 349. 
Angler's Outfit, i., 44. 
Bailey on Dace Fishing, ii., 

Baits, ii., 14. 

Ground, ii., 15, 350. 

— — Ground, How to Make, ii., 


Best for Spinning, ii., 242. 

Barbel, The, ii., 349. 
Bream, The, ii., 350. 
Carp, The, ii., 351. 
Chub, The, ii., 241, 242, 243. 

How to Take, ii., 244. 

Dace, The, ii., 319. 

Flights of Hooks, ii., 241, 242, 

Float, The, i., 165, 166, 167, 206. 
Tumbler, The, i., 166. 

— Goosequill, The, i., 166. 
— — Porcupine, The, 1, 166. 

— Traveller, The, i., 165, 206 ; 
ii., 350. 

— — Improvement on the, i., 


How to Attach, i. , 207. 

Cups for, i.,207. 

Colours for, i., 207. 

Nottingham, The, i., 207. 

Gentles, Use of, ii,, 15. 
Gorge Hooks, ii. , 161. 
Gudgeon, The, ii., 350. 
— — The Best Hooks for, ii., 

Gut, Use of, i., 165, 269. 

— How to Dye, i., 165. 
Hook, The, i., 208, 267, 268. 

Drag-, The, i., 350. 

Faults of, i„ 268. 

Form of, i., 268. 

Kinds of, 1, 268. 

Tests for, i., 268. 

Kendal, i., 268. 

Limerick, i., 268. 

Bound, i., 268. 

Sneck, i., 268. 

— Paternoster, The, ii. , 122. 
Roach, The, F. Farley on, 

i, 268. 
Sproat, The, i., 268. 

— Warner's Improved Eyed, 
i., 269. 

How to Use, i.,269. 

Leads, Barrel, i., 208. 

Different Forms of, ii., 242, 

Ledgering, ii., 349. 
Lines, Best Materials for, i., 98, 


Heavy, How to Fit, i., 165. 

Nottingham, i., 165. 

Use of Human Hair for, i., 

Paternoster, ii., 122. 
Perch, The, ii., 120. 
Habits of, ii., 120. 

— How to Take, ii, 120, 121. 

Baits, Best for, i., 121. 

Pike, The, ii., 161. 

Trolling for, ii., 161. 

— — Gorge Hooks for, ii., 161. 

Modes of Fishing for, ii., 

162, 163, 164, 241, 242. 

ANGLING (continued). 

Raking for Dace, ii., 319, 320. 
Peel Fishing, The, i, 270. 

Nottingham, The, i. , 270. 

Rings, Clearing the, i., 270, 349. 
Roach, The, i., 351, 352; ii., 13. 

14, 15. 
How to Fish for, i., 351, 

352 ; ii., 13. 

Habits of, i„ 352. 

■ "Weight of, ii., 14. 

Styles of Fishing for, ii., 14. 

Rod, Fishing, The, i., 44, 45, 97, 
98 99. 

Walking Stick, The, i., 97. 

Roach Fishing, Best Form 

for, i., 98. 

Japanese, i. , 98. 

Used on the Lea, i., 98. 

■ Varnish for, i. , 198, 207. 

Where Best Purchased, i. ,99. 

Shot, Use of, i, 99, 207. 
— - How to Apply, i., 99. 
Spinning, ii., 241. 
Swivels, Use of, L, 208. 

Various Descriptions of — 

Box Swivels, i., 208. 
Buckle Blocks, i., 208. 
Hook Swivels, i., 208. 
Spring Hooks, i., 208. 
Tackle, Varnish for, i., 207, 
Tench, The, ii., 35L 
Trolling, ii., 161. 


Aquarium, Articles on, i., 57, 126, 

187, 245, 309, 373 ; ii., 87, 113, 

170, 218, 270, 332. 
Anecdotes on, i, 57, 58, 245; ii., 

113, 218. 
Animals Suited for Admission to, 

i., 127. 
Aquavivarium, or, i., 126. 
Artificial Sea Water, i., 128, 

Best Form of Vessel for, i., 

Bivalv'ed Mollusks, ii., 271, 272. 
Chlorosperms, The, ii., 252. 
Collecting Vegetation for, ii., 

Commencement of at the Zoologi- 
cal Gardens, Regent's Park, 
Comparisons between different 

Habitats, i., 309. 
Conditions Necessary for Health, 

i., 309, 310. 
Covering for, Best Form of, ii., 

Crystal Palace, Description of, i., 

187 ; ii., 87, 114, 171. 
Ear Shell, The, ii., 218, 271. 
Erection of Fresh- Water Aqua- 
rium at Regent's Park, i ^, J 

Facsimile of Old, i., 127. 
First Use of Term, i., 126. 
Gills, Fish, Description of, ii., 

Gosse's Experiments on, i., 189. 
Growth of Marine Algas, i., 


AQUARIUM (continued). 

Hamburg, at, ii, 114. 
Heraldric Pike, i. , 61. 
How to Make a Small, i, 376, 377. 
Illustrations of, i., 57, 60, 127, 

128, 189, 245, 246, 373, 376, 377 ; 

ii., 113. 
Illustrations of Failure, i., 189. 
Importance of Circulation in 

Water, ii., 170. 
Oscillatoria, The, ii, 333. 
Oxygen, Nature's Agent to Effect 

Decomposition, i., 173. 
Oxygenation by Fire, Example of, 

ii. , 88. 
Oysters as Scavengers, Use of, ii. , 

Paraphernalia required for, ii., 

Pond Snails, Use of, ii., 271. 
Primitive Form of, ii., 57. 
Propagating Glasses as, Use of, 

ii., 272. 
Rhodosperms, The, ii., 332. 
Rules for Conducting an, i. , 126, 

Sea Anemones, i. , 128. 
Sea Weeds, ii , 332. 
Sea Water, Artificial, i, 377. 
Sir J. DalyeU's, ii., 219. 
Situation, Best for, i., 377. 
Spontaneous Vegetation, ii. , 219. 
Tank, Fresh-water, Description 

of, ii., 115. 
— — How Kept Clear, ii. , 115. 
— — Inhabitants, Its, ii., 115. 
Temperature Best for, ii., 170. 
Thynne's, Mrs., Salt- Water, i., 

Valisneria, Use of, i. , 188. 
Vegetable Life in Fresh and Salt- 
Water, i. , 247. 
Vegetation Necessary for Health, 

i., 188, 246. 
Water, Decay of Vegetation in, 

Ward's First Fresh- Water, i.,188. 
Warington's Trout, ii. , 170. 

Experiments, i., 189. 

Evaporation of, i., 310. 

Effect of Climate on, i, 373. 

— Experiments with, i., 310, 

Laws drawn from, i, 375. 


Archery, Articles on, ii., 1, 93, 
129, 182. 

Antiquity of, ii, 2. 

Arrow, The, ii, 129, 130. 

Belt, The, ii.,130. . 

Bow, The, ii., 93, 94. 

BowStrings, ii., 94. 

Bow Strings, Illegitimate Use of, 

ii., 94. 
:,BraWes.' The,; ^,,,130,13:1. «, ,, 
;Cha .liter Prr'ciice, ti, 132>. '• > .; 
'Club Llujes <^f Reading Grata u '., 
183. "" '***>■**} 

Crack Shqts, A,ucient t ii, 2. 

Cressy, Battjlopf, ii.,.3. * ', \" 

Cross-Bo*, The, ii.,182:; 

Elland Tragedy, The, History of, 

,; ' ii-, A4., 95. 

ARCHERT (continue^, 

Five Points of Archery, ii., 130, 

Flight Shooting, ii., 182. 
Former Custom at Harrow, ii., 

Halidowne Hill, Battle of, ii., 3. 
Hansard's Directions on the Cross- 
bow, ii. , 182. 
Keeping a Length, ii., 183. 
Lady's Bow, Length of, ii., 129. 
Long Bow, Old English, The, ii. 

Old English, ii., 2. 
Origin of, ii., 1. 
Persian Bowmen, ii, 2. 
Position, ii., 1. 
Quiver, The, ii., 130. 
Roving, ii.,130, 182. 
Shooting Glove, The, ii, 130 

Shooting Regulations, ii, 183. 
Stringing the Bow, Position for, 

ii., 129, 130. 
Target, The, ii., 130. 
— Card, The, ii., 130. 

Shooting, ii.,183. 

Turkish Contrivance for Extend- 
ing Flight of Arrows, ii. , 182 
Versus Croquet, ii., 93. 


Bagatelle, Articles on, ii., 220, 

Balls, The, ii., 221. 
Cannon Game, The, ii., 298. 
Cue, The, ii. 220. 

How to Top, ii., 221. 

Game, The, ii., 221, 222. 
Mace, The, ii., 220. 
Position, The, ii, 221. 
Side, to Put On, ii., 298. 
Table, The, ii., 220. 


Bezique, Article on, ii., 147. 
Cards, The, ii, 148. 
Declaration of Marriage, ii. , 148. 
Four Handed, How to Play, ii. 

Game, The, History of, ii., 147. 
Penalties, ii., 150. 
Rules for Flaying, ii., 149. 
Sequence, The, ii., 149. 
Scores of Different Hands, ii., 

149, 150. 
Three Handed, How to Play, ii, 

Two Handed, How to Play, ii, 

Varieties of, ii., 148. 

,*, 'i*Z "-'bicycling. 

Bicycling, Articles on, i., 6, 76, 

129, 203, 271. 
Bicycle, The, its Origin, i, 67. 

The "Ariel," Description of 

, i-,7.8. 


BICYCLING (continued). 

Anecdotes on, i., 76, 129, 130, 203, 

204, 271. 
Axle, The, i., 272. 
Backbone of the, i, 272. 
Best Form oi, i., 7. 
Break, The, i., 77, 130. 
Crank, The, i, 272. 
Diagram of Parts, i., 272. 
Dress, Best Form of, for, i., 78. 
Form of Road, Best for, i, 130. 
Front Fork, i., 272. 
Guiding Rod and Fork, i., 272. 
Handle, The, i., 7, 272. 
How to Make, i, 271, 272. 
How to Mount, i., 7. 
How to Dismount, i., 7. 
How to Start, i., 7. 
Illustrations of, i., 8, 76, 77, 128. 
Luggage, i., 78. 
Maps, i., 271. 

Patent Tires on Wheels, i., 8. 
Pattern of, i., 272. 
Pedestrian Curricle, i., 6, 8. 
Prices, List of, i.,.271. 
Biding Jealous, t , 130. 
Saddle, Position of, i., 130. 
Socket Staff, i., 272. 
Speed Attained, i., 271. 
Spring, The, i. , 8, 77, 272. 
Steering Apparatus, i., 8. 
Surbiton, Description of the, i., 8. 
Tires, Indiarubber, i., 77, 130. 
Tricycle, The, i, 7. 
Velocipede, The, i., 7. 


Billiards, Articles on, i., 4, 65, 

137, 225, 287, 341 ; ii., 44 ; 111, 

200, 259, 356. 
All - round Cannons considered, 

ii., 259,261,262. 
Anecdotes on, i., 5, 65, 226. 
Antiquity of, i., 4. 
Attitude in Striking, i., 5, 6. 
Balls, The, i., 5. 
Baulk, The, i.,5. 
Bridge, The, i, 66, 67. 
Cannon, The, i., 65 ; ii., 203." 
Cautions for Players, ii., 356, 

357, 358. 
Cook's Style of Play, ii., 259. 

Accuracy of Play, ii., 259. 

Cue, The, i., 6. 

Cushion, The, i., 5, 309. 

Effect of Climate on Billiard 

Tables, ii., 112. 
Foul Stroke, The, ii, 45. 
Game, The, i., 5. 
Hazards, Losing, i., 65, 226, 227, 

287, 341; ii., Ill, 200. 

Winning, i., 65 ; ii , 202. 

Middle Pocket, i, 287. 

Top Pocket, i, 288. 

Illustrations, i, 5, 65, 67. 

Kiss, The, ii., 202. 
Leather Top, The, i., 6. 
Miss, The, ii, 111. 

when to be given, ii., 112. 

Pocket, The, i.,5. 

Pool, The Game of, ii., 44. 

Rules for, ii., 45, 46. 

Position, First, i, 5. 

for Screw, i. , 65. 

Rest, The, i, 137. 

. The Use of, i, 137. 

Roberts on Cannons, ii., 203. 

■ Style of Play, i, 226. 

Rules for, i, 342, 343. 
Screw, Explanation of, i, 65. 
Side, Explanation of, i, 65, 225. 
Spot Stroke, The, i, 226 ; ii., 

203, 357. 

Hazards, ii, 202. 

Striking, Attitude in, i, 139. 


Bird-collecting, Articles on/ oi, 

23, 97, 156, 213. 
Benzine, Use of, ii, 99. 
Carbolic Process, The, ii., 213. 
Dissection, ii., 156. 
Golden Oriole, The, ii., 214 

SKINNING (continued). 

Hoopoe, The, ii., 214. 

How to Set up a Specimen, ii., 

Large Birds, How to Skin, ii., 

Materials Required, ii., 215. 
Plaster of Paris, Use of, ii., 25. 
Preservative, To Make the, ii., 


To Apply, ii., 98. 

Preserving in Spirits, ii. , 213. 
Sea Birds, To Skin, ii., 158. 
Sex, To Distinguish, ii, 157. 
Scissors, Use of, ii., 26. 
Specimen Prepared for Skinning, 

ii. , 24. 
The, How to Skin, ii., 26, 

— How to Dry, ii., 93. 


Boats, etc., Articles on, i, 30, 

86, 142, 193, 257, 321 ; ii, 8, 

108, 184, 215, 300, 358. 
Ballast for, i, 87. 
Block, The, i, 31. 
Bobstay, The, ii, 359. 
Broaching to, i, 195. 
Canoe - shaped Travelling Boat, 

ii., 184, 185. 
— Arranged for Sleeping, ii, 

Centre Boards, i, 30, 
Cutter, The, ii., 358. 
Dead-eye, The, ii., 359. 
Down-haul, The, ii., 360. 
Foresail, The, i.,31. 

Staysail, The, ii., 360. 

Yard, The, ii., 31. 

Gaffsail, The, ii., 300. 

Topsail, The, ii., 360. 

Getting under Weigh, Explana- 
tion of, i, 87. 
Grommet, The, 1, 31. 
Halliards, The, i, 31. 
Hoist Sail, How to, i, 143. 
Illustrations, i, 188. 
Itchen Rig, The, ii., 301. 
Jack Stay, The, ii., 215. 
Jibing, i, 194, 195. 
Jib Sail, The, ii., 301. 
Keel, The, i, 32, 86. 
Luffing, i, 88. 
Lug-sail, The, i, 30. 

Forms of, i, 193, 257, 323. 

Schooner, The, ii., 8. 

Mainsail, The, ii., 360. 
Mainsheet, The, To Hoist, i., 

Making a Board, i, 143, 144, 

Missing Stays, i, 87. 
Mizzen, The, i, 31. 
'Mudian, or Bermudian - rigged 

Boat, The, ii., 184, 166, 
Out-haul, The, i, 142. 
Peak, Down-haul, ii., 360. 
Pennant, The, ii., 359. 
Pilot Galley, ii., 8, 9. 
Reef, Taking A, i, 322. 
Sail Gaff, The, ii, 217, 300. 
Sails Used in Racing Cutter, ii., 

Schooner, Bermudian-rigged, ii, 

Sheets, The, i, 31. 
Sloop, The, ii., 300. 
Spinnaker, The, ii., 358. 
Spritsail Boat, ii., 9, 10. 

Varieties of, ii, 108, 109. 

Standing and Running Rigging, 

ii., 359, 360. 
Tacking, Explanation of, i, 143, 

Tack, Port, The, i, 83. 

Starboard, The, i, 88. 

Technical Terms for Masts, Sola, 
v otc.1 i, 3L <- ' < <•<-,! 
ThinMe.The; i.. Si..', I <■' <■ 
Topplrg Lift, The, ' ii., 359. 
Traveller, The, i, 31. 
Trimming tha Boat, On, - i, 257. 
Wawjney, The, ii.,' £, ^. ,' 
Y?rd, Foi-e, The, i,'3L 
Mizzen, The, i., 31. , 


Butterfly and Moth Collecting, 

Articles on, i, 177, 254, 279, 

344.; ii, 31, 69, 167, 225, 305, 


Apparatus required, i, 255, 279. 

Boxes for Specimens, The, i., 

Butterfly, The— 

Bath White, The, ii., 69. 

Black- Veined White, The, ii., 


Black Hairstreak, The, ii., 


Brimstone, The, ii., 31. 

— — Brown Argus, The, ii., 

Camberwell Beauty, The, i, 


Chalk Hill Blue, The, ii., 


Comma, The, i, 345, 346. 

Copper, Small, The, ii., 167, 


Copper, Large, The, ii, 167, 


Clouded Yellow, The, ii. 306, 


Duke of Burgundy, The, ii., 


Fritillaries, The, ii., 70, 169. 

Dark Green, The, 

ii., 70. 
Glanville.The, ii.,71. 
Greasy, The, ii, 71. 
High Brown, T e, 

ii., 70. 
Queen of Spain, The, 

ii., 70. 
Silver Washed, The, 

ii., 70. 
The, ii., 70. 

Garden White, The, i, 344, 


Grayling, The, ii., 306. 

Green Hair Streaked, ii., 32, 

— — Green Veined White, The, 
i, 345. 

Hairstreaks, The, ii., 353. 

Brown, The, ii. , 353. 
Black, The, ii. , 354. 
Green, The, ii.. 353. 
Purple, The, ii., 354. 
Skippers, The, ii, 

White Letter, The. 
ii., 253. 

Heath, Small, The, ii., 70. 

— — Heath, Large, The, ii., 70. 

Holly or Azure, The, ii., 

Little Blue, The, ii., 168. 

— Marbled White, The, ii., 305. 
Meadow Brown, The, ii, 


■ Mountain Ringlet, The, ii., 


Orange Tipped, The, ii., 31, 

Painted Lady, The, i, 345, 

Pale Clouded Yellow, The, 

ii., 306. 

Peacock, The, i, 344, 345. 

Purple Emperor, The, ii., 

Purple Hairstreak, The, ii., 

Red Admiral, The, i, 345, 


Scotch Ringlet, The, ii, 306. 

Silver Studded Blue, The, ii., 

Swallow Tailed, The, i, 177 ; 

ii., 32. 

Swallow-tailed Caterpillar, 

i, 177. 

White Admiral, The, ii. , 225, 


-- — White Admiral, The, Mr. 

i Buckler's description of, ii., 

Wood White, The, ii., 69. 

Costume best adapted for Collec- 
tor, i, 255. 

Cyanide Bottle, The, i, 280. 

Entomologioal Pins, i. , 255. 

Method of catching Beetles, ii.,71. 

COLLECTING (continued,)'. 

Moth, The Fox, i, 255. 

Elephant, The, i, 281. 

Privet Hawk, The, i, 281. 

Net, best form of, i, 256. 

How to Make, i, 256. 

Material for, i„ 256. 

The Clap Net, i, 279. 

Wire Ring, The, i, 279. 

Specimens, to Kill, i, 280, 281. 


Canoes, Articles on, ii., 78, 139,. 

244, 307. 
Ash, Built of, ii, 139. 
Backboard, The, ii., 246. 
Carlines, The, ii., 140, 141. 
Cedar, Made of, ii., 80. 
Centre and Lee Boards, ii., 307, 
Cleats, The, ii., 307. 
Clothing, Best form of, for Voyage,. 

ii., 308. 
Clubs, Establishment of, ii., 78,. 

Compass, Best form of for, ii, 308. . 
Cooking Apparatus, ii., 246. 
Cross Tiers, The, ii., 140, 141. 
Deck, The, ii, 141. 
Diagram of, ii., 80. 
Dimensions of Travelling Canoe,. 

ii, 307. 
Fitting of, ii., 246. 
Garboard Strakes, ii., 139, 140. 
How to Build a, ii., 139. 
India-rubber Apron for, ii., 245. 
Keel, The, ii., 139, 140, 141. . 
Lateen Sail, The, ii., 246. 
Macgregor, Mr., on, ii., 139. 
Mahogany, Built of, ii., 80. 
Paddle, The, ii., 246. 
Painter, The, ii, 246. 
Pine, Red, Made of, ii., 80. 
Pine, Yellow, Made of, ii., 80. 
Planks, The, ii, 140. 
Prices of, ii., 79. 
Qualities required by a Voyager,. 

ii., 79. 
Rigging, The, ii., 245. 
" Rob Roy," The, ii.. 79. 
Spritsail Lug, The, ii, 245. 
Step, The, ii., 140. 
Stern-post, The, ii., 139, 141. 
Stretcher, The, ii., 244. 
Stores for Travelling, ii., 308. 
Varnish for, ii.,.244. 
Wheels for, ii., 307. 
Wooden Hatch, The, ii., 245. 
Wood, kinds of, used for Building,. 

ii., 79, 80, 139. 


Card Games, Articles oh, ii., 2S7,. 

274, 335, 367. 
"Albert Smith," Game of, ii.,, 

Cassino, Game of, ii, 367. 

Rules for, ii., 368. 

Cribbage, ii., 237. 

Antiquity of, ii., 237. 

Board for the, ii., 237. 

Crib, The, ii., 238. 

Five Card, ii., 237. 

Four-handed, ii., 239. 

Flush, The, ii., 238. 

Modes of Scoring, ii, 237.. 

Pair Royal, ii., 233. 

Play, ii, 237. 

Sequences, ii., 238 

Six Card, ii, 238. 

Three Handed, ii, 238. 

Loo, Game of, ii., 335. 

Rules for, ii., 336. 

Matrimony, Game of, ii, 27G. . 

Rules for, ii., 277. 

Pope Joan, Game of, ii, 336. 

Board for, ii, 336. 

Speculation, Game of, ii, 276. 
Vingt-un, Game of, ii, 274. 
— — Counters for, ii., 275. 

— Object of Game, ii, 275. 

— Points requiring attention, . 
ii., 275 



Casting, Articles on, i.,318; ii., 

17, 104, .187. 
Antiquity of Art of, i., 318. 
Bracket, To Cast, ii., 104, 105. 
Bust, To Cast, ii., 105, 108. 
" Cassell'a Household Guide," 

Extract from, ii., 189. 
Coins and Medals, To Cast, i., 

Face from Nature, To Cast, ii., 

4Jroup of Leaves, To Cast, ii., 

Hand from Nature, To Cast, ii., 

Insects from Nature, To Cast, 

ii., 18. 
Leaves of Plants, To Cast, ii., 

17, 18. 
Medallion, A, To Cast, i., 319. 
Mould, The, i., 319. 
Plaster of Paris, Use of, i., 319. 
— — How to Prepare, i., 319. 
Specimens of, i., 319; ii., 17, 

104, 105. 
Sulphur-, Use of, i., 319. 

Seal, To Cast in, i., 320. 

Tiles in Bas-relief, ii., 189. 
Vase, To Cast, ii., 105, 106. 
Waste Moulding, ii., 105. 


Chess, Articles on, i., 15, 78, 145, 

195, 316, 380 ; ii., 34, 106, 210, 

319, 341. 
Anecdote on, ii. , 107. 
Automaton Chess Player, De 

Kempelin's, i., 145. 
Best Mode of Acquiring Skill at, 

i., 15. 
Bishop, The, i., 15. 
Bishop's Move, The, i., 15, 16. 
Board, The, i., 15, 16. • 
British Chess Association, i., 

Capturing a Pawn, On, 178, 179. 
Castling, Explanation of, i., 196, 

Check, Explanation of, i., 79, 

80; ii., 35. 
Checkmate, i., 80, 247. 
Commencing out of Turn, Penalty 

for, ii., 34. 
Conditions of, i. , 197. 
Counting Fifty Moves, ii. , 35. 
Definition of a Move, ii., 35. 
Difficult Situations, i.,318. 
Double Cheek, Example of, 5., 

Dropped Man, The, ii„ 35. 
End Games, ii., 211. 
— King and Queen against 

King, ii., 211. 
— — King and Two Bishops against 

King, ii., 212. 
King, Bishop, and Knight, 

against King, ii., 212. 
Ending of Games with Pawns, 

ii., 309. 
— — King and Pawn against King, 

ii., 309. 
Enforcing Penalties, ii., 35. 
Example Games, ii., 36, 37, 106, 

Explanation of Automaton Chess 

Player, i., 146. 
False Moves, ii., 35. 
First Move, ii., 34. 
General Maxims for, i., 317, 

International Chess Tournament, 


on Chess 

341, 342. 
>f Term, 

— — ~ IwWii m.5«aiaiou King and 

Pawns, ii., 310. 
— — and Pawns against King and 

Pawns, ii., 310. 
— — in Check, ii., 35. 
King's Moves, The, i., 78. 
Knight, The, i., 15. 
Knight's Moves, The, i., 16. 
Laws of, ii., 34, 35. 

CHESS (continued). 

Moral Qualities required by a 

Chess Player, i.\381. 
Napoleon at Chess, \. 196. 
Notation, The, i., 147., 
Origin of the Game of, \L, 15. 
Omission of Men, ii., 34. 
Past Pawn, A, 1, 380. 
Pawn, The, i., 15. 

Observations on, i„ 380. 

Pawn's Moves, The, L, 16. 
Pieces, The, i., 15. 
Playing Two Moves, ii., 34. 
Position of Pieces on Board, i., 

15, 16. 

of Board, ii., 34. 

Problems, i., 78, 79, 147, 196, 

197, 381, 382. 
Queen, The, i., 15. 
against One or more Pieces, 

ii., 310. 

Moves, The, i., 16. 

Queening a Pawn, Explanation of, 

i., 78. 
Regular Openings, ii., 341. 
Relative Powers of the Pieces, i., 

Book, The, i., 15. 
Book's Moves, The, i., 16. 
Time, i., 381, 382. 
Touch and Move, ii., 34. 
Touching More than One Man, 

ii., 35. 
Umpire, The, ii., 35. 
Upsetting Board, ii., 35. 
Various Endings of Games, ii., 



Cricket, Articles on, i., 33, 99, 

161, 209, 260, 313 ; ii., 26, 102, 

Antiquity of, i., 33. 
Attributes of, i., 163. 
Backing Up, ii., 28. 
Backward Play, i., 261. 
Balls, Old, Form of, i., 162. 
Ball, The, How to Hold, ii., 


Weight of, i., 162. 

Bat, The, i., 99, 100. 

Ancient Forms of, i., 100. 

Width of, i., 161. 

Batsman, The, Position of, i., 

Battiag, On, i., 209, 210, 260, 

261, 262, 334, 335. 336 ; ii., 26, 27. 

Position, i., 161, 210, 260. 

Gloves, i„ 100, 101. 

Bowler, The, ii., 103. 

Bequisites for a Good, ii., 

Bowlers, Accuracy of, ii., 367. 

Craftiness of, i., 261. 

Bowling, Styles of, i., 333. 

Last Words on, ii., 366. 

Fast and Slow, ii., 172, 


Crease, The, i., 261. 

Caffyn, Mr., i., 335. 

Cane Handles, i., 101. 

Carpenter, Mr., i., 335. 

Cat and Dog, i., 34. 

Cricket Shoes, i., 101, 102. 

Cut, The, i.,334. 

Dean, On, i, 35. 

Defence, i , 202. 

Double Wicket, i., 34, 35. 

Earliest Illustrations of, i., 33. 

Early Practice Eequisite for 

Bowler, ii., 103, 104. 
Eccentricities of Players, i., 210. 
Gloves, i., 100, 101. 
Grace, Mr. W. G., Portrait of, i., 

Ground, Old, i., 34. 
Humphrey, T., i.,335. 
John Small, i., 162. 
Leg Guards, i.> 101, 102, 161. 

Stump, The, i., 262. 

Middle Stump, The, i., 262. 

"Mynn," i., 34 

Off Stump, The, 1, 262. 

Old Players, i, 162. 

Pyeroft on Antiquity of, i. 34. 

"Pilch," i., 35. 

Eobertson's, E., Bat, i., 100, 



Eunner, Good, A, ii., 27. 
Bun, Stolen, A, ii, 27. 
Seeing the Ball, i., 262. 
Southerton's Method of Holding 

Ball, ii., 172. 
Timing the Ball, 1, 355. 
Uniformity of Action Necessary 

for Bowler, ii., 103, 104. 
Volley, Half, The, i., 336. 


Croquet, Articles on, i., 20, 84, 

131, 212, 275, 324; ii., 59, 316. 
Balls, The, 1, 22, 86, 212. 

Proper Size of, i., 212, 

Best Colours for, i., 213. 

Bisque, Explanation of, i , 270. 
Brace, The, i, 213, 214. 
Break, The, ii., 317, 318, 319. 
Clip, The, i., 214. 

Croquet, The, i., 84. 

Cut, The, i,, 85. 

Dead and Live Ball, ii., 60. 

Diagrams of Opening, ii., 316, 

Finesse, i., 85. 
Followers, Its, i., 20. 
Foul Strokes, i., 276. 
Game, To Open, ii., 60. 
Grand National Croquet Club, i., 

Ground to Settle, i. , 215. 
Handle of Mallet, To Cover, i., 

Heavy Mallets, Use of, i., 131. 
History of, i., 20. 
Hoop, The, i., 22, 213, 214. 

How to Set, i., 22. 

Old Fonn of, i., 20. 

New Form of, i., 22. 

Size of, i., 213. 

Illustrations of the Way to Hold 

the Mallet, i., 133. 
Jacques, M., Patent, i., 20. 
Making a Point, i., 84. 
Mallet. The, i., 22, 86, 132. 

Wood Used for, i., 132. 

To Hold, i., 133. 

The Pall Mall, i., 85, 86. 

Marks, i., 326. 

Partner Matches, i., 325. 

Pass, The, i., 85. 

Pegs, The, i., 214. 

Pegging Out, i., 276. 

Playing into an Enemy's Game, 

ii., 60 
Pose, The, i., 326. 
Prior, Dr., on, i., 201, 215. 
Eoll, The, i., 85. 
Eoquet, A, i.,84. 
Eover, The, i., 85. 
Bules of the All England Club, i., 

Eush, The, i., 85. 
Single Matches, i., 324. 
Six Hoop Setting, ii., 31C. 
Split, The, i., 85. 
Stop, The, i., 85. 
Tactics, ii., 59. 
Terms Used : — 

Ball Wired, ii., 60. 

Ball Stuck, ii.,60. 

Command of Ball, To have, 
ii., 60. 

Dead and Live Ball, ii., 60. 

Laying Up, ii., 60. 

Passing the Break, ii.,60. 

Playing into an Enemy's Game, 
ii., 60. 

Eush, Getting a, ii., 60. 

Giving a, ii., 60. 

- Wimbledon Tournament, The. 
i., 325. 

Tournaments, i., 325. 
Trial Shots, i., 325. 
Turn, A, i., 84. 


Deealcomanie, Articles on, ii., 85. 
Designs, The, ii., 85. 
Sevres China, To Imitate, ii., 86. 
Tools Required, ii., 85. 
Transferring, ii., 86. 

i., 192. 
i., 229, 


Diaphanie, Articles on, ii., 295. 
By whom Invented, ii., 295. 
Designs for, ii., 296, 297. 
Materials for, ii., 296. 
Stained Glass, Imitation of, ii., 

296, 297. 
Washing the Glass, Care Required 
in, ii., 298. 


Draughts, Articles on, i., 190, 229, 

291, 356; ii., 29, 76, 164, 229, 

Board, The,, i., 191. 
Critical Situations, ii., 
Games Usually Played, 
General Instructions, 

History of, i., 190. 
Laws of, i., 229. 
Match in a Dream, Playing a, 

Men, The, i., 191. 

How to Place, i., 191. 

Moves, The, i., 191. 

How to Eecord, i., 192. 

Notation of, i., 191. 
Openings of Games — 

Alliance, The, ii., 231. 

Cross, The, ii., 165. 

Glasgow, The, ii., 229, 

Laird and Lady, The, 

Old Fourteenth, The, 
ii., 76. 

Single Corner, The, i 
31, 164, 165. 

Souter, The, ii., 229. 
Problems, ii., 294, 295. 
Second Position, The, i. , 358. 
Sturge's Positions, i., 292. 
Technical Terms — 

Coup de Eepos, The, i., 91. 

Huff, The, i., 91; ii., 30. 

Eeprendre, The, i., 91; 

Standing the Huff, i., 91; 
Theory of the Move, i., 350. 

Exchange, ii., 30. 

Three Kings to Two, i., 231. 

Four, i., 231. 

Two Kings to One, i., 230. 

Two, i.,230. 

To Eegain the Move, i., 385. 
Variations of, i., 292, 293. 

ii., 229, 

i., 291; 

229; ii., 




Driving, Articles on, i., 19, 89 
150, 218. 

Action of, i., 91. 

Anecdotes of, i., 91. 

Bearing Eeins, The, i., 89. 

Breeching, The, i., 151. 

Curb, The, i., 89. 

Feeling the Mouth, i., 151. 

Four-in-Hand, The, i., 90, 91. 

Hand, Light, A, i. , 151. 

Horsing a Coach, i., 90. 

Lady Drivers, i., 151. 

Low Seats, i., 218. 

Macadam's Eoads, 1, 19. 

Megrims, The, i., 218. 

Mouth, Horse's, The, i., 89. 

Mount, How to, i., 151. 

Old Coaching Day?, The, i., 90. 

Old Whips, i., 19. 

Pair Horse Harness, i. , 91. 

Phaeton, Lady, A, i., 151. 

Quiet in Single and Double Har- 
ness, i., 219. 

Eeins, The, i., 115, 218. 

— r To Hold, i., 218. 

To Hand, i., 91. 

Eule of the Eoad, i., 151. 

Seat in Driving, The, i., 19, 90. 

Shiers, i., 152. 

Shoes, The, i., 218. 

Single Harness, i., 90. 

Slugs, i., 152. 

Stage Conveyances, i., 19. 

Tandem Driving, i., 91. 

Tools Eequired in, i., 90. 

Turning Corners, i.,218. 


DRIVING (continued). 

Turning, i., 151. 
Veterinary, The, i., 218. 
"War Chariots, i., 19. 
" Well in Hand," i. , 89. 
Wheelers, The, i., 91, 218. 
Whip, To Handle The, i., 91. 
Use of the, i., 90. 


Egg Collecting, Articles on, i., 

273, 331 ; il, 5, 89, 142, 206, 263, 

Anecdote of Missel Thrush, il, 

Bearded Reedling, The, ii., 372. 
Bird Boxes, i., 333. 
Blackbird, The, ii., 90. 
Black-Cap, The, ii., 373. 
Blow-pipes for Blowing Eggs, i., 

331 332 
Boxes' Egg, i., 275, 331. 
Brambling, The, ii., 26-1 
Brown, Sir T., i., 273. 
Brown Linnet, The, ii., 285. 
Bullfinch, The, ii., 265. 
Castings, Owl, ii., 7. 
Chaffinch, The, ii., 263, 261 
Chiff-Chaff, The, ii., 373. 
CM Bunting, The, ii., 372, 
Coal-Tit, ii.,142. 
Collectors, Old, i., 273. 
Commencement of, i., 274. 
Coot, The, ii. , 208, 263. 
Corn Bunting, The, ii., 266. 
Corncrake, The, ii., 373. 
Crossbill, The, ii., 264, 265. 
Crow, Carrion, The, ii., 142, 


Hooded or Eoyston, ii., 143. 

Cuckoo, The, ii., 372. 
Dabehick, The, ii., 374. 
Dartford Warbler, The, ii., 373. 
Egg Blowing, i., 331, 332. 

Suspected, To Treat, i., 332. 

Eggs, How to Pack, i., 275. 
First British Egg Collector, i., 

Goldfinch, The, ii., 265. 
Grasshopper Warbler, The, ii., 

Great Spotted Woodpecker, ii., 

Greenfinch, The, ii., 264. 
Green Woodpecker, The, ii., 

Hawfinch, The, ii., 265. 
Heron, Ikie, ii., 6. 
Hobby, The, ii., 207. 
House-Martin, The, ii., 373. 
House-Sparrow, The, ii. , 266. 
Illustration of Turtle Doves, ii., 

Jackdaw, The, ii., 143. 
Jay, The, ii., 143. 
Kestrel, The, ii., 207. 
Kingfisher, The, ii., 372. 
Lapwing, The, ii., 374. 
Lesser Bed Pole, The. ii., 265. 
■ Spotted Woodpecker, The, 

ii., 372. 

Whitethroat, The, ii., 373. 

Magpie, The, ii., 143. 
Marsh Tit, The, ii.,142. 
Marsh Warbler, The, ii., 373. 
Moor Hen, The, ii., 263. 
Nest and Eggs of Goldfinch, i., 

Nightingale, The, ii., 372. 
Night-Jar, The, ii., 37a 
Nuthatch, The, ii., 372. 
Owl, Longeared, The, ii., 7. 
Owl's Nest, To find, ii., 7. 
Owl, White, The, ii., 207. 

Tawny, ii., 7. 

Shorteared, The, ii., 207.- 

Pipit, Tree, The, ii., 206. 

Rock, The, ii., 206. 

Preparations Required for, i., 

Rare Birds, i., 274. 
Raven, The, ii., 56. 
Red Backed Shrike, The, ii., 373. 
Redshank, The, ii. , 374. 
Redstart, The, ii., 372. 
Reed Bunting, The, ii., 372. 

Warbler, The, ii., 373. 

Ring-dove, The, ii., 20. 

EGG COLLECTING (continued). 

Robin, The, ii., 142. 
Rook, The, ii., 6. 
Sand-Martin, The, i., 373. 
Scissors Required, i., 332. 
Sedge Warbler, The, ii., 373. 
Skylark, The, ii., 206. 
Snipe, The, ii., 374. 
Song Thrush, The, ii., 90. 

■ Nest of, ii., 90. 

Sparrow, Hedge, The, ii., 91. 
Sparrow Hawk, The, ii., 207. 
Spotted Flycatcher, The, ii., 373. 
Starling, Common, The, ii., 90. 

Place of Nesting, ii., 91. 

Stock-Dove, The, ii., 208. 
Stonechat, The, ii., 206. 
Swift, The, ii., 373. 
Teal, The, ii., 374. 
Thrush, The, ii., 89. 

Missel, The, ii., 90. 

Tit, Little Blue, The, ii., 142. 
Titmouse, The Great, ii., 142. 

Long-tailed, The, ii., 89, 


Nest of, ii., 91. 

Tit-Lark, The, ii., 206. 
Tits, Diet of, ii., 142. 
Tree Creeper, The, ii., 143. 
Tree Sparrow, The, ii., 266. 
Turtle Dove, The, ii., 208. 
Wagtail, The, ii., 263, 265. 
Wanstead Park Heronry, ii. , 6. 
Wheatear, The, ii., 206". 
Whinchat, The, ii., 206. 
White Throat, The, ii., 373. 
Wild Duck, The, ii., 374. 
Willow Wren, The, ii., 373. 
Wolley, Mr. J., On, i., 274. 
Woodcock, The, ii., 374. 
Woodlark, The, ii., 206. 
Wood Wren, The, ii., 373. 
Wryneck, The, ii., 372. 
Tellowammer, The, ii., 266. 


Eggs, Ornamental, Articles on, 
i., 46, 106. 

Ancient Egg Work, i., 102. 

Artificial Eggs, i., 47, 48. 

Blending of Colours, The, i., 
102, 103. 

Broken Egg Shells, Use of, i., 

Cremer's, Mr., Work on Orna- 
mental Eggs, i., 102. 

Decalcomanie as Applied to Egg 
Ornamentation, i., 47. 

Easter Eggs, i., 46, 47. 

Eggs to Dye, i., 46. 

to Dye Mauve, i., 46. 

to Blow, i., 47. 

Figures in Relief, i., 47. 

Glass Tube for Blowing Eggs, i., 

47, 48. 

Grease, To Remove, i., 47. 

Mosaic Work, i., 4S. 

" Pace " Eggs, 1, 46. 

Plaster Font, To Ornament, i., 

48, 102. 

Shell, The, How to Cut, i., 47. 

How to Wash, i., 47. 

Stand, Cheap, for Vase, i., 47, 

Vase, To Make from an Egg, i., 



Electrotyping, Articles on, i., 
140, 201, 263; il, 52, 81, 177, 

Acids, Action of, i., 263. 

Apparatus, Simple, i., 140, 141. 

Basso Relievos, i., 140. 

Batteries, Various, i., 263. 

Bird, A, To Obtain Cast of, ii., 
375, 376. 

in Elastic Mould, Illustra- 
tion, ii., 376. 

Black-lead Coating, 1, 141. 

Bunsen's Battery, i., 264. 

Cast in Plaster, To Make, ii., 

in Wax, to Make, ii., 178. 

to Coat, ii., 178. 

ELECTROTYPING (continued). 

Cells, Arrangement of, for Six-Cell 

Battery, /il, 53. 
Copper as a Conductor, i., 202. 
Copper Mould, The, il, 178. 
Daniell's Battery, 1, 263, 265. 
Electricity, 1, 140, 201. 

Positive, i., 203. 

Negative, i., 203. 

Production of by Decomposi- 
tion, 1, 202. 
Electrotype, Use of, ii., 54. 
Electro Deposits from Natural 

Effects, ii., 375. 
Failure, A, 1, 201, 202. 
Figure, Method of Slinging, ii., 

Fish, To Obtain Cast of, ii., 375, 

Gold Solution, to Make, ii., 83. 
Gore's Method of Making Elastic 

Mould, il, 82. 
Grove's Battery, 1, 263, 265. 
Intensity, il, 53. 
Lead Tree, To Make a, ii., 52, 53. 
Local Action, i., 141. 
Matrix, Permanent, A, 1, 142. 
Medallion, To Copy, 1, 142. 
Mould, To Make a, 1, 140. 

Elastic, To Make a, il, 81. 

The Soluble, il, 177. 

Phosphorous Solution, To Make, 

ii., 82. 
Plaster Bust, To Copy, ii., 82. 
Precautions, ii., 179. 
Silver Solution, to Make, ii., 83. 
Smee's Battery, i., 264. 
Solution, The, 1, 140. 
Steel Pens, to prevent Corrosion, 

Voltaic Cell, To Make a, 1, 140, 

Warning, A, 1, 142. 
Wollaston's Battery, 1, 264. 
Zinc as a Conductor, 1, 202. 


Feather Work, Articles on, 1, 9, 

67, 135, 234. 
Banneret Screens, 1, 67, 68. 
Banner Screen of Poultry Feath- 
ers, 1, 69. 
Barn Owl Hand Screen, 1, 68. 
Bird Malting, 1, 67. 
Screens, To Make, 1, 11, 67, 

Eyes, Artificial, for Birds, 1, 12. 
Feather Baskets, To Make, 1, 


Brushes, To Make, 1, 236. 

Book Covers, To Make, 1, 


Fans, To Make, 1, 234, 235. 

Flowers, To Make, 1, 136, 

Mats for Lamps, To Make, 

1, 235. 
Muff for Doll, To Make, 1, 


Pen Wipers, To Make, 1 , 235. 

Screens, To Make, 1, 9, 10. 

— — Tufts and Cockades, 1, 235. 

Screens, To Fix, 1, 10. 

Feathers as Decorations, i., 9. 

Growth of, 1, 10. 

of Foreign Birds, 1, 10. 

Handle, The, To Prepare, 1, 135. 
Handles best for Screens, 1, 11. 
Hawk Banneret, 1, 68. 
Oyster-Catcher Hand Screen, 1, 

Screen with Flowers and Bird, 

1, 11. 
Screens, Designs for Backs of, i. , 

Skin, How to Prepare the, i., 11. 
Tools Required, 1, 10. 


Fencing, Articles on, 1, 41, 107, 
167, 198, 265, 326; il, 10, 65, 
151, 186. 

Accidents in, 1, 266. 

Advance, The, 1, 41, 43. 

Advice on Foil Practice, i., 327. 

FENCING (continued). 

Anecdotes Showing Utility of, i., 

Anglo-Saxon Sword, The, il, 11. 
Attack, The, 1, 168. 
Bayonet, The, ii., 153, 154. 

Exercise, ii., 154, 155. 

Beat, A, 1, 199. 

Binding, 1, 198. 

Blade Foil, The, To Fix. i., 266. 

Broadsword, The, ii., 11. 

Exercise, Position, for, ii., 


Exercise — 

The Cuts, ii., 65, 66. 
The Guards, ii., 65, 6 
Button, The, i., 107. 
Change of Engagement, 1, 199. 
Counter, The, 1, 108. 
Cut over Point, The, 1, 199. 
Defence, 1, 107. 
D'Eon, Chevalier, 1, 326. 
Disengagement, 1, 169. 
Duel Au Premier Sang, i., 42. 
Duelling in France, 1,107. 
Engagement, The, 1, 108. 
Equipment, The, 1, 265. 
Exercises, 1, 266, 267. 
Feints, i., 199. 

First taught as a Science, i., 41. 
Foil, The, 1, 107, 267. 
Foolish Duel, A, 1, 198. 
French Schools, Early, 1, 42. 
General Rules for, 1, 327. 
Gladiatorial Combats,- 1, 42. 
Glove, The, i., 266, 267. 
Greek Swords, 1, 41. 
Grisier on, 1, 43. 
Implements, Cost of, il, 187 
Infantry Regulation Sword, ii., 

11, 12. 
Italian School of Arms, Early, i., 

Jacket, The, 1, 265. 
Lines of Defence, 1, 107. 
Longe, The, 1, 41, 43. 
Loose Play, ii., 152. 
Mask, The, 1, 267. 
Opposition, The, 1, 198. 
Parries, The, 1, 107, 108, 109. 

Simple, i., 108, 109. 

Counter, 1, 108, 109. 

Semi-Counter, 1, 108, 109. 

Position, The, 1, 41, 43. 
Practice in Parries, 1, 109. 
Rapier, The, 1, 42. 
Recover, The, 1, 43. 
Remise, The, 1, 200. 
Reprise, The, 1, 200. 
Retreat, The, i. , 43, 44. 
Ripost, The, 1, 199. 
Roman Swords, 1, 42. 
Salute, The, 1,265. 
Schlager, The, il, 152. 
Scipio and the Buckler, 1, 42. 
Single Stick, The, ii., 11. 
Small Sword, The, 1, 42. 
Solingen Foil Blades, 1, 265. 
Thrust in Quarte, 1, 168. 

Tierce, 1, 168. 

Time Thrust, The, 1, 200. 
Utility of, 1, 167. 


Firework Making, Articles on, ii., 

252, 280, 290, 321, 363, 379. 
Antiquity of, ii., 252. 
Blue Candles, To Make, ii., 

Chinese Fliers, To Make, ii., 365. 

Trees, To Make, il, 379. 

Choking Squib Cases, il, 254. 
Composition for Squibs, ii., 255. 
Crackers, To Make, ii., 282, 283. 
Extraordinary Pin Wheels, To 

Make, ii., 291. 
Filling Squib Cases, ii., 255. 
First Public Display of Fireworks, 

il, 252. 
Gold Rains, To Make, ii., 280. 
Illustrations of Tools for Squib 

Making, ii., 256. 

For Rocket Malting, ii., 321. 

Maroons, To Make, il, 3S5, 306. 
Paper Rolling, il, 253, 254. 
Parachute Rockets, ii., 379. 
Pigeons, To Make, ii., 379. 
Priming, ii., 255. 



Prince of "Wales Feathers, To 

Make, ii, 291. 
Quarter-pound Rocket, T Make, 

Quick-Match, To Make, ii., 291. 
Rocket and Other Cases, ii., 292. 
Rocket Caps, ii., 323. 
— — Composition, ii., 323. 

Sticks, ii., 324. 

Rockets, To Make, ii., 321, 322. 
Roman Candles, To Make, ii., 363. 

Scoop for, ii., 363, 364. 

Snake, The, To Make, ii. , 280. 
Squibs, To Make, ii., 253, 254. 
Starlights, To Make, ii. , 281. 
Tools and Materials, "Where to 

Purchase, ii., 233. 
Tourbillons, To Make, ii., 364. 
Turning Cases for Wheels, ii.,379. 
Wheels, To Make, ii., 283. 

To Block, ii., 290. 

"Works at Nunhead, The, ii., 252. 


Forfeits, Article on, ii., 383. 
Acting Dummy, ii., 384. 
Acting Proverbs, ii., 384. 
Answering "Yes" or "No," ii., 

Asking a Question which Cannot 

be Answered in the Negative, 

ii., 384. 
Blowing out the Candle, ii., 384. 
Dancing under Difficulties, ii,,344. 
Deaf Man, The, ii., 384. 
Flattering Speeches, ii., 384. 
Giving Good Advice, ii., 384. 
Giving one's " Private " Opinion, 

ii., 384. 
Grecian Statue, The, ii., 384, 
Kissing the Candlestick, ii.,384. 

One's Own Shadow, ii., 384. 

under the Candlestick, ii., 

the One you Love Best with- 
out its being noticed, i., 384. 
Making Comparisons, ii., 384. 

a Perfect Woman, ii., 384. 

One's Will, ii., 383. 

Manner of Crying, ii., 383. 
Natural Historian, The, ii., 384. 
Paying CompUments, ii., 384. 
Putting Yourself through the 

Keyhole, ii., 384. 
Sensational Concert, The, ii.,384. 
Showing a Spirit of Contradiction, 

ii., 384. 
Spelling " Constantinople," ii.,384. 
Teaching the Parrot, ii., 384. 
Telling a Secret, ii., 384. 


Games of the Playground, Articles 

on, 1, 2, 69, 134, 180, 211, 302, 

361 ; ii., 116, 314, 346. 
Base-Ball, ii., 116, 314, 346. 

Ball, The, ii., 116. 

Bat, The, ii., 117. 

Batting Department, ii. , 348. 

Catcher, The, ii., 315. 

Diagram of Game, ii. , 117. 

First Base Man, The, ii., 315. 

Game, The, ii., 348. 

Ground Rules, Special, ii., 


Materials, The, ii., 346. 

Outfielders, ii., 315. 

Pitcher, The, ii., 314. 

Pitching Department, The, 

ii., 347. 

Rules of, ii., 346, 347. 

Running the Bases, ii., 348. 

Second Base Man, The, ii., 

— Short Stop, The, ii., 315. 

Theory of, ii., 116. 

Baste the Bear, i., 304. 

Fly the Garter, i., 211. . 

Follow my Leader, i., 304. 

Fox, i., 181. 

French and English, i., 303, 304. 

Hare and Hounds, i., 180. 

GROUND (continued)., 

Hare and Hounds, The' Scent, i., 

Necessaries for, i., 181. 

" I Spy," i., 211, 212. 
Jingling, i., 211. 
King of the Castle, i., 361, 362. 
Knurr and Spell, i., 363, 364. 
Leap Frog, i., 302, 303. 
Mount Nag, i., 212. 
Prisoner's Base, i., 70, 71, 114. 

Captain, The, i., 134. 

Chivy, 1, 71, 134. 

Preliminaries, i., 71. 

Prison, i., 134. 

Ruses, i., 134. 

Rounders, i., 34, 69, 70. 

■ Ball, Best Form of, i., 70. 

Choice of Sides, i., 3. 

Corking, i., 70. 

Diagram, i., 4. 

Ground, The, i., 3. 

Rounder, A, i. , 70. 

Rules, i., 4. 

Spanish Fly, i., 181. 

Variety of, i., 181. 

Tip-Cat, i., 362, 363. 

Implements for, i., 362. 

Trap, Bat, and Ball, i., 363. 


Golf, Articles on, ii., 198, 269, 

Asking Advice on, ii., 326. 
Ball in Water, ii., 326. 
Ball, Lost, ii., 326. 
Changing the Balls, On, ii„ 326. 
Clearing Putting Green, On, ii. , 

Cleek, The, ii., 327. 
Club Breaking, ii., 326. 
Costume, The, ii., 327. 
Golfers, Professional, List of, ii., 

Ground, The, ii., 325. 
History of, ii., 198, 199, 269. 
Holing-out Ball, ii., 326. 
Lifting Balls, ii., 326. 

Break Clubs, ii., 326. 

Manual, The, ii., 269. 
Medal Days, ii., 326. 
Mode of Playing, ii., 325. 
Place of Teeing, ii, 325. 
Play, Club, The, ii., 327. 
Prestwick Challenge Belt, ii., 

Putter, The, ii., 327. 
Rabbit Scrapes, ii., 326. 
Rubs of the Green, ii., 326. 


Gymnastics, Articles on, ii., 158, 

231, 273, 351. 
Apparatus for, ii., 274. 

Illustration of, ii., 273. 

Appliances Required, ii., 189. 
Bodily Exercises Considered, ii., 

Exercises on Parallel Bars, ii., 

351, 352. 
General Aspects of, ii., 158. 
Giant Stride, The, ii., 273, 274. 
Leaping Pole, The, ii., 232. 
Mode of Using Leaping Pole, ii., 

Using Leaping Rope, ii., 

233, 234. 
Parallel Bars, The, ii., 351. 


Home Pets, Articles on, i., 153, 

293, 337 ; ii., 285. 
Aviary, The, i., 337. 

Outdoor, The, i., 338. 

Bath, The, ii., 286. 

Bird, The, To Select, 1, 294. 

Where to Place, i., 294. 

Breeding Cages, ii., 285, 286. 

Cage, The, i., 294. 

Canary, The, i., 154, 294; ii., 

Care Required, i., 388. 

HOME PETS (continue®. 

Disadvantages of " Aviary, i., 

Drinking Fountain, The, ii., 286. 
Egg Box, The, ii., 286. 
German Canary, The, i., 294. 
Mr. Stevenson's Aviary, i., 337, 

Neglect, Consequence of, i., 338. 
Old Age, To Detect, i., 294 

Amusements, i., 154. 

Perch, Best Form of the, i., 294. 

Size of for Cage, ii., 286. 

Seed "Vessel, Construction of, i., 

338, 339. 
Sex, How to Distinguish, i. , 294. 
Situation for Aviary, i., 339. 
Young Birds, To Tame, i., 294. 


How to Dry and Preserve Flowers, 

Articles on, ii., 194. 
Baking Process, The, ii., 196. 
Blotting Pads, Use of, ii., 196. 
Common Mode of Preserving 

Flowers, ii., 195. 
Flowers Considered, ii., 194, 195. 
German Plan, The, ii., 195. 
Mounting, ii., 196, 197. 
Sand, The, To Prepare, ii., 195. 


Joinery, Articles on, i., 51, 115, 

182, 232, 305, 353; ii., 41, 83, 

189, 239, 289. 
Book Cradle, A, To Make, i., 

305, 306, 307. 

Carved End for, i., 305. 

Book Slides, To Carve End for, 

i., 306, 307. 
Cabinet for Microscopic Slides, To 

Make, L, 182, 183. 
Chisel, The, i., 115, 116. 

Mortising, The, i., 116. 

Diagram of Cabinet, for Slides, 

i., 184. 
Dog Kennel, To Make a, ii., 239, 

Dovetailing, i., 183, 184. 
Flower-Box for Window, How to 

Make, i., 353, 354. 

Illustration of, i., 353. 

French Polish, How to Apply, i., 

Gimlet, The, i., 52, 53. 
Glass Paper, i., 116. 
Gauge, The, i., 52, 53, 115, 116. 
Gouge, The, i., 116. 
Hammer, The, i., 52, 53. 
Hand-Saw, The, i., 52, 53. 
Jack Plane, The, i., 116. 

Trying, The, i., 116. 

Kingpost, The, i., 233. 
Lock, to Put On a, ii., 85. 
Models for Mantelpiece or Table, 

To Make, ii., 289, 290. 
Nails, The, i., 115. 
Old Boxes, Use of, ii., 83, 159. 
To Make Drawing-room Cabi- 
net from, ii., 159, 160. . 

Glass Doors for, ii., 160. 

Writing Table from, ii., 83, 

84, 85. 
Plane, The, i., 52, 53. 
Print-Cutter's Tools, i., 306. 
Sash Tool, The, i., 116. 
Saw Tenon, The, i., 115, 116. 
Screwdriver, The, i., 52, 53, 115. 
Shelves, To Finish, i., 117. 

Nest of, How to Make, i., 

51, 52, 115, 116. 

Measurements for, i., 52. 

— — Wood Required for, i., 52. 
Size, i., 117. 

Smoothing Plane, i., 115. 
Square, The, i., 53. 

T, The, i., 53. 

Step Ladder, Small, To Make, ii. , 

41, 42. 
Summer House, To Make a, i., 

232, 233, 234. 
Tie Beam, The, i., 233. 
Toll or Lodge House, Model of, 

To Make a, ii., 289, 290. 


Tool Boxes, Faults of, i., 51. 
Varnish, i. , 117. 
Wood, How to Buy, i., 52. 
How to Join, i., 182. 


Kite, The, Articles on, i., 215, 

Angel, The, i., 217. 
Ass's Head, The, i., 217. 
Belly Band, Of the, i., 216. 
Bird, The, i., 289, 290. 
Bring Down, To, i., 290. 
Cerf Volant, The, i., 215. 
Chinese, The, i., 290, 291. 
Dog, The, i., 289, 290. 
Fish, The, i., 289, 290. 
Franklin's, i., 291. 
Improved Cloth, The, i., 289, 290. 
Derivation of Word, i., 215. 
Messengers to Send, up by, i., 

Musical, The, i., 291. ■ 
Officer, The, i., 217. 
Raise, How to, i,, 290. 
Sailor, The, i., 289, 290. 
Skeleton of the, i., 215. 
Tail, The, i., 216. 
Cups, The, i., 216. 


La Crosse, Article on, ii,, 189. 

Anecdote of, ii., 189. 

Ball, The, ii., 191. 

Beaver Club at Montreal, ii. ,190. 

Form of Weapon Used, ii., 189, 

Game, The, ii., 191. 
History of, ii., 189. 
Origin of Name, ii., 190. 
Rules of, ii., 191. 


Legerdemain, Articles on, i., 25, 

81, 148, 241, 283, 358 ; ii., 55, 

127, 145, 247, 312, 344. 
Bottle-holder for Inexhaustible 

Bottle Trick, ii., 312. 
Bottle and Tin Lining for Inex- 
haustible Bottle Trick, ii., 312. 
Bottle Used, Description of, ii., 

Burning the Handkerchief, The 

Trick of, How to Perform, i., 

150, 284. 
Caldron, Magic, The, i., 358, 359, 

Cards, a Number of, To Bring 

from a Hat, ii., 249, 250. 
Chair, Magic, The, ii., 56. 
Confederate, The, i., 27; ii., 58. 
Conjuring, Definition of, i., 25. 

Use of, i., 81. 

Con-iuring Tables, i., 241, 242, 

243, 283. 
Corded Box Trick, The, i., 27. 
Co vent Garden Theatre, Professor 

Anderson at, ii., 312. 
Cups and Covers, The, i. , 360, 361. 
Cups, A Number of, To Bring from 

a Hat, il, 249. 
Cup and Black-Ball Trick, i., 148, 

150. - 
Cylinder, Magic, The, i., 359, 

Die and Halfpence Trick, The, i., 

152, 183. 
Dove and Handkerchief, from a 

Bottle, To Bring, ii., 345, 346. 
Egg Trick, The, ii., 247, 248. 
Extinguisher Trick, The, ii., 248, 

Failure, A, i., 241, 242. 
Feather Trick, The, ii., 127, 128. 
Frikeh's Fish Trick, i., 26; ii., 

Handkerchief and Lemon Trick, 

The, i., 27. 
Houdin, M., i., 27. 
and the Arabs, 


LEGERDEMAIN {continued). 

Indian Basket Trick, The, ii, 145, 

Inexhaustible Bottle Trick, The, 

ii., 310, 313,314, 344. 
Joined String, The, i., 360. 
Lemon Trick, The, ii., 58. 
Lights, Position of, i., 213, 214. 
Loaf of Bread and Watch Trick, 

i., 242, 284, 285. 
Magic Cigar Case, The, ii, 344, 

Magic Coffee Tin, The, ii., 128. 
Magic Wand, The, i., 148, 149 ; ii., 

Money-Box Trick, The, ii., 344, 

Palming, i., 148, 149. 
Perforated Nose Trick, The, i., 

149, 150. 
Portfolio Trick, Professor Ander- 
son's, 1,-83,84,149,150. 
Eeticules, a Number of, To Bring 

from a Hat, ii., 249, 250. 
Ring and Handkerchief Trick, 

The, ii., 56, 57, 58. 
Seances, Spiritualistic, i., 83. 
Shilling in the Hat Trick, The, i., 

Target Trick, The, ii., 56, 58, 59. 
Trap Doors, i., 242. 
Troublesome Spectators, ii., 247. 
Wedding-Bing Trick, The, i., 27. 
Wine-Glasses, Best form of for 

Bottle Trick, ii., 312, 345, 


Magic Lantern, The, Articles on, 

i., 38, 119, 236, 328; ii., 16, 49, 

328, 337, 361, 369. 
Ancient Form of, i., 39, 40. 
Aphingoscope, The, ii., 371. 
Argand Lamp, The, i, 109; ii., 

Argand Lantern System, The, ii., 

Band, Chromatrope, The, ii., 

Beam of Light, The, i. , 112. 
Bull's Eye Lantern, The, i., 39. 
Condenser, The Best Form of, 

Best Material for, ii., 330. 

Focal Length for, ii., 329. 

Corpuscular Theory of Light, i., 

Curtain Effect, The, ii., 370. 
Demonstrating Lantern, The, i., 

236, 237. 
Demonstrating Slide Cabinet, The, 

ii., 340. 
Dioramic Lantern System, The, 

ii., 362. 
Frame, The, ii., 369. 

Slide Cabinet, The, ii., 363. 

Dissolving View Lantern, The, ii. , 

Dissolving Views, To Produce, 

ii., 362. 
Double Slipping Slides, ii., 370. 
— — Backed Slides, ii., 370. 
Early History of, i, 38, 39. 
Eccentric Motion Slides, ii. , 370, 
Fairy Fountain Effects, ii., 370. 
Fire and Smoke Effects, ii., 370. 
Flashing Fan, The, ii., 363. 
Focus, The, i., 112. 
Galanty Show, The, 1, 38. 
Gas Dissolver, The, ii., 362. 

Holders, ii. , 339. 

Microscope, The, ii., 371. 

Polariscope, The, ■ ii., 371. 

Highley-Maftlen Oxy-Hydrogen 

Gas Dissolver, The, ii., 363. 
Kircher, on the, i., 40. 
Lantern Kaleidoscope, The, ii., 


Dissolver, Single, r. , 361. 

Lecturer's Screen, ii., 363. 
Lever Slides, ii., 370. 
Light, Nature of, i., 110. 

Bay of, i., Ill, 112. 

Lime Light, Demonstrating, The, 

i,237; ii., 337. 
Magic Lantern, A Simple Form 

of, i., 39, 40. 
Mechanical Shadows, ii, 49. 
Moonlight Effects, ii., 371. 

MAGIC LANTEBN (continued). 

Moving Panoramic Slides, ii., 

Multiplied Shadows, ii., 16. 
Normal Explanation of Term, i., 

Ombres Chinoises, ii., 50. 
Optical System, The, ii., 338. 
Oxy-Calcium and Oxy-Hydrogen, 

or Lime-Light, i., 109, 110. 
Oxy-House-Gas Jet, The, ii., 338, 

Pencil of Light, The, i. , 112. 
Photography, Application of for 

Slides, ii., 321. 
Power, The, ii., 338, 
Backed Lever Effect, ii., 371. 

Booking Slides, ii., 370. 

Slides, ii., 370. 

Bectilinear Propagation of Light, 

i., 236, 237. 
Rippling- Water Effect, The, ii., 

Screen, The, ii., 330, 340. 
Skadow Blondin, Tbe, ii., 49. 
Shadows, i., 238, 239. 

On the Wall with the Hand, 

i., 328, 329. 

Cut from Cardboard, ii., 16. 

Slide Tray, The, ii., 329, 330. 

Frame, ii., 329, 330. 

Source of Light, The, ii., 338. 
Standard Size for Slides, ii., 369. 

Frame, ii., 369. 

Super-Positive Effects, ii., 370. 
Torrent Effect, The, ii., 370. 
Transparency and Opacity, i., 

231, 237. 


Marbles, Articles on, ii, 3S0. 
Archboard, The, ii. , 381. 
Bounce-Eye, ii., 381. 
Bounce- About, ii. , 382. 
Conqueror, ii., 382. 
Die Shot, ii., 382. 
Eggs in the Bush, ii , 382. 
How to Shoot, ii.,380. 
Knock Out, ii., SSL. 
Long Taw, ii., 381. 
Odd and Even, ii., 382. 
Pyramids, ii, 382. 
Bing Taw, ii., 380. 
Spanners, ii., 382. 
Teetotum, ii., 382. 
Three Holes, ii.,380. 


Ornamental Paper Work, ii., 37, 

Crimping Machine, ii., 37, 39, 
Designs in Cut Paper at Exhibition 

of '62, ii., 37. 
Designs for Paper Plaiting, ii. 


for Paper Rosettes, ii., 40. 

Knife, The, ii., 37, 39. 

Paper Bonnets and Hats, To Make, 

a, 303, 304. 
Plaiting, Directions for, ii., 

- — Rosette, To Make, ii, 38, 

Plaited Paper, Uses to which it 

may be put, ii., 302. 
Purposes for which Rosettes can 

be used, ii., 39. 
Tools Required for, ii., 37, 39. 
T Square, The, ii., 37, 39. 


Paper Flower Making, i„ 23, 94, 

159, 204,312, 383; ii., 64, 72, 144, 

Aster, The, i, 96. 
Botany, Study of, i, 23, 24 
Campanula, The, To Make, i, 

Chrysanthemum, The, ii., 223, 

Convolvulus, The Major, i, 64. 

Convol\ulu&, The Minor, i, 64. 
Cornflower, The, ii, 144. 
Dahlia, The, i, 312, 314. 
Diagrams for Decorative Purposes, 

ii., 280. ' 

Garden Poppy, The, ii., 72, 73. 
Hyacinth, The, i, 205, 206. 
Larkspur, The, i, 313, 315. 
Lily, The, i, 313, 315. 
Materials for, i, 24. 
Nemophila, The, i, 313, 315. 
Pelargonium, The, i, 313, 315. 
Petals of Flowers, i, 25, 95, 159, 

2-04, 205, 313, 314, 384; ii., 64, 73, 

144, 223. 
Picotee, The, i, 195, 196. 
Pincers, The, i, 23, 24. 
Pins, The, i, 23, 24. 
Primula, The, i, 24, 25, 94, 95. 
Rhododendron, The, i, 383, 384. 
Rose, The, i, 159, 160. 

Dog, The, i, 204, 205. 

Moss, The, i, 204, 206. 

— - Sulphur, The, i, 205, 206. 
Stamens of Flowers, The, i, 25, 

95, 159, 304 ; ii, 64, 72, 144, 224. 
Stephanotis, The, i, 313, 315. 


Perforated Card Work, Articles 

on, ii., 173, 238. 
Alphabet, Design for, ii., 175, 

Bed Room Tidy, To Make, ii., 

Card Case, To Make, ii., 174. 
Cases, To Make, ii., 174. 
Cornucopia, To Make, ii, 174. 
Diagrams of Designs for, ii, 176. 
Dinner Napkin Rings, To Make, 

ii, 174. 
Doll Furniture, ii, 336. 
Geometrical Figures, To Form, 

ii., 236. 
Glove Box, ii., 175. 
Handkerchief Cases, ii., 174. 
Needle Book, ii., 174. 
Patterns for, ii., 174, 175. 
Photograph Frame, ii, 175, 235. 
Postage Stamps, Perforation of, 
• ii., 236. 


Photography, Articles on, i, 27, 
152, 251, 311, 371; ii., 43, 92, 
138, 227, 353. 

Apparatus, The, i, 29. 

Albumenised Paper, ii, 43, 44. 

■ To Sensitise, ii., 92, 93. 

Background, The, i, 28. 

Bath for Landscape Work, ii, 

Camera, The, i, 29. 

Chemicals for, i, 29. 

Chloride of Gold, ii., 44. 

Solution, ii., 133. 

Collodion, i.,29. 

Cyanide of Potassium, i, 29. 

Daguerrotype, The, i, 23. 

Dark Room, To Make, i, 28. 

Developing Solution, The, i, 253. 

Cups, ii., 353. 

Development of Negative, i, 302. 

Dipping Bath, The, i, 29. 

Distilled Water, i, 29. 

Essentials for, i, 27, 28. 

Exposure of Negative, i, 302. 

FaUures, To Overcome, i, 371, 

Fixing the Negative, i, 302. 

the Printed Positive, ii., 

138, 139. 

Intensifying Solution, ii., 355. 

Landscape Work, ii. 227, 355. 

Last Words on, ii., 356. 

Lens, The, i, 29. 

Manipulations for Negative Pro- 
cess, i, 301. 

Negative Process, The, i, 252, 

Betouching the, ii., 92. 

Nitrate of Silver Bath, The, i, 
30, 253. 

PHOTOGRAPHY (continued). 

Non-Developer, The, ii., 355. 
Peculiarities of Negative Film, 

i, 301, 302. 
Plate, To Prepare the, i, 152. 

Box, The, ii., 355. 

Portrait, To Take a, i, 152. 

To Develop, i, 153. 

To Finish, i, 251, 252. 

Positive Collodion Process, The. 

i, 152, 252. 
Proof, To Prepare for Printing, 

ii., 92. 
Pyrogallic Acid, i, 253. 
Sensitising Solution, The, ii., 43, 

44, 92. 
Tent, How to Make a, ii., 227, 

Time of Exposure, ii., 93. 
Toning Bath, The, ii., 44. 


Portrait Colouring, Articles on, 

i, 17, 185, 219, 307, 364 ; ii., 46. 
Backgrounds, i, 185, 186 ; ii., 48. 

Colours for, ii., 47. 

Brilliant Colouring, The Secret of, 

i, 221. 
Brushes, The, i, 17, 18, 187. 

To Prepare, i, 18. 

Coke Water Colours, i, 18, 186. 
Chinese White, i, 18. 
Chromatics, i, 219, 220. 
Colour, Principles of, as Applied 

to Photography, i, 17. 

Circles, i, 220, 221. 

Colours for Draperies, ii., 46, 47. 
Complementary Colours, i, 307, 

Contrasts of Colours, i, 308, 


of Tones, i, 364. 

Cross-Hatching, i, 365. 
Experiments with Colours, i, 

First Steps in, i, 18, 187. 
Flesh Painting, i, 366. 

Colours for, i, 366. 

Gum Water, To Prepare, i., 365. 
Half Tints, i, 18. 
Harmonies of Colour, i., 364. 
Hatching, i, 365. 
High Lights, i, 17, 18. 
Mixing of Colours, The, i., 220. 
Palette, The, i, 187. 
Powder Colours, i, 17. 

Tints of, i, 17. 

Primary Colours, i, 220, 307. 
Prismatic Spectrum, The, i., 

Scale of Colour, i, 364, 365. 
Secondary Colours, i, 220. 
Shades of Colour, i, 364. 
Stippling, i, 365, 366. 
Table of Tints, ii, 47, 48. 
Washing, i, 365. 
Water Colours, i, 186. 


Polo, Article on, ii., 277. 

Ball, The, ii., 277. 

Diagram of Ground, ii., 277. 

Dress, The, ii., 277. 

Ground, The, ii., 277. 

Horse, The Best Form of, ii., 

PI "'des of, ii., 278. 
^ ^-ved, ii., 277. 

Potictiow - 

Articles Best Fitted l<— 

tion by, ii., 135. 
Explanation of, ii., 134. 
Glass, Decoration of, ii., 135. 

To Gild, ii, 135. 

Imitation of Japanese and Chineso 

Wore, ii., 135. 
Materials for, ii., 134. 
Photographs, Use of, ii., 135. 



Quoits andBowls, Articleon, ii, 61. 
Balls, The, ii., 63. 
Bowling Green, The, ii., 63. 
Game of Bowls, Rules of, ii., 63. 
Jack, The, ii., 63. 
Quoits, Game of, ii., 63. 
Hob, The, ii., 62. 
Quoit, The, ii., 62. 


Biding, Articles on, i., 330; ii,, 

3, 67, 118. 
Canter, The, i., 331. 
First Principles of, i., 330. 
Generally Considered, i., 330. 
Hunting field, The, ii., 118, 119. 
Lady, To Mount, ii. , 3, 4. 
Lady's Seat, The, ii., 4. 
Maxims for, ii., 5. 
Mounting, i., 330. 
Paces, The, ii., 4. 
Position on Horseback, i., 330. 
Seat, Lady's, The, ii., 3, 4. 
Stirrup, The, i., 330, 331. 

Management of, ii. , 4. 

Tired Horse, The, ii., 119. 
Trot, The, i., 330. 
"Walk, The, i., 330. 


Bound Games, Articles on, i., 36, 

106, 163, 239, 277, 339, 378; ii., 

21, 73, 131, 204, 266. 
Acting Bhymes, ii., 74. 
Adjectives, i., 339. 
Birdcatcher, The, i., 340, 341. 
"Birds, Ply!" i., 278. 
Bouts Ernie's, ii., 21. 
Blind Man's Buff, ii, , 134. 
Buff, ii., 132, 133. 
Buff with the Wand, i., 380. 
Capping Verses, i., 106. 
Characters and Predictions, ii., 

21, 22. 
Coincidences, i., 239. 
Consequences, i., 37. 
Conversation Cards, i., 163. 
Cook who does not like Peas, i., 

Cross Questions, &c, ii., 73, 74. 
Elements, The, i., 279. 
Peather, The, ii., 23. 
Fright, ii., 133. 
Game of Contrary, i., 164, 165. 
Grasshopper and the Ants, ii., 

267, 268. 
Hand, i., 339. 
Hot Cockles, i., 103. 
How, When, and Where, ii. , 205. 
Hunt the Eing, ii., 268. 
" I Lovemy Love with an A," ii,, 

267, 268. 
Indian, The, ii., 133. 
"Jack's Alive," i., 341. 
Letter Game, The, ii., 131. 
Lottery, The, i., 240. 
Magic Music, i., 239. 

Wand, i., 240. 

My Lady's Toilet, ii., 75. 

Nouns and Questions, i., 106. 

Picture Gallery, The, ii. , 204. 

Poker and Tongs, i., 239, 240. 

Proverbs, i., 278. 

Quotations and Authors, i., 277. 

Bhapsodies, i., 277. 

Bhymes, i., 378. 

Scissors, The, ii., 205. 

Shadow Buff, i., 379. 

" She Can do Little who Can't do 

this!" ii., 133. 
"Simon Says," ii., 268. 
Simultaneous Proverbs, i., 278. 
Ten Birds, The, ii, 74. 
Three Words, The, i.. 37S. 
Throwing Light.. ' 164. 
"Thus Savs- the ^rand M! u fti," 

ii. 2^'" 
Pradp -3 ' 1- » "»! 38. 
Aicjspositions, ii., 132 
Twirl the Trencher, ii , 75 
" What is my Thought Like ? " i 

34 1. *' 

"What's the Price of Barlev?" 

1, 379. 

BOUND GAMES (Continued). 

" Who was He ? " ii., 204, 205J 
Witch, The, i., 340. 
Wizard, The, i., 163. 
Woodman, The, ii., 23. 
Word-making, i., 37. 
Yes and No, i., 163. 


Bowing, Articles on, i., 49, 113, 

157, 222, 298, 348. 
Anecdote of Presence of Mind in, 

i., 299. 
Backing, i., 223, 
Boat Bacing, i., 49. 
Boats, i., 50. 
Coaching, i., 224. 
Coxswain, The, i., 298. 
Crew, To Select, i., 224. 
Easing, i., 223. 
Eight Oar, The, i., 158. 
Feathering the Oar, On, i., 114, 

Four Oar, The, i., 157. 
Holding Water, i., 223. 
Laws of Boat Bacing, i., 346, 347. 
Length of Stroke, i., 223. 
Love of the Water, English, i., 49. 
Oars, The, i, 114. 

Use of, i., 158. 

Outrigger, The, i„ 50, 51, 113. 

The First, i„ 56. 

Old, i„ 113. 

Paddling, ii., 223. 
Pair Oar, The, i., 157. 
Begattas, i., 50. 
Bowing, Action of, i, 114. 
Bowlocks, The, 1, 157. 
Sculling Boat, The, i., 50. 
Sculls, The, i., 114. 
Seat, The, i., 114. 
Spurting, i., 223. 
Straps, i., 224. 
Stretcher, The, i., 51. 
Stroke, The, i., 298. 
Training, i., 299, 300. 

Smith, Dr. E., on, i., 300. 

Tub, The, i.. 114. 
Twelve Oar, The, i., 158. 


Silkworm, The, Articles on, i, 

369; ii., 136, 197. 
Brushes for, i., 371. 
Chrysalis, The, i., 371. 
Cocoon, The, i., 371. 
Eggs, The, i., 370, 371. 
Food, The, i., 369. 
Habitat of the, i., 369. 
Illustration of, i., 369, 370. 
Increase of the, Table of, ii., 198. 
Moth, The, i., 371. 
Mulberry Leaf, The, i., 369. 
Net, The, i., 370. 
Produce of, i., 369. 
Baising Silkworms, ii., 188. 
Beeling Machine, The, ii., 136, 

137, 138. 
To Make a Simple, ii., 197, 

the Silk, ii. , 136, 137, 138. 


Skeleton Leaves, Articles on, i.. 

248,249,295,354; ii., 33. 
Anatomy of Leaves, i., 250. 
Bleaching, Process of, i., 295, 293. 
Brush, Use of the, i., 295. 
Decomxjosition of the Leaf , i.,295. 
Design for Ivy Leaf Cross, ii., 33. 
Fern Bleaching, Processor, i.,365. 
Group for Glass Shade, i., 249, 

Ivy Leaf Cross, To Make 
Leaves, Illustrations of, 


To Select, i., 251. 

Maceration, Process of, 


Phantom Leaves, ii., 249. 
Seed Vessels for. Decoration, 1 

296, 297. 

ii., 34. 
i., 248, 

i, 251, 


Shade, Groups for, i., 355, 356. 
Small Specimens, ii., 3. 
Stems, Best Kind of, ii., 33. 
Support for, To Make, ii., 33. 
Thorn-Apple, i., 297. 
Time to Select Leaves, i., 250. 
Use of Leaves to Plants, i., 250. 


Skating, Articles on, ii., 50, 95, 

123, 150, 193, 250, 287. 
Acme Skate, The, ii., 96. 
Beginners,- Troubles of, ii., 51. 
Best Speed on Record, ii., 194. 
Black Ice, ii, 124. 
Blind Guides, ii. , 52. 
Dancing on the Ice, ii., 151. 
Difficulties of Figure Skating, ii., 

Doubles, The, ii, 288. 
Elementary Figures, Fancy Skat- 
ing, ii., 287. 
Few Words on Skates, ii., 93. 
Figure 3, The, ii., 287. 

8, The, ii., 287. 

First Lessons in Figure Skating, 

ii, 250, 251. 
Five Golden Rules for Figure 

Skating, ii., 251. 
Forward and Backward Roll, The, 

ii, 123. 
Hints as to Safe and Unsafe Ice, 

ii., 124. 
Hints for Fast Skating, ii., 194. 
Hockey on the Ice, ii., 150. 
Holland, Skating in, ii, 95. 
Inside Backward Roll, The, ii, 

Inside Edge, The, ii, 123. 
Lady Skaters, ii. , 52. 
Leaping on the Ice, ii., 151. 
Old Style of Skates, ii. , 51. 
Old Screw and Buckle Skate, ii., 

Outside Edge, The, ii, 250. 
Primary Education Completed, 

ii., 123. • 
Racecourse, The, ii., 194 
Baces, Skating, ii. , 193. 
Bose, The, ii., 288. 
Bussian Coach, The, ii., 95. 

Illustration of, ii., 52. 

Skating Positions, Illustration of, 

ii., 193. 
Sports on the Ice, ii., 150. 
Steeplechase on the Ice, ii., 151. 


Spray Work, Articles on, ii., 110, 

Articles to be Ornamented, ii., 

Fern Printing, ii., 110. 
Flowers to Colour, The, ii., 147. 

Colours for, ii., 147. 

Materials for, ii., 110. 
Mat Making, ii., 111. 
Nature Printing, ii. , 147. 
Ordinary Spray Work, ii., 146. 
Proper Paper for, ii., 110. 
Tools for, ii., 110. 
Varieties of, ii., 147. 


Swimming, Articles on, i, 12, 71, 

174,227, 285. 
Anecdotes of Saving Life, i, 75, 

Annual Loss of Life, Table of, i., 

Balancing in the Water, i, 72, 

Beaufort, Admiral, on Drowning, 

i, 285. 
Boat, To Jump from, i, 176. 
Buoyancy, Natural, i, 71. 
Cavill, Mr. C, on Side Swimming, 

i, 75, 227. 
Cramp, The, i , 74. 
Daring Swimmer, a, i., 13, 14. 

SWIMMING (continued). 

Diving, i, 174, 175. 

Feet First, i, 176. 

Dog Swimming, i, 72, 74, 75. 
Double Wheel, To Swim a, i, 228. 
Drowning, What is it Like? i, 

Float, The, i, 228. 
Floating, i, 72, 73, 74. 
Gurr, H, on Side Swimming, i. f ' 

Heels over Head, How to Turn, 

i., 228. 
Indian Stroke, The, i., 227. 
Instructions for Saving Drowning 

Persons, i, 228. 
Leap Frog, i, 228. 
Leaping from a Height, i, 175, 

Man and Quadruped Compared, 

i., 71. 
Man's Weight in the Water, A,. 

i 14 
Mill,' The, To Make, i. , 176. 
Modes of Swimming, i, 14. 
Plank, The, i., 228. 
Plunge, The, i, 175. 
Positions in, i, 13, 14. 
Eope, with the, i, 72, 73. 
Eules for Training For i, 286. 
Shoot, The, i, 175. 
Swimming on the Back, i, 75. 

on the Side, i., 72, 75. 

Under Water, i, 174. 

Taking Headers, i, 175, 176. 
Training for Eaces, i., 286. 
Treading Water, i, 74. 
Upright Swimming, Bernardi's 

Method, i., 74. 


Tops, Articles on, ii, 376. 
Chameleon Top, The, ii., 376, 

Chip-Stone, To Play with, ii, 

Flying Top, The, ii., 378. 
French Top, The, ii., 378. 
Globe Top, The, ii, 376, 378. 
Humming-Top, The, ii. , 378. 
Peg-Top, The, ii., 376, 377. 
Peg-in-the-Eing, ii., 377. 
Spanish Peg-Top, The, ii, 378. 
Whip-Top, The, ii, 376. 
Whiz'gig, The, ii, 378. 


Toy Making, Articles on, i, 53, 

123, 171, 367 ; ii, 18, 99, 155, 

179, 209, 257, 333. 
JEohan Harp, To Make an, i.,124. 
Animated Serpent, ii., 257, 258. 
Apple Woman, The, ii, 210. 
Aunt Sally, ii., 99, 100. 
Bags, The, i, 123. 
Balloon, A, To Make, i, 171, 173, 

Bandilor, The, i., 124. 
Baton, or Pitch Club, ii., 89, 

Battledore and Shuttlecock, i.,. 


To Make the, i. , 123. 

Bird Whistles, ii., 334. 
Boomerang, The, i, 367, 368. 
Bottle Imp, The, i, 156. 
Catapult, The, 1, 368. 
Cat and Mouse, The, ii., 100. 
Cleft Stick, The, ii., 100. 
Common Whistle, The, ii., 334. 
Cup and Ball, The, i., 54. 
Cutwater, The, i„ 53, 54. 
Dancing Highlander, The, ii., 

209, 210. 
Danemg Pea, The, ii., 259. 
Dart and Target, The, i, 124,. 

Demon Bottle, The, ii, 257, 258. 
Dibs or Knuckle-bones, ii., 333. 
Duck and Drake, ii., 33!. 
Fan, Magic, The, ii., 179, 180, 181 

Designs, to be Formed with, . 

ii., 181,182. 
Fire Balloons, i, 171, 173, 174. 


Flying Cones, The, ii., 257, 258. 
Gas Balloon, The, ii.', 374. 
Graces, The, i., 123. 
Hoop, The, L, 368; ii., 18, 19. 

Tournaments, ii., 18. 

Hydraulic Dancer, The, ii., 375. 
Jack-in-the-Box, ii., 375. 
Javelin, The, ii., 3H, 375. 
Jerk Straws, i., 54. 
Jew's Harp, The, ii., 155, 156. 
Koch the Jew's Harp Artiste, 

ii., 156. 
Landes Shepherds, ii, 19. 
Magic Flute, The, i., 172. 

Figure, The, i., 173, 174. 

Magician of Morocco, The, ii, 

209, 210. 
Magnetic Wand, The, ii., 258, 


Swan, The, ii. 258, 259. 

Magnifying Pin-hole, The, ii., 20. 
Miniature Gas- Works, ii., 375. 

Camera, ii., 257, 258. 

Mocking Call, The, i., 172. 
Obedient Soldier, ii., 258. 
Paper Boxes, i., 54, 55. 

Bellows, a, 20. 

■ Chinese Pink, ii., 100, 101, 

Dart, The, i., 124, 125. 

Purses, ii, 358. 

Parachute, The, i., 173, 174. 

with Arrow, i., 171. 

Pea-Shooter, The, i., 367. 
Pebble Game, The, ii., 333. 
Pegasus in Flight, ii., 209, 210. 
Pith Dancer, The, ii, 375. 
Pop-Gun, The, i., 367. 
Prophet, The, i., 126. 

Puff and Dart, i., 124, 125. 
Pyramidical Paper, The, ii., 20. 
Quintain, The, ii., 209, 210. 

Shuttlecock, The, i.. 124. 
Skip-Jack, The, i., 172. 
Sling, The, i., 173. 
Soap Bubbles, ii., 155. 
Spillikins, i., 54. 
Squeaker, The, ii., 334. 
Squirt, The, ii., 334. 
Steady Tar, The, ii., 209, 210. 
Stilts, ii., 19. 
Sucker, The, i., 53. 
Teetotum, The, ii. , 258. 
Thaumatrope, The, i., 171, 172. 
Toy Microscope, The, ii., 20. 
Wajid, Magnetic, The, ii., 258, 

Watch-Spring Gun, The, i., 44. 
Whalebone Cross-bow, ii., 334. 
Woman, Apple, The, ii., 210. 
Wonderful Trumpet, The, ii., 19. 


Whist, Articles on, i., 61, 121, 
155, 321, 347. 

Bad Habits at, i., 122. 

Book Whist, i., 121, 

Cavendish on, i., 122. 

Charles Dickens and the " Pick- 
wick Papers," i., 62. 

Complete Gamester on the, i., 

Conventional Eules, L, 122. 

Deschappelles on Long Whist, 
i, 62. 

Elementary Hand, i., 63, 64. 

Finessing, i., 348. 

Fourth Hand, The, i., 348. 

Hands, Examples of. i., 155, 156, 

History of the Game, L, 26. 

Hoyle's Treatise on, i., 62. 
Elustrative Games, i., 349. 
Leads from Suits Headed by — 

An Ace, i., 221. 

A King, i.,221. 

A Knave or Ten, i., 222. 

A Queen, i., 222. . 
Modem Whist, i., 121. 
Olden Whist, i., 61. 
Original Lead in Trumps, i., 222. 
Second Hand, Play of, i., 347, 

Summary of Leads in Plain Suits, 

L, 222. 
Technical Terms, The, i., 61. 
Third Hand, Play of the, i., 348. 
Treatise, Hoyle's, on, i., 62. 


Window Gardening, Articles on, 

L, 55, 118, 169, 243, 311, 382; 

ii., 54, 191. 
Bay Windows, Decoration of, i., 

Decorated Window, Illustration 

of, i., 56. 
Fern Case, Superior, To Construct 

a, i., 169. 
Ferns in Large Case, with Edging 

of Virgin Cork, i., 121. 
Fir-Cone Decorated Trough, i., 

Flowers in Pots, Cultivation of, 

i., 55, 56. 
Fountain in Fern Case, ii., 192. 
Fuchsia Ladder, The, i.,57. 
Gipsy Fern Case, i., 312. 
Glazing Fern Case, i., 120. 

House Ornamentation, i., 55. 
Illustration of Large Fern Case,! 

i., 169. 
Inside Case for Bow Window, ii.,1 


To Make, ii., 191, 192. 

Illustration of, ii., 192. 

Kamptulicon for Ornamentation 

i., 56. 
Moulding, How to Put on th„ 

Case, i., 119, 120. 
Outside Window Cases, i., 382. 
— — Disadvantages of, ii., 54. 
Price of Fern Case, i., 169. 
Rectangular Fern Case, To Con- 
struct a, i., 120. 
Roof, for Fern Case, i., 243, 244. 
Simple Fern Case, How to Make 

a, i., 118, 119. 
Virgin Cork, Use of, i., 120, 121. 
Window Box, To Make a, i., 56. ' 
Window Garden Proper, The, i. 



Zetema, Article on, i., 125. 
Assembly, The, i.,125. 
Cards, The, i., 125. 
Declaration, Making a, i., 126. 
Description of the Game, i., 127. 
Flush, The, i., 125. 
Game, The, i., 126. 
Methods of Scoring, i.,125. 
Marriage, The, i., 125. 
Modification of Play for Two 

Players, i., 126, 127. 
Table of Scores, i., 127. 
Tricks, i., 125. 
Variations in the Game, i., 127. 

CASSELL, PeTTEK & CrALPIN, Belle Sauvage Works, Lo 




IL rules the nation with 
iron hand whose fmgfer 
points continuously in one 
direction, and says, " Work, 
that you may be wealthy." 
Education stands, with a 
Minerva - like smile, calm 
and wise, and whispers, 
"Learn, that you may be 
wise." To complete the 
trio, let us bring forward 
Recreation, bright of eye, 
glowing of cheek, with 
ruddy lip pouted to display 
her glistening teeth. She 
pants as one out of breath with eagerness, and there is a 
pure silver ring in her mirthful voice as she bids you 
pause and remember her, and cries, " Play, that you may 
be healthy ! " 

In the name then of wholesome pastime, of recreation, 
sport, play, we appeal to all — to young and old, to gentle 
and simple, to the busy workers of our towns, and to 
those whose lot is placed in affluence ; for our object 
is this — as far as is practicable to produce the best and 
most exhaustive work upon amusements that has been 
placed before the public. To do this the most.Amient and 
pleasant writers upon each game and sport^ave been 
enlisted, with busy pen ready to pour forth in happily 
chosen word the secrets of the game of skill, the wonders 
of science in sport, and the many pastimes for home and 
open-air that can give gladness and elevation of mind to 
all. Our range is veiy wide, extending from the making 
and usage of the simplest toy to the recreation that con- 
tains within it the germs of some noble science. 

And now to enlarge upon our intentions. "We mean to 
give on each subject no mere dry text : book detail, but a 
broad, light treatment, decidedly practical, but so written 
that the very reading of the paper shall be a recreation in 
itself, and amusing to those who, while giving the preference 
to one or two or three of our pleasant pastimes, may still enjoy 
the knowledge to be gained of others. Genuine, innocent, 
pure recreation is to be afforded; and while many sports 
will be childlike, the ladder will be long, and reach by steps 
to those which are of a high-class and elevating nature — 
whose very pursuit must needs give great results. "We 
said that we appealed to youth and mirth: for we shall 
treat in turn of every playground game; of toy home- 
made and bought ; round games and forfeits ; puzzles of 
tyery device; and the drawing-room amusements popular 

with those young ladies who will not romp. But for thes3 
and their more matured sisters will be endless amusements : 
out- door, they shall learn to draw the bow, to use the 
croquet mallet, seek wild flower, fern, moss, and g-rass, sea- 
weed, shell, and other wondrous objects of the shore ; in- 
door, be initiated into the mysteries of recreative art, paint 
glass, colour transparencies, or practise decalcomanie, poti- 
chomanie, or spray work. Paper flowers will be made, 
and those of wax, with many a design in fruit. Every- 
thing that scissors can cut will here be shown, with the art 
of making endless ornaments of twigs, acorns, and fir- 
cones; baskets of moss or alum; screens of feathers or 
paper; Nature-printing and shell-work; illumination, em- 
broidery, lace, and patchwork ; coral and fret cutting, and 
bouqiiets of skeleton leaves, with, most charming of all, the 
arranging and treatment of the living flower in nosegay 
and ornament, or in those pleasant home additions, the 
window-garden and conservatory. In short, all that is 
pleasant and feminine of pursuit will be here. 

Youth shall grow lusty with his lessons in swimming, and 
learn in recreation that which may be the means ef saving 
his own or a brother's life ; his skates be made to ring upon 
the hard metallic ice as he sways in graceful curves 
from side to side, and imitates the swallow in his skim. 
With pleasant teachers he will seek the egg of woodland 
bird for his collection, preserve an*l stuff choice specimens 
for his little museum; know safely how to make the 
brightest coloured fireworks ; manufacture balloon . and 
kite ; while elder brothers, those who verge on manhood, 
shall have a goodly museum from which to choose — they 
and those in manhood and manhood's prime. For what 
have we ? A perfect catalogue of recreations from which 
all may choose, and in which practically the cost has been 
explained, and the pursuit shown in every phase. 

As amateurs they may use the workman's hammer, and 
construct in wood, rig a boat, contrive a steam-engine, win- 
dow-garden and summer-house, or turn a bare London 
yard into a pleasant view. Or study the secrets of optics — 
magic lantern and microscope — glass-blowing and electro- 
typing, photography, turning and organ-building, che- 
mistry and hydraulics. 

In natural history pursuits they shall construct and 
collect for aquaria, fresh water and salt ; make a collection 
of moths and butterflies ; collect shell and sea-weed, stone 
and fossil ; study the habits of, and catch, bird or quadruped ; 
fish in sea or river, and learn to handle a rifle or gun. 

What more ? Scores of subjects. What of athletic 
pursuits ? They shall build their own canoe, and paddle 
it of course ; row under a great master ; know how to rig 


and sail a boat; drive as if reins were familiar to them 
from birth; ride with ease, confidence, and grace; train 
for running or leaping ; handle dumb-bell and club ; climb, 
and leap bar, or swing from rope, to the development 
of every muscle — in shoi-t, study every manly athletic 
sport or pastime. 

And then for skill, those great in the knowledge shall 
unfold mysteries, and explain the bias of bowls, or those 
wondrous shooting balls and hits at cricket ; tell how the 
ball can be made to follow the orders of that magic wand 
the cue, and cannon from cushion, and seek each pocket 
by the green cloth in billiards. Chess shall be treated by 
a champion, and royal battles done ; draughts, backgam- 
mon, bagatelle, with their many relatives, will have their 
place ; and cards with their many games, from whist 
through bezique and zetema, be treated, even unto simple 
single patience. 

And here we seem to hear some one say, with shaking 
head, " Cards — gambling — No ! " 

A word with this imaginary speaker, to whom we say, 
every game of skill is pure and innocent ! If these plea- 
sant pastimes are made the vehicles of gambling, the fault 
lies not with the game, but with the covetous and grasping 
disciples of folly who seize upon it for their purposes. And 
besides, these things are mere matters of custom and preju- 
dice. Centuries ago the ladies of Edward the Fourth's reign 
played at skittles ! A few years since bagatelle was only 
the ordinary game of an inn parlour ; fashion has changed 
that, and a bagatelle board is a pleasant means of passing 
an hour introduced in many a (h-awing-rooin. 

Here then we end ? Oh no ! Nothing has been said 
of keeping silkworms, of home pets — of the canary, or 
talking bird, rabbits, fowls, and guinea-pigs ; the pigeon, 

squirrel, or sleepy mouse, the cat; or its mortal enemy 
our old friend the dog. They shall have their place, and 
be discoursed upon by those who know their little weak- 
nesses, and who will point out their fadings as well as 
excellences, and the means of keeping them in health. 
Neither have we mentioned yet amateur theatricals or 
charades, or the games connected with many seasons of 
the year, for even now we have been almost degenerating 
into a catalogue. 

But we appealed to the aged. What have we for them ? 
Surely there has been enough quoted, for, after all, the 
healthy mind is never old; and for ever let the idea be 
exploded that those of mature years render themselves 
clnldish by entering into the sports of the young. The 
sternest best schoolmaster we ever had was one who 
joined us in the playground, and could shoot a taw and 
spin a top to the admiration of every boy in the school. 
To the mature .and old, then, we offer that which we shall 
place before the young, telling those whose years are 
many and whose limbs are feeble that they still may read 
and ponder upon our papers, and think with a smile, not 
sad, of those days Avhen they were young and lusty, and 
could leap and wrestle with the best. To them the young- 
can still flock for advice — advice they will accord, while 
they will sigh, and perhaps say, " Ah, when we were young 
we had no such works as this ! " 

We have taken no slight task in hand, but one that it 
will be a great recreation to fulfil. In conclusion, wo 
would repeat in other words that which has been already 
announced, namely, the text upon which we work — breadth 
and lightness, whde dulness shall be banished from the 
pages of that which is intended to be truly a Popular 
Re creator. 






ETIRE to a distance, young 
men; tender age suits me!" 
So sang Martial, many cen- 
turies ago, and so you will 
say now, my dear young 
friends, when you have seen 
the title that I have chosen to 
comprehend all the different 
games that are indigenous to 
the playground, or have not 
yet matured so far as to come 
under the category of "pas- 
times " affected by boys of 
young as well as of older 
growth. Fancy Senex plodding 
through the arduous sinuosities of hop-scotch, groaning under 
the castigation of baste-bear, or vainly attempting to bend his 
venerable back to suit the necessities of Spanish fly, or fly-the- 
garter ! "What a joke it would *e to get that rigid disciplinarian, 
Professor Boanerges Sleek, learned in Greek roots, and armed to 
his fingers'-ends with every species of logarithm and algebraical 
torture, for once to join in the sport of follow-my-leader, to see 

him writhing under the indignity of so ungraceful a pastime as 
that of marbles, or, better still, to enjoy the luxury of a good 
shy at him in the excitement, and under the shadow, of a close 
and spirited game of rounders ! It would be strange if the aim 
were not true, and the force of the thrower not instilled into the 
flight of the ball, as it sped on its course ! 

It might be that the enjoyment would, as many other en- 
joyments, have to bear bitter fruits, and that another back 
would have to suffer for a moment's gratification; but the lips 
would be firm, and the teeth clenched, and not a sign would 
there be to the Professor of the fox that was gnawing the 
young spirit within. So come with me while I descant on the 
games most associated with the playground. " Favetc Unguis," 
as Horace has it. Favour me by holding your tongues, until I have 
had my say. Be silent if you can, or at least do not be rude enough 
to interrupt while I am in possession of the chair, or the eye of 
the Speaker will turn you into stone, as was the special accom- 
plishment of that head of Medusa of which you may have read 
in Grecian mythology. You do not want me to say anything on 
behalf of the playground, its associations, or its uses in framing 
the boy to bear the rough customs of later years. He is a 
callous soul who can look on the olden days, and regard the old 



playground without a loving sigh, or without a desire to emulate 
Faust, and once again recover the joys of youth, that pitiless 
Time has removed far and still farther away from us. Was it 
not the Iron Duke — the brave old soldier who checked the wild 
ungovernable ambition of that insatiable conqueror the First 
Napoleon, and in all probability saved England for us British 
boys, with all its histories and its glories, its ancient rights 
and unsullied name — who said that it was on the playgrounds 
of England that the battle of Waterloo was won ? 

I know there is another version of the story, that it was the 
playing-fields of Eton that gained that memorable day of the 18th 
of June for Englishmen andBritons ; but I prefer the more general 
application, and I am satisfied to read the passage in the more 
universal sense, as the victory of British playgrounds, and 
British boys all over the world, under the rule of thai - good 
Queen over whose dominions the sun is said never to set. So 
let puny and misanthropical dullards Say what they will in dis- 
paragement of these juvenile sports ; it matters not, as long as 
the spirit remains that has always pervaded the minds of us 
English boys' — I claim to be a harmless old boy myself, so 
pardon the identification between you and me— of healthy exer- 
cise and cheering pleasures, that have prevented Jack from 
becoming the dull boy that he surely otherwise would have 
been. So come with me, now that the bell has marshalled us 
out of school, and the lessons of the day are over, and help to 
make the playground ring again, as it has rung many a thousand 
times before, and will, I hope, many a thousand times again, 
with jollity and no thought of care, 

"Turning to mirth all tilings of earth, 
As only hoyhood can." 


Commend me first of ail to the game of rounders, if you want 
a pastime that you can enjoy at any time of the year, in any 
weather, and without any of the trouble that is incidental to so 
many of the other kindred sports. I fancy there are few, very 
few, of us who cannot recall the luxury of an occasional relaxa- 
tion in the way of rounders, after the fatigue and ennui of a 
long and tedious outing at cricket. I can picture, as if it were 
but yesterday, the jollity that reigned supreme in the cricket- 
field under that sacred old hill out Harrow way, when rounders 
was proclaimed by a plebiscite as the sport next on the pro- 
gramme ; and it seemed like a waif from the great ocean of the 
past, when, last summer, I had a chance of renewing my old 
intimacy with the game, at the invitation of a posse of mirth- 
loving Cheltenham schoolboys, as I passed across the vast field 
which they are wont to call, as a term of endearment, " our 

I do not know any sport that can hold a candle to rounders 
on the score of simplicity or economy of materials. It can be 
learned by the veriest dunce with ease ; and it requires nothing 
but a ball, a few sticks, stumps, or even stones, and a common 
stick or bat for the purpose of striking the ball. You may 
consider it merely a modified form of cricket if you like, but 
it can be pursued and enjoyed when cricket is impossible, and 
when other sports are equally impracticable. It resembles, 
rather, one of those occasional scenes that you see at a theatre 
when time is required for the preparation of the set or trans- 
formation scene, and is always ready to serve its purpose when 
a few minutes are required before we can be introduced into all 
the mysteries of Dreamland or the mythical realms in which 
the Queen of the Fairies is theatrically represented to hold her 
court. So, on the ground of general utility, I would advise the 
study of rounders, and you will have a pastime always on hand 
when you are deterred from cricket or football ; one, too, that 
you can enter into with spirit without a formal preparation, 

when time does not allow of a recourse to more elaborate games. 
You need not trouble yourself about the selection of a suit- 
able ground, for the chief advantage of rounders is that it 
can be played anywhere, and under any circumstances. If you 
are not able to leave the playground itself, you can easily make 
stones constitute the " bases ;" and if you choose the cricket- 
field as a more suitable site, it is not difficult to place stumps 
in the place of the stones, and you are again ready for action. 
But, first of all, let me give you a diagram (Fig. 1, page 4), 
to enable you to understand precisely the manner in which the 
ground is prepared for a game at rounders. 

You rnll see that the ground is arranged so as to form a pen- 
tagon, each of the five sides constituting one of the five bases, 
which are numbered with the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. These bases 
form the spots or "homes" which the different players have 
to make for and reach, if they wish to continue participation 
in the game ; so that, when practicable, the stumps used at 
cricket will obviously be more useful than stones, as more 
clearly marking the object at which the player lias to aim. 
The distance at which these bases are situate from each other 
is, of course, a mere matter of choice ; but it is usual, and also 
advisable, to make them about fifteen to twenty yards apart, to 
prevent the accomplishment of a " rounder," or entire circuit 
of the ground, from 1 home again by way of 2, 3, 4, and 5, 
with anything like case. 

In the centre of the ground, marked by the letter p. is the spot 
where the " feeder " stands to deliver the ball to the " striker " 
(No. 1), and this position is technically known as the " seat." 
It is the duty of this feeder to give or toss the ball to the various 
players who constitute the in side, as they come ; and as on him 
depends much of the success which attends those who are out 
in the field, he should not be lightly chosen, but be a responsible 
person, always on the alert, and up to every kind of ruse and 
artifice to secure the retirement of those who are in. 

But before the game can be commenced, two sides must have 
been chosen, and this, as most of you will know, is a matter 
easily arranged, either by the selection of two captains, to choose 
in turn their assistants, or by the general vote of the com- 

Suppose, then, that you have divided yourselves into two 
parties, and that you have tossed for choice of innings, and 
been unfortunate enough to find "heads " answer to your call 
of "tails." The opposite captain will, you may be sure, be 
selfish enough to take the innings. And here I would say that, 
as a rule, you should not allow your side to exceed twelve in 
number at the most, as with any excess you will find the game 
much hampered, and the difficulties materially increased, Yin. 
have lost the toss, then, and you have to go out and make 
the best of a bad bargain ; so that now comes the question 
of arranging those who constitute your field to the best possible 
advantage. You will have first to appoint your feeder, and then 
distribute the remaining members of your side around the pen- 
tagon, so as to cover as much as possible every inch of ground, 
and prevent any chance of the ball passing beyond the bounds 
of this belt of investment. You will have to possess fieldsmen, 
too, mark me, of activity, and not prone to sleepiness or 
laziness, for it is on the brilliance of the fielding that every- 
thing depends, and it is essentially in the excellence of fielding 
that the real art of the game lies. 

You will see that, as the object of the striker is to hit the 
ball, and perform the circuit of the five bases without being hit 
or touched by the ball while midway between either of these 
five goals, or before it has been thrown up to the feeder and 
grounded home, the fieldsmen must not only be sure and 
certain in stopping the ball, but they must also be wary, 
and on the alert to "back up" when the feeder or another 


fieldsman has a " shy " at any of the runners. I say they 
will all have to be. watchful, for otherwise "rounders" will 
be plentiful, and the chance of an innings extremely small. 

You hare now so far distri- 
buted your field, and the feeder 
has the ball in his hand to toss 
to the first of the strikers who 
comes up to represent the in 
side. This striker places him- 
self in front of the stump or 
stone that serves to represent 
the home, with bat or stick, as 
the case may be, in hand, to 
strike the ball far and low, 
and of course, if possible, be- 
yond the reach of the outermost 
circle of fieldsmen. The feeder 
must throw the ball so as to 
give the striker a good chance 
of hitting, or time will bo 
wasted, for he need not strike 
at any ball unless it appear to 
suit his requirements. So it is 
best not to cause tedious delays ; 
as it is only when the striker has 
struck at two balls, and either 
missed or declined to run, that 
he is compelled to strike at the 

third ball, on pain of being put Fig. 1 

out ; and here, too, he has the 

chance of being put out, if he strike the ball on this third attempt 
so that it passes behind him, or so that it be caught by any of 
the fieldsmen before it touch the ground. 

On the other hand, on the supposition that he has hit the 

ball at the third attempt— and, to make sure of a hit, it is 
usual to strike the ball with the hand in this extremity — he 
makes hot haste, as fast as his legs can carry him, to the base 

at No. 2, and so on, if he can 
**«» succeed on his circuit by way 

of 3, 4, and 5, without being 
hit by the ball from any of the 
fieldsmen while running between 
any of the bases, or before the 
ball has been thrown up to the 
feeder, and by him grounded 
home. If he be just started 
from one base on his way to 
another when the ball reach 
the feeder, and the latter de- 
cline a shy at him, he will have 
to return to the base whence 
he came ; but if the feeder or 
any of the fieldsmen shy at him, 
and he escape untouched, he 
can continue his course. If 
then he succeed in getting 
home before the ball again re- 
turns to the feeder, he is en- 
titled to the honour of a roun- 
der, which is important, as that 
side wins which scores the most 
rounders ; but if, on the other 
hand, he be hit by one of these 
shies, he is out, and stands on 
one side, being practically removed from all participation in 
the game until either the rest of his party are discomfited 
in a similar manner, or the turn of his side arrives to field j 
of which more anon. 


Bv A. G. Payne, B.A. 


fHAT a game called billiards is of ancient origin there 
is no doubt ; Shakespeare even mentions it as being played 
B.C. 30, but that any game resembling the modern one 

of the name existed at that period is very doubtful. It 
been known in this country for about 300 year3; recent 
provements have how- A 
ever so changed its 
character that, prac- 
tically speaking, it 
may be considered 
almost a game of mo- 
dern date ; and as our 
papers are intended 
to be of a practical 
character, we will 
not enter into a dis- 
cussion as to what 
country or to what 
individual we are ori- 
ginally indebted for 
its invention. 

The invention of 
leathern top3, togo- 


ther with the substitution of slate for wooden beds, and of 
india-rubber for list cushions, have so altered the game, that it 
can hardly have been said before these changes were introduced 
to have been billiards except in name, and it must have borne 
about the same resemblance to modern billiards as bat, trap, and 

ball bears to modern 

It will no doubt 
seem strange to any 
one who has ever 
played a few strokes 
with a cue without a 
top, to be told that 
before the year 1807 
leathern tops had no 
existence ; such how- 
ever is the case, and 
we are indebted to a 
foreigner of the name 
of Mingaud for an in- 
vention that has been 
to billiards what Gali- 


discovery ws 


astronomy. Mingaud was perhaps the first real master of the 
game. On one occasion he entered a billiard room where he 
found a mar. boasting, and stating that Mingaud could not give 
him more than three points in twenty-one. The result of a 
series of games was that Mingaud defeated the boaster, giving 
him fifteen points out of twenty-one. Upon which the latter 
said, "No human being could possess so entire a mastery over 
the balls. I shall play you no more." 

"No," replied Mingaud, "there is no need of any further 
exhibition on your part. But before we part I would impress 
on you tne great disadvantage of not speaking the truth." 

"Monsieur, I do not comprehend; I " 

" Quiet ! There is no reason for a noise. My explanation 
is very brief. I am 
called Mingaud, and 
I think you will admit 
my skill is somewhat 
above yours. Had 
you not boasted so 
outrageously, I 
should have con- 
tented myself with 
remaining a spec- 

Before Mingaud's 
discovery of the 
leathern top, the ball 
had to be struck ex- 
actly in the centre ; 
side and screw were 
alike impossible and 

It will however be 
best perhaps at once, 
for the benefit of real 
beginners — and by 
real beginners we 
mean those who have 
never played — to 
give a description of 
a billiard-table, with 
the names of tho 
pockets, cushions, 
and spots, and also to 
give some short ex- 
planation of a few of 
the technical terms 
used in billiards, as it 
is obviously useless 
to speak of " side" 
and "screw" to those who have no idea of what either means. 

To begin with the table : — 

The- slate bed of a full-sized table measures 12 ft. by 6 ft. 2 in., 
and as an allowance of 2 in. in width must be made for the 
projection of the cushions, the playable bed of a table is 11 ft. 
Sin. in length by 5 ft. 10 in. in width, and- consequently is 
double as long as it is wide ; and it may be as well to bear in 
mind that it consists of two squares, exactly equal, joined 
together, each side of the squares being 5 ft. 10 in. in length. 
This is occasionally a guide in judging of the angles. 

The first diagram (Pig. 1) represents the bed of an ordinary full- 
sized billiard-table, a is the right-hand top pocket ; b the left- 
hand top pocket ; c the right-hand side pocket ; D the left-hand 
side pocket ; e the right-hand bottom pocket ; and e the left- 
hand bottom pocket. The average size of a pocket — i.e., its 
width at the fall— is from 3£- to 3£ inches. Some pockets arc 


easier than others, not only on account of their greater width, but 
also on account of the varying shape of the cushions at the edge. 
The cushion between the two top pockets is called the top 

The cushions between the right-hand top pocket and the 
right-hand bottom pocket are called the right-hand cushions. 

The cushions between the left-hand top pocket and the left- 
hand bottom pocket are called the left-hand cushions. 

The cushion between the right-hand and left-hand bottom 
pockets is called the bottom cushion. 

The line b V, called the baulk line, is drawn (between two 
marks let into the woodwork) on the cloth of the table, parallel 
with the bottom cushion, and at a distance from the face of it, 

varying on different 
tables from 28 i to 
30 inches. 

The space between 
this line b b' and the 
bottom cushion is 
called baulk. 

The centre (d) cf 
the baulk line b V is 
the centre spot in 

With the centre d, 
and at the distance 
d c, along the baulk 
line b b', describe a 
semicircle on the 
baulk side of the line, 
cutting the line b b' 
in the point c'. This 
semicircle is called 
the baulk circle. The 
distance c c' varies 
on different tables 
from 20 to 23 inches. 
The spots c and c 
are called respec- 
tively the right-hand 
spot in baulk and the 
left-hand spot in 
baulk. All other spots 
are in the centre line 
of the table., parallel 
with its length 

The spot s is 13 in. 

from the top cushion, 

and is generally 

called " the spot." 

Tho spot II, exactly in the centre of the table between the 

two middle pockets, is called the " centre spot." 

The spot p, midway between the centre spot and the top 
cushion, is called the "pyramid spot." owing to its being prii> 
cipally used in a game called pyramids. 

So much for the table. ' ' ; 

We now proceed to a few words upon the game : — 

The game of billiards is played with three balls, one red and 

two white. The balls are 2^ inches in diameter, and weigh 

about 4-2- ounces. It is of great importance, however, that in 

the same set of balls all should be of exactly equal weight. 

The red ball at the commencement of the game is placed on 
the spot (s), and each of the two players takes one white ball, 
which are distinguished from each other by one of them being 
marked with a small black spot, and called consequently tho 
" spot ball." 



Each player at starting should particularly notice which is 
his own hall, as there is a penalty for playing with the wrong 
one. It is also well for beginners to avoid the habit, which is 
not uncommon, of preferring one ball to another. We have 
often heard it said by players, " Oh, I always play with the 
spot," or "I always play with the plain ball." Should two 
players meet who both prefer the same ball, it is very probable 
that during the course of the game the unsuccessful selector 
will play with the wrong one. 

Each player starts from the baulk circle, and strikes his ball 
with a long ash stick called a cue. 

The length of a cue varies — 4 feet 9 inches is a fair medium 
length. A tall man, with what is called a long reach, would 
require a cue rather longer than a very short man with a small 

The diameter of the cue in the butt is about 2\ inches, and 
gradually tapers down to a point. The diameter of the cue at 
the point is generally about half an inch, or rather less. Be- 
ginners should avoid playing with a cue with too small a point ; 
three-eighths of an inch is quite small enough. 

To the point of the cue is fixed the leathern top. The tops 
now used are almost universally the French tops, and are sold 
in boxes containing many of different sizes. In topping cues, 
great care should be taken to select a top the exact size of the 
r)oint of the cue ; and in fixing them the same principles apply 
as in veneering — both the top and the top of the cue should be 

made hot ; the top of the cue should be made perfectly flat, but not 
too smooth (just as in veneering a toothing plane is used) ; the 
cement or glue — we prefer the latter — should be applied very 
hot, and the top pressed well down. The reason why the cue 
and top should be made hot is that, as heat expands the cue, 
on cooling, the cement or glue is to a slight extent drawn into 
the minute air-holes on the surface of the cue and top, causing 
them to adhere more closely. 

The first thing a beginner has to learn is to strike his own 
ball properly, and in order to do this great care must be taken 
to acquire an easy position. 

The position in which a player stands is a matter of very 
great importance, especially to novices ; as, if they once get into 
a habit of standing badly they will find it a very hard matter to 
correct it. Suppose a player to be about to make an ordinary 
stroke — for instance, about to play from tho centre of baulk, 
where he can reach his own ball with ease — the proper position 
which he should occupy is as follows : — The player should 
stand with his left foot advanced, the toe of which should be 
about in a line with the edge of the table. He should stand 
firmly on his right leg, which should be quite straight, while the 
left leg should be slightly bent. The body should be inclined 
forward so that the left hand can rest with ease on the table. 
The ball must be exactly in front of the player, in a line with 
the direction in which he intends to strike it. (See illustra- 
tion on page 5, " The Position.") 



By Chas. F. Innes. 


VEB. since the year 1818, when 
a patent was taken out in 
France on behalf of a certain 
Baron von Drais, for his in- 
vention of a hobby-horse, but 
more especially during the last 
seven years, the attention of 
many practical and scientific 
men has been directed towards 
improving and perfecting a 
machine that would enable 
travellers to journey from 
place to place on tho high 
roads without the fatigue 
of walking, at the same time dispensing with the use of steam ; 
and the result is that we have in the bicycle of the present 
day perhaps the best yet simplest form of machine that is 
likely to be produced. We say perhaps, however, for in this 
age of progress one improvement succeeds another with a 
rapidity little dreamt of by our ancestors, and under these 
circumstances it would be rash to say that the beautiful vehicles 
now in use may not, in ten or twenty years' time, be voted old- 
fashioned and utterly out of date. 

Though the modern bicycle certainly owes its original parent- 
age to the dandy-horse of fifty years ago, the child would hardly 
know its own father, owing to its great superiority in workman- 
ship and to its being constructed on a totally different prin- 
ciple. On looking through the records of the Patent Office it 
will be found that as far back as December 22nd, 1818, a patent 
was granted to one Dennis Johnson, a coachmaker, for "a 
machine for the purpose of diminishing the labour and fatigue 
of persons in walking, and enabling them at the same time to 

use greater speed, and which he intends to denominate the 
Pedestrian Curricle." 

The illustration of this " Pedestrian Curricle" (Fig. 1, page 8) 
will at once enable the reader to see the difference between its 
method of progression as compared with the present bicycle. 
According to the specification, this machine consists of a beam, 
A b, of wood or metal, of sufficient strength to bear the weight 
of the person who is to ride it. This beam is supported upon 
two light wheels, c d, by means of the ironwork e and the 
pivot f, the hinder wheel being fixed so as only to revolve in 
the direction of the beam, whilst the front wheel is pivoted to 
the beam at G, where a screw makes it fast ; h is a saddle, sup- 
ported by two long screws underneath it, passing through but 
fixed to the beam by two nuts, one immediately above and tho 
other below it, enabling the rider to raise or lower his saddle at 
will ; k is a cushion for the support of the elbows ; and L is tho 
handle by which tho machine is steered. The patentee was no 
doubt a thorough believer in this description of implement, for 
it appears that " His most excellent Majesty King George 
the Third did, by his Letters Patent, not only grant him this 
especial licence to make and vend them, but also to use and 
to exercise them within England, Wales, and the town of Ber- 
wick-on-the-Tweed;" and he was by no means singular in this 
belief, for they soon created a perfect furore, and on many a high- 
way our ancestors might have been seen with flying coat-tails 
striding through the mud. The original name of " Pedestrian 
Curricle" appears soon to have been dropped for that of "dandy- 
horse ;" but the dandy-riders soon had their enjoyment stopped 
by the Legislature, as the exercise proved to be most injurious. 

In an interesting little work published as recently as 1869, 
the writer gives it seriously as his opinion that " in all proba- 
bility the three-wheeled velocipede will have a more enduring 


and wider-spread popularity than the two-wheeled," though he 
afterwards admits that the former are more likely to upset. 
Whether the tricycle has borne out this opinion or not, may 
easily be answered by any bicyclist ; for in a day's run he will 
scarcely meet one, whilst it is no uncommon thing to pass or 
meet a two-wheeler every ten miles. Let any one in doubt on 
the subject try one of each description for a few months, and 
then decide for himself. 

There are several reasons why the bicycle is immeasurably 
superior to the tricycle. (1) The friction occasioned by the 
two wheels is less than that resulting from three ; (2) it is far 
safer when a corner has to be turned, as the off hind wheel of 
the tricycle is apt to lift and upset the rider ; (3) it will be 
found, when a journey is made, that in many places even the 
high road is so bad that there is but a track of some foot or 
eighteen inches wide which is fit to run on ; and in the winter, 
when the roads are being mended, this is particularly the case ; 
whilst on a cross country road a bicyclist, by keeping in a 
broad rut, will often be able to traverse a portion of it which 
would be otherwise impassable ; in fact, a clever rider wants 
little more than the breadth of his wheel to run on. 

Bicycling having passed its early stage, there are now but 
few schools where the use ©f the machine is taught ; but, with 
perseverance and a few timely hints, it will not be found difficult 
to master. The first thing to be done is to select a large boarded 
room, or if that is not to be procured, a smooth hard road, 
a little down hill if possible ; then bring the machine to the 
kerb of the path, or some slight eminence from whence it is 
easy to mount, and slightly pushing off with the inside foot, 
let the machine run without placing the feet on the treadles. 
This is simply to practise balancing, and the moment the bicycle 
appears to be falling over to the left, draw the left hand a little 
towards you, which will have the effect of turning the driving- 
wheel in the same direction, and re-adjusting the balance; if 
you find it falling to the right, reverse the action, and guide 
the wheel gently to the right. 

When this has been mastered, bring the machine up to the side 
again, taking care that the outer treadle is nearly but not quite 
at its highest ; in fact, it should just be beginning its descent ; 
then throw your leg over the saddle, place the outer foot on the 
treadle and press on it, at the same time pushing off with the 
inner leg from the kerb ; by the time you have done this the 
inner treadle will have come up, and immediately it has begun 
the descent place your inner foot on it, and press it down as 
you did the outer one. Care must be taken that only a steady 
pressure is used, and even this must not be continued till the 
treadle is at the lowest, but after being once applied, the 
treadle must be allowed to complete its revolution itself, the 
foot merely "feeling the touch." 

It is far easier to learn on a small machine than on a large one, 
as confidence is more than half the battle, and if your foot can 
at once touch the ground, you will never be afraid of a tumble. 
There are sure to be some slight bruises or abrasions of the 
skin at first, but these must be manfully endured, as the 
pleasure afterwards to be gained will more than compensate 
you for any temporary annoyances of this description. 

There are three methods of holding the handles— 1st, with the 
hands over them and the knuckles uppermost ; 2ndly, with the 
hands under them ; and, 3rdly, capping them or holding them 
at the extremities with the ends of the handles in the palms 
of the hands. Beginners generally select the first of these posi- 
tions, which is decidedly the worst, as it has a greater tendency 
to cramp the hands than the second position, which should be 
tried as soon as possible. When a little confidence has been 
gained, however, the third position will be found infinitely 

Another great mistake with beginners is that they grasp the 
handles too tightly, and thus cramp their hands and tire their 
arms out before they have gone a mile. 

We will now suppose that the rudiments have been mastered, 
and that you are able to travel two or three hundred yards 
without coming off; during this period, however, you have 
probably been mounting from a raised path, or by the aid 
of a friend, and dismounting by letting the bicycle fall over 
gradually till one of your feet touched the ground ; but there 
are many roads, especially across large commons, where it is 
impossible to find a convenient place for mounting in this way, 
and to overcome this difficulty the " step" was invented, so the 
sooner the use of it is learnt the better. It will probably be 
found easier to mount from the left side of the machine, in 
which case you must stand just behind the step, stretch over 
and hold both the handles in your hands, then placing the toes 
of the left foot on the step, hop a few paces on your right foot, 
pushing the machine at the same time ; and as soon as it has 
got a little way on, raise yourself on the step, and throwing 
the right leg over the backbone, drop a little forward into the 
saddle. Once there, get your right foot on the treadle as soon 
as possible, and immediately afterwards find the other treadle 
with your left foot, thus preventing the machine coming to a 
standstill before you are fairly in a state for progression. 

When you wish to dismount, hold the handles firmly, with the 
hands uppermost ; take the left foot off the treadle and move it 
back till you are able to place your toe on the step, not forgetting 
during this time to keep on working the other treadle with your 
right foot ; as soon as you have got your toe firmly on the 
step, raise yourself out of the saddle and bring the right leg 
backwards over the backbone, and jump off, letting the right 
foot touch the ground a little earlier than the left ; but this 
will be almost imperceptible, as both feet will touch the ground 
almost simultaneously. As you jump off, you will probably 
have to let the handle go with your right hand, but the left can 
still hold on, and the right hand can at once help it in keeping 
the machine up by holding on to the saddle or spring. 

When both mounting and dismounting by means of the step 
has been mastered, there is nothing to prevent your trying a 
larger machine. We will proceed to describe some of the beauti- 
ful machines now in use, which we may divide into two classes 
— viz., those with a very large front and small hind wheel, 
and others where the front wheel is very little larger than the 
after one. 

There is still a great deal of controversy going on as to which 
machine is the best for general purposes, and we believe the 
partisans of the large driving-wheels look down with consider- 
able scorn upon those of the smaller ones, whilst the latter still 
keep to their own views of the subject. It is not our purpose 
to write up the one at the expense of the other, as there is room 
for all, and when the use of the machine is once learnt, the 
rider will after a few trials soon be able to form his own judg- 
ment on the subject. To the makers of the "Ariel," bicyclists 
are indebted for many of the improvements that have gradually 
been made for their comfort, so that a description of it will 
fairly exemplify this class of machine (Fig. 2), which for better 
explanation we will divide under the following heads : — 1. The 
backbone. 2. The spring. 3. The wheels. 4. The steering 

1. The backbone, A, is made of hydraulic tube bent to the re- 
quired shape, finishing in front with a pivoted staff to fit into 
the steering apparatus, and at the other end with a fork, between 
the prongs of which the hind wheel is fitted. At the upper end 
and on the outer side of this fork a small step is attached, for 
the purpose of mounting and dismounting ; whilst inside, just 
clear of the circumference of the hind wheel, there is a roller 


break connected with the steering apparatus, -which has the 
merit of checking the speed without damaging the india-rubber 

2. The spring, B. of this mashine is the makers' registered clip- 
tail sliding one, fixed at 
the front end only, where 
it begins with a collar 
fitted to the upright staff 
which connects the back- 
bone to the rudder, and 
is th^n brought forward 
in a horizontal line a few 
inches to the front, when 
it is bent sharply round 
and brought back parallel 
to (but below) the at- 
tached end, between the 
side pieces of the steer- 
ing apparatus, and then, 
taking a graceful curve, 
finishes with a clip-tail, 
C, consisting of ears lap- 
ping downwards over the 
backbone, at the same 
timeallowingplay enough 
to admit of its sliding up 

The treadles are square wood blocks clothed with india-rubber, 
and can be used either by the toe or ball of the foot. 

4. The steering apparatus, E, differs entirely from the old ar- 
rangement of fork and spindle working in a socket qi the back- 
bone, inasmuch as it is 
formed of two side pieces 
of flat iron having steel 
bearings forged on at 
the lower ends for the 
front wheel, whilst just 
above the wheel are two 
cross-heads, which not 
only act as stiffeners to- 
the side bars, but form 
a loose attachment to the 
backbone, the front staff 
of which is pivoted to fit 
recesses in them; through 
the upper ends of the 
side bars a steel rod is 
passed, terminating at 
each end with the handles 
by which the machine is- 

The break to the hind 
wheel is connected with 


and down with the rider's weight as he passes over the inequali- ! this rod midway between the handles by means of a narrow 
ties of the road ; by this arrangement a great deal of the usual ! leather strap or catgut, so that the rider,Jby turning the handles 

jar inevitable on a rough road is reduced to a minimum. 

3. The patent lever tension wheels, D D, of the Ariel are of a 
very ingenious construction ; the spokes are made of round char- 
coal iron wire, and the felloe of V-shaped steel, which from its 
shape forms a bed for 
the circular india-rub- 
ber tire. Staples, a a a, 
are fixed at regular dis- 
tances round the inner 
face of the felloe, and 
through each of these 
one of the wire spokes, 
which have been pre- 
viously fitted into a 
collar round the hub of 
the wheel, is looped, and 
then carried back again 
to the centre and hooked 
to the collar ; thus each 
length of the wire is 
equal to about twice the 
radius of the wheel, and 
forms as it were two 
spokes. A lever, c, equal 
in length to about two- 
thirds of the radius of 
the wheel, is fixed to the 
hub, having a hole at 
its outer end, through 
which a rod, b. is passed 
at right angles to it, and made fast to the felloe. At the other 
end of this tension-rod, which projects slightly beyond the 
lever, a thumb-screw is attached, by which it can be screwed 
up, thus turning the hub of the wheel round slightly and 
simultaneously tightening all the spokes. The usual number of 
these latter is, in large driving wheels, from sixteen to twenty 
pairs ; and when the wheel exceeds forty inches in diameter, a 
second lever and tension-rod is applied. 

Pig. 2. — THE ARIEL. 

round, tightens the connection with the break, and thus skids 
the wheel. The advantage of this mode of steering over the old 
spindle and socket is that it is not liable to get set, as the. 
latter occasionally did, from overheating, and, in 

excessively cold weather, 
from the oil freezing in 
the socket. When this 
happened the machine 
became perfectly unma- 
nageable, as the front 
wheel could only bo 
turned byfits and starts, 
and true driving was 
out of the question. 

Another beautiful ma- 
chine of this class is 
the " Surbiton " bicycle, 
which, however, differs 
from the one previously 
described in several of 
its details. The back- 
bone differs slightly from 
the Ariel in its mode 
of attachment to the 
j; steering apparatus by 
an ingenious method 
which allows of the 
staff of the backbone 
being tightened up as 
required by nut and 
screw. The pivot, though fixed to the staff, can be taken out and 
replaced when it is worn out. The felloes of the wheels are made 
of V-shaped steel, and the spokes, which are of iron wire, screw 
separately into the hub, thus possessing an independent tension, 
so that if one of them becomes loose— an event of rare occurrence 
— it can be screwed up quite rigid, while the patent anti-friction 
bearings-are so constructed that, owing to a succession of rollers, 
they scarcely ever require oiling, and the friction greatly reduced. 





ROM time immemorial, feathers have been prized as arti- 1 And in the present day there come to us, from many lands 
cles of personal adornment, and have been fashioned J across the sea, choice and exquisite specimens of feather work, 
into ornamental devices of various kinds. The earliest ' From South America, Mexico, India, Madeira, we have a 
embroidered work was formed of the real feathers of birds, \ variety of articles — screens, fans, flowers, and many other 

Fiar. 2 

worked in various ways into linen. It is said that the ladies of 
Babylon originated this idea, and that their garments were ela- 
borately embroidered in this beautiful style. Leaves, flowers, 
and even birds themselves, were designed and executed by 
" plumarians," as the embroiderers were termed. 

ornamental devices, too numerous to particularise — all so deftly 
manipulated by the supple fingers of the natives, and so 
uniquely beautiful in themselves, as to command at once our 
wondering admiration, and to stimulate a desire to master the 



" A thing of beauty is a joy for ever; its loveliness increases : " 
and, tell me, is there any object more beautiful, any more lovely, 
than a bird's feather ? No matter what its size, or what its 
hue — whether it come from the wing of the plain brown sparrow, 
or from the coverts of the justly-proud peacock; from the* 
biggest of geese or from the tiniest of humming-birds — a 
feather, in itself, has something about it so indescribably 
dainty, a something which so far exceeds in beauty of colour, 
and in delicacy and peculiarity of fibre, anything that human 
heads, however gifted, could devise, or human hands, however 
clever, could esecute, that so it is, the more we examine the 
more we admire, and our admiration passes irresistibly from 
the object created to the Creator. 

And how do feathers grow ? 

Look at this wee bird, which has just broken through its 
prison-house, and has come out but ill-prepared, one would 
imagine, for the cold world into which it has precipitated itself. 
Look more closely, and you will perceive that its bare-looking 
little body is covered with a downy kind of hair — little bundles 
of fibres together forming minute tufts as it were — these pro- 
ceed from a bulb, and this is the origin of your feather. Anon 
a dark cylinder makes its appearance, and out of its upper 
extremity the sprouting feather gradually emerges, its life and 
strength being supplied by nourishment in the form of pulp, 
received through the lower extremity of this cylinder, it, in its 
turn, receiving this supply through the vessels which permeate 
the body of the bird. When the stem and other parts of the 
feather are fully developed, and require no more food, then the 
pulp has performed and finished its duty, and it shrivels up 
and becomes the dry substance in the centre of a quill which 
no doubt you have observed when cutting a pen with your 

The summer dress of many species of birds varies from that 
of their winter costume ; and, most surprising to relate — but, 
then, some facts are stranger than fiction— as a rule the attire 
of male birds at all seasons is much more brilliant and smart 
than that of the fair sex among the feathered tribe. 

Of all the birds "with painted plumage gay," the macaw is 
one of the handsomest ; therefore, if your favourite recreation 
be feather work, and you do not possess a macaw, but have 
friends who do, my advice to you is to be very friendly with 
those friends, for Mr. Mac sheds treasures bright and beautiful 
— the daintiest, prettiest feathers imaginable, as well as the 
strongest and noblest ; of ethereal blue, of rosy red, of shaded 

Parrots and parroquets afford a great variety ; indeed, the 
majority of foreign, and more especially tropical birds, sur- 
pass ours in the gaiety of their colours ; but the plumage of 
our own feathered friends is by no means to be despised, it 
offers us much that is exceedingly pretty although not so 
strikingly ornamental. The peacock, Guinea-fowl, pheasant, 
hawk, owl, heron, sea-gull, kingfisher, goldfinch, from these, and 
even from some of our barn-door fowls, we can gather materials 
for our work. And if it so happen that brighter - coloured 
feathers are indispensable to carry out our design, and that 
we cannot obtain those of foreign birds — though brilliant skins 
can now be bought from a shilling upwards — why then we must 
go to the goose, and she will help us out of our difficulty, for 
her pure white feathers are to be had any day, and they can 
be easily dyed any colour we require. 

Feather screens are exceedingly beautiful, ornamental, and 
useful. There are several ways in which they may be made. 
We will speak first of the easiest, which is that of covering the 
whole surface of the screen with feathers, as it were indiscrimi- 
nately, and in no set pattern. 

First of all, decide what size and shape you would like your 

screens, and then trace the outline on paper — round, heart-shaped 
(as in Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), whatever your particular fancy may 
be. Lay the pattern on a piece of millboard, such as may be 
bought for sixpence or eightpence per sheet ; draw your pen- 
cil round its edge very carefully, and then take a sharp strong 
penknife and cut clean round the mark. This is an ope- 
ration that should take place on a board, or woe to your table 
and its cloth ! 

There are two ways of fixing the feathers — either by stitching 
them with needle and thread on to stiff buckram, or by fastening 
them with gum on to paper. La the first instance, you paste the 
buckram to the millboard, after the feathers are stitched on ; 
in the second place, the millboard is covered first with paper, 
on to which you gum the feathers. We will speak as if the 
latter method were adopted: of course the description generally 
will apply to both. 

I hope you have got at hand a pair of pliers, such as are 
used for paper flowers ; two pairs of scissors, one . strong, for 
cutting the shafts of the quills, and the other pair small, with 
fine points, for trimming the feathers; also a bottle of tinckgum — 
home-made solution is best, made by dissolving one ounce gum 
arabic with warm water — and a camel-hair brush; Take the 
feathers you intend to use — peacock's, Guinea-fowl's, pheasant's, 
jay's, and the poultry-yard cock's make a good assortment — 
keeping each sort separate in old envelopes ; cut off the downy 
portion, and part of the shaft if you deem it necessary, after 
which gently brush their backs one by one with gum, and then 
leave them to dry. This little attention will keep their delicate 
fibres from being soon ruffled. 

The feathers chosen for these screens should not any of them 
be very large or strong, as they would then laok stiff and awk- 
ward, and the work would lose that soft and feathery appearance 
which it should wear if it is to look well. 

The plumage from the back of the bird is the most suitable. 
The wing-feathers of some of the smaller species may be used, 
as it often happens that they are the brightest ; the jay, for 
instance, has several bright blue barred with black in its wing. 

Now take your screen, and begin your fascinating occupation. 
There is no particular design, as I have before remarked, but 
the arrangement of the feathers should be such as to form com- 
pleteness of harmony. The colours should be made to pass 
one into another, to blend together, so that no sudden suspen- 
sion of effect may startle the eye. " The boldness of contrast 
consists not in sudden transitions from harmony, but ivith 
it." To gain this effect there is no better study than the birds 
themselves ; in them we see no sharp outlinoa, no startling 
divisions between their various colours, however many and 
brilliant they may be. But we must hie back to our screen, 
for you are holding the millboard all this time. 

Always work from the outer edge to the centre. There can be 
no prettier finish for the edge than a fringe or two of peacocks' 
eye-feathers (Fig. 2) ; therefore, secure and prepare enough to go 
round both the screens. Moisten with gum the part where the 
shaft of the feather is to be (allowing for this first row to project 
about half an inch or so beyond the edge of the millboard), 
then, with the pliers, place them one by one close together 
round the screen, leaving a small space for the handle. When 
these are dry, moisten with gum as before, and put on the next. 
This row must not be placed immediately in front of its prede- 
cessors ; and in like manner with the feathers that come after ; 
one should appear to be playing bo-peep between two other 
feathers ; and the faces of all should be seen distinctly, as in 
Figs. 2 and 3 — the latter of pheasant's feathers. 

As the centre is more nearly approached the feathers should 
decrease in size, and then the work becomes more difficult and 
requires more delicate handling. In order to finish the actual 



centre neatly, it is advisable to- reverse the order, that is, to 
place the shafts of the last row of feathers usder the fibres of 
the preceding row. This work should not be done hastily ; for 
if too ranch gum is put on, or if sufficient time is not allowed 
for it to dry, the gum used for one set of feathers will most 
certainly ooze through the nest, and completely spoil their 
personal appearance. 

When the screens are quite covered, place them face down- 
wards on a piece of clean paper ; but, before you do this, 
inspect your regiment of feathers, and if any member of the 
corps appears to be discontented with its position, carefully 
smooth it down. Then place weights on them, and let them 
remain in durance vile till the following day. But little now 
remains to be done. Cut out in glazed or watered paper (some 
warm colour, such as scarlet or crimson, looks the best) coverings 
for the backs of the screens ; paste them on, and again place 
them under pressure for a night. 

Lastly, attach the handles, which, if some ingenious brother 
cannot turn for you, can be bought at a Berlin-wool shop, at 
prices according to style and wood. The work is finally com- 
pleted, and your screens ought to be perfect. They will look 
most in place in a dining or morning room. 

I am afraid that you will be growing weary of my descriptions 
of feather screens; but "variety is pleasing," you know, and 
so I will venture to speak of yet another way, although per- 
haps it is one which is not so often undertaken by the amateur 
as by those whose avowed employment it is to cure and stuff 

These screens are composed of the head, breast, and wing3 
of a bird. The denizens of our own woods and forests show to 
great advantage, and are most effective. The owl looks better 
than any other bird in this position; the hawk ranks next, 
then come pheasants, woodcocks, sea-gulls, &c. 

The different parts required should be severed immediately 
after the bird is killed ; and cut them off in a dexterous and 
scientific manner, if you please, otherwise the plumage will be 
sadly ruffled and damaged. Take off the wings' as near to the 
body as possible. Hold the feathers of the breast out of 
harm's way, and cut the skin round to the back. Draw back 
the skin till the skull passes through the neck, and the skin is 
stopped by the beak. Take the eyes out of the head, scoop 
out the brains, and fill the cavity with cotton-wool, either 
steeped in arsenical soap or well sprinkled with alum. Sever 
the head at the base of the neck. For the process of curing 
arsenical soap is extensively used by naturalists, and can be 
bought in pots : it is a deadly poison, and requires keeping 
under lock and key. But the following simple means have been 
proved to be effectual :■ — After putting the feathers straight, 
and smoothing the skin, sprinkle it with a little lime ; then 
cover all the skin and the parts of the feathers which require 
curing with powdered alum. Let it remain in this state (the 
side on which the alum lies should be uppermost) for several 
days, after which shake off the alum, when they should appear 
as in Fig. 1. 

Now brush over the backs of the wing-feathers with some 
gum, and, placing the two wings side by side, sew their inner 
edges firmly together until near the extremity of the feathers ; 
then press the sewing with a hot iron, but have some brown 
paper between the feathers and the iron, or the former will 
get scorched ; after which put weights on them, so as to flatten 
them. Take a thin piece of board, well seasoned, and fix the 
wings on to it by glueing the shafts of the feathers. They are 
radiated round in the same fashion as the Turkey-cock sets 
his tail. The breast and head are then fixed on with glue. If 
the stiff feathers are not inclined to keep back, they must be 
pinned down for a while. The back of the board must be 

covered with coloured paper, and a gilt handle affixed, to com- 
plete the work. 

For the ckawing-room we know of a daintier device, and 
that is of forming flowers and birds on silk cloth or net, the 
effect of which is charming, and the work has the further 
recommendation of being highly uncommon. 

The first step to take is to get the material stretched on the 
frames you intend to have — those frames which require no other 
finish but the black rim they already possess are the most 
suitable for this style of work. As the whole effect is spoilt 
if the ground-work is not tightly and smoothly stretched, the 
amateur will, if wise, order this to be done where the frames 
are bought. Then there is the design to be considered. Of 
course the occupation is twice as interesting if you are follow- 
ing out your own devices; but all people are not born with 
that valuable and pleasant gift, invention, and where that is 
the case they must have the outlines of the group traced for 
them when they have the frames prepared. The effect is very 
good if garden flowers are grouped on one screen and field 
flowers on the other. In either case, specimens of Flora's 
simplest handiwork look the best — perhaps because they are 
the easiest to imitate, and therefore the most quickly made, and 
consequently do not get so much handled as more pretentious 
flowers. Geraniums, cineraria, azalea, myosotis, yellow jasmine, 
the modest daisy, and its big brother the ox-eyed, ' : the shining 
pansy, trimmed with golden lace," the daffodil, anemone, and 
celandine — indeed, any species of flower which is not of cupped 
form, but which naturally spreads open and lays back its petals, 
will look well. 

All preliminary matters being settled, take the feathers and 
prepare them for their future position by depriving them of all 
down, then lightly touching their backs with gum, and finally, 
after they are dry, shaping them according to the form of the 
flower-petal you are going to represent, and bending them 
into shape, if required, with your finger and thumb. A natural 
flower placed before you will prove a helpful guide. The petals 
are now laid severally on the material, and one by one fixed in 
their places with a needle and fine silk the exact colour of the 
flower. This requires some skill. The needle must make its 
way very carefully between the fibres, and the silk must just 
span the shaft and no more, it must not disturb the plumage 
of the feather or attempt to capture any of Jhe down. When 
all the petals are thus fixed, there remain the stamens. These 
are worked with coarsish silk, as are also the stalks, leaves, and 
buds belonging to the group. 

I mentioned the forming of birds on screens of this kind. 
One may either be introduced amongst the flowers, or itself form 
the central figure. As the bird must be small, and look light and 
elegant, the work is minute, and necessarily difficult to accom- 
plish ; but " laugh at impossibilities, and cry, It shall be done ! ' ' 
I have in my possession a bird formed in the manner I am 
about to describe, which is smaller than you need undertake, 
although the tinier they are the prettier they will look. My 
dainty little specimen measures one inch and a quarter in 
length, and its plumage looks as if single fibres had been 
placed on, so minute are the feathers. See that the shape of 
your bird be very exactly drawn on the groundwork; then 
paint its bill and legs, and if there are to be no flowers, paint 
also a background of some description — a tree, ©r anything 
that will give a finished and picturesque appearance to your 
work ; or if you cannot handle the artist's pencil, a pretty scene 
may be cut from some tinted print. On the part of the bird 
reserved for the feathers, lay thick gum with a camel-hair brush ; 
then let it dry, and repeat this process three times, or until the 
gum lies sufficiently thick to give a substantial appearance to, 
the body. 



You begin at the tail, and then work 
upward to the head, moistening gradu- 
ally with gum and a fine camel-hair 
pencil the part where the shafts of the 
feathers are to lie — taking the greatest 
care that the gum does not smear the 
succeeding feathers. The eye must not, 
however, be forgotten. If a glass one can 
be obtained, so much the better ; black 
ones are very cheap, being about twopence 
per dozen. A round piece of paper 
coloured like an eye may be made really 

Fig. 6. 

operation it is best to lay the ornament 
between two pieces of stout millboard, 
used for bookbinding, and then weighting 
with any flat heavy objects that may bo 
convenient. Books make capital weights 
for the purpose, though, of course, no- 
thing is better than a press used with 
discretion, such a one, for instance, as is 
used for table-cloth or napkins. 

If novices in this art are fearful of 
spoiling the screen by an attempt of this 
kind, it will answer the same purpose if 

Fig. 7. 

quite deceptive ; but if the bird is very wee, a bead will answer [ they make the body of the bird in Hko manner on thin card, 
the purpose. J and then cut it out, and gum it in the place assigned for it 

The work should be pressed when finished, to perform which I on the screen. 


By the Secretary or the Koyal Humane Society. 



AN you swim ?" is a question 
asked of every lad when he is 
telling his friends what his 
progress in learning various 
accomplishments has been 
during the past year; and it is 
a most serious and necessary 
inquiry, as on the answer 
may depend the life of the lad 
himself, and of others who 
might require his aid on some 
important occasion. Swim- 
ming is not only the most 
enjoyable, but the most really 
useful of a]l tho many ac- 
complishments which constitute the education of every lady or 
gentleman, or, indeed, of every person, of whatever grade of life 
they may chance to be. So great was its importance con- 
sidered, that Sir. "W. Fraser induced the committee of the Eoyal 
Humane Society to send up a deputation to the Eight Hon. Mr. 
Forster, the president of the Council on Education, to impress 
upon him the necessity of making swimming one of the subjects 
of compulsory education for the scholars that would come under 
the jurisdiction of the new School Boards; when, after a long and 
exhaustive discussion, in which Mr. Forster fully recognised the 
importance of the object sought to be attained by the Committee 
of the Eoyal Humane Society, he said he felt that the teaching 
of this important accomplishment must be left to the discretion 
of the various School Boards. Alas ! that such a golden oppor- 


tunity should have been lost, when boys and girls, of all ages- 
and conditions, could have been brought under a compulsory 
system, and made to swim in spite of themselves; and it is to be 
hoped that the powers that may yet manage the Committee of 
Council on Education will see how necessary it is to make 
swimming a subject to which some portion of every week 
should be devoted. When the writer of this was in a man-of- 
war at Gibraltar a few years since, the crew of the ship was 
piped to bathe, and out of a total number of 800, not one half 
could swim, and this in a nation whose sons are pre-eminently 
aquatic. Appended is given the number of deaths by accidental 
drowning in England and Wales in the years from 1860 to 1870 5 
as furnished by the Eegistrar- General to the writer : — 
























































It will thus be seen that the average loss each year froca 
drowning by accident amounts to the terrible total of 2,608. 



Yfhcn we consider these figures, it is appalling that such a 
number should thus be annually consigned to a watery grave, the 
greater portion of whom wei 3 doubtless in the prime of life, and 
enjoying excellent health, and who, had they been able to swim, or 

all, I have no doubt. On the 25th we made a boating party to 
visit one of our detachments about fifteen miles from here at 
Grand Eiver, south-east ; we left this about eleven a.m. and 
after reaching our destination all safe, left it about three o'clock 


if some swimmer had been at hand at the right moment, might j p.m. for home, the weather then looking anything but promis- 
have been living now. i ing. When about four miles from h"bme and from the shore we 

The Royal Humane Society find that in the majority of cases ! were overset by a squall. It came upon us so suddenly that we 
that come before it for reward, the persons saved could not I had no chance to do anything ; torrents of rain fell at the time ; 
swim ; and it is only reasonable to believe, that if swimming wa3 I and there we were, drifting along on the side of the boat (which 

as compulsory a part 
of education as read- 
ing, writing, and arith - 
metie, fewer deaths 
from drowning would 
occur than heretofore. 

To show the use of 
this noble art, the fol- 
lowing narrative of 
an escape from peril, 
and the rescue of five 
lives, by the indi- 
vidual gallantry of a 
swimmer, has been 
rarely equalled and 
never excelled in the 
records of high and 
noble daring. It is 
extracted from the re- 
port of the Royal Hu- 
mane Society, which 
awarded its Gold 
Medal for the act, and 
is from the pen of Cap- 
tain Milman of the 5 th Fusiliers, in a letter to his father Major- 
General Milman, late Coldstream Guards :— 

" Mahebourg, Island of Mauritius, 
" Julie 30, 1848. 

" The following account of an almost miraculous escape that 
I and five other officers have had from drowning will interest you 

1. — Attention ! 


luckily did not sink), 
without a chance of 
assistance, and the 
night setting in. This 
happened about half- 
past five o'clock, and 
atthis seasonitis dark 
at six. We drifted in 
this way for about two 
hours, and at last 
grounded in about 
seven feet of water. 
It was very nearly 
dark ; and all that we 
could see were the 
tops of the mountains 
in the horizon — we 
supposed we were 
about two miles from 
the shore. All of 
us but myself had 
stripped on being up- 
set, as I knew if we 
came to a swim I 
could take my clothes off in a moment. As it turned out, I 
think I was lucky in this, for they perhaps, though wet, kept 
me a little warmer than my companions. 

"Nothing seemed to give us a chance of being saved, except 
holding on till daylight ,• and as it was terribly cold, this seemed 
next to impossible. At last it struck me I might be ablo to 



swim ashore to procure assistance, and I got permission from 
the others to do so. Our boatman, a Creole, 'who also said he 
would go, started with me to make the attempt. I left them 
with a hearty ' God bless you ! ' from all. After swimming 
some time I lost sight of the boatman, and was left to myself. 
I swam back a little, shouting as loud as I could ; but, getting 
no answer, and feeling for my own sake that I must push on, I 
turned my head towards the mountain tops (my only guide) 
and struck out my best. 

" I must most certainly have been swimming for more than 
an hour when I landed. I found myself a little tired, and 
very much benumbed, barefooted, ' en chemise,' and not able 
to see two yards before me, it was so dark. My first impulse 
was to fall on my knees and thank Providence ; after which, 
curious to say, my military schooling came to my aid in the 
' extension motions,' which brought some little feeling into my 
limbs, and enabled me to continue my work. After feeling my 
way for about half an hour along the shore, shouting all the time, 
I came to a cottage, where I was hospitably received. They told 
me that they had heard my cries some time, but fancied I was 
some drunken man returning home, or else they would have 
come to my assistance. The poor black gave me some dry 
clothes, and made me a cup of tea, and then conducted me to 
the proprietor of the estate, who lived close by, and had the 
nearest pirogue (a small boat like a canoe, dug out of a solid 
trunk of a large tree) in the neighbourhood. M. Chiran (the 
name of the proprietor), a man of colour, as soon as I explained 
my situation and my want of a boat to go and assist the others, 
immediately offered to go himself, and his son also insisted on 
going with him ; I jumped at the offer, of course, and we im- 
mediately walked down to where his pirogue was moored, and 
started, myself at the bottom to serve as guide. 

"By the blessing of Providence, after about an hour's search 
we heard the cries from the wreck. I think I never felt so 
happy or so light-hearted in my life as I did at this moment ; 
for there were so many chances against our finding it. 

"We could not see many yards from our own boat. It was 
then about eleven o'clock, so that my companions had been 
exposed on the boat for upwards of five hours. Luckily, with 
great care, we got them safely into the pirogue without cap- 
iizing her, and by twelve o'clock we were safely housed under 
M. Chiran's hospitable roof, who fed, clothed, and lodged us 
for the night. 

"In the morning the unfortunate Creole boatman was found dead 
from cold and cramp about half a mile from the place he was 
supposed to have landed at. The kindness, hospitality, and 
truly courageous assistance afforded us by M. Chiran, at the 
risk of his own life and that of his son, are deserving of all 
praise. It was . a service of danger to go out even at all in a 
pirogue on such a rough night, much more to go and seek for 
five drowning men three miles out at sea. He wished his son 
not to go, but the latter would not allow his father to go with- 
out him. Constantly, during our long search, when the son 
was getting tired of pulling the boat, the father would cry out 
and encourage him, saying, ' Courage, mon fils ! ' " 

One of the principal things to bear in mind is that the human 
frame is so aqueous in its composition that one of the weight 
of 150 pounds, if thoroughly dessicated, would not weigh more 
than fifteen pounds. To enable a man to swim without exertion 
or to float safely in the water with his head out of it, he must 
have some additional means of flotation or buoyancy, i.e., he 
must be able to displace more than his own weight of water. 
Those men who have a large development of chest and lungs 
are sure to float lightly in the water. Again, a very fat man, 

such as the " Claimant," can swim very easily, for fat, whilst 
it adds to the bulk, does not increase the bone and muscle. 
Ducks, swans, and other water-fowl, are so buoyant from. the 
peculiar construction of their feathers and their power of oiling 

If the human body was of the same specific gravity as water, 
and it was required to raise the head above the surface, it 
would be only necessary to displace as much water as would 
be equal to the bulk of the head ; but as a rule only about one- 
half of the head requires this support, and a force of flotation 
equal to about six pounds is generally found to be sufficient ; 
therefore, any object that will in floating support six pounds is 
enough to ensure a man against being drowned. 

Experiment proves that a healthy person can expel about 
seven pints of air, and then there still remains in the lungs a 
considerable quantity. Each pint of air is equal to the support 
of a pound in weight of any substance, and we may safely esti- 
mate the capacity of the lungs at one gallon, or about nine or 
ten pounds floating power. Therefore, man carries with him 
his own life-buoy, and should be educated so as to fully com- 
prehend how to apply this store of safety to the greatest ad- 
vantage, when^called upon in any emergency, to save either his 
own or the lives of others in danger of drowning. 

There are various modes of swimming. To begin with, there is 
the usual method ; the upright or Italian; tho dog-like ; the hand 
over hand ; on the back ; on the side ; with various limbs only ; 
also under water or diving ; and varied fancy and ornamental 
methods of displaying one's power in the water, these exhibitions 
are, in general, peculiar to those professional swimmers who give 
from time to time a public display of their powers in the water, 
and what can be done by any one who will only persevere in 
conquering the few simple rules necessary to enable them t© 
become powerful swimmers. 

The first rule in learning to swim, is to gain confidence ; and 
until a man has that ho cannot swim. As a rule one should never 
employ artificial means, such as corks, life preservers, or any 
such contrivance, as more can be gained by frequenting a tepid 
swimming bath, when within reach, as there are usually greater 
facilities there for learning from qualified attendants, who are 
always at hand. 

Having selected the most suitable place for the purpose, enter 
the water gradually, and when you havo waded as far out as to 
let the water reach to your chest, turn towards the shore, draw 
your hands up to your chest, keeping the fingers closo together, 
the thumbs pressing against the forefingers sd as to form a 
sort of hollow scoop, which gives you a greater power of pro- 
pulsion : the palms of the hands must be downwards. Tho 
lower part of the arm and elbow should bo close to the body, as 
shown in Fig. 2 ; next stretch out the arms to the full extent 
just under the surface of the water, as. in Pig. 3 ; turn the palms 
of the hands out and take a circular stroke until the arms are 
square with the shoulder, as in Fig. 4 ; then draw the hands back 
to the first position. These three movements in our new 
extension motions for learners of swimming should be repeated 
several times by numbers — i.e., at the word one, draw your 
hands up to your chest, keeping tho fingers close together, etc. ; 
at the word iwo, stretch your arms out to the full extent 
keeping them just under the surface of the water ; at the 
word three, turn the palms of the hands out, and take a circular 
stroke until the arms are square with the shoulder. When the 
learner has gone through these motions several times by word 
from the instructor, ho should- do it, judging his own time, tho 
speed of the movement being gradually increased until the 
three separate actions merge into one motion, easily performed. 
by the pupil. 




By John Wiskee, the English Champion. 


HESS, the origin of which is 
said to be " lost in the mists 
of antiquity,' ' is certainly the 
most difficult, and has the 
reputation of being the most 
fascinating, of games. The 
student who may learn to ad- 
mire its beauties may readily 
despair of ever arriving at 
a thorough knowledge of its 
complexities ; but for him 
there is one striking consola- 
tion, arising out of the nature 
of the game : it is not needful 
to play well to appreciate the 
interest of this pastime. The moderate player or the ignoramus 
probably enjoys his recreation more keenly than the first-rate 
artist. Moreover, skill in chess is only a matter of comparison ; 
no perfect master has ever yet been produced. So endless are 
the resources of the science that no game was ever contested in 
which the very best moves were played throughout on both sides. 
The best actual play is only very good — an approximation to 
the best possible play. Every week tho elaborate calculations of 
a first-rate player are upset by somebody, very likely inferior 
in skill, who has looked a little farther. Of an analysis of the 
openings published some years ago, occupying 350 pages, not 
half a dozen pages now hold good. It is related in Staunton's 
" Chess Tournament" that a fine player once took the enormous 
space of two hours and a half to calculate a single move, and made 
a bad one after all. A match by correspondence is now proceed- 
ing between the City of London and Vienna Clubs. Six players 
consult on each side ; and it frequently happens that a week's 
deliberation i3 required to finally decide upon the best line of 
play, in a difficult situation. These examples will show the 
beginner that he need not be discouraged because he cannot 
play very well, though he may reasonably play as well as he can. 
There is another set-off of no small importance against the 
difficulty of chess : it is possible to learn the game almost 
entirely from book-teaching. Practice, indeed, may be made 
quite a subsidiary element in the success of the chess-player. 
In this respect the game resembles neither cricket nor billiards, 
but rather whist. The best schools are undoubtedly the London 
clubs or the historical divan in the Strand ; but not every 
aspirant is within reach of either. I, who learned chess in a 
country town, where there was little practice and that not 
good, may instance my own experience. I was in the habit 
of choosing some fine published game, and of selecting the 
winning side as my own. Say that Morphy won of Anderssen 
— I selected Morphy 's side, covered up his moves with a piece 
of paper, and endeavoured to anticipate the great master's line 
of play. After due deliberation, I compared my ideas with the 
course actually adopted, made Morphy's move, with the reply of 
Anderssen, and then proceeded to consider what might be the 
American's next adventure. 

The experience was generally humiliating at first; better results 
followed afterwards ; and eventually I was able at times to do 
better than the teacher. This is the mode by which chess can 
be understood as a science ; nor can quieter or more reasonable 
mode of enjoyment be imagined. You play as long as you 
please, you consume as much time as you please over eaeh move, 

and you go on in happy indifference to the eccentricities of an 
opponent who may be looking at his watch, lighting another 
cigar, or taking up the newspaper, to remind you that you are 
deliberating for four minutes, whilst he himself consumed the 
insignificant total of twenty. 

If you can combine the oral lessons of a friend with an 
examination of these printed directions, your progress will be 
most rapid and sure. 

Fig. 1, then, is the aspect of the board, with the pieces arranged 
for the beginning of a game. 

The board, it will be seen, resembles an ordinary draught- 
board, with sixty-four squares. The chessmen, however, range 
over all the squares, and are not confined to half of them, as 
in draughts. The board is so placed that each player has a 
white square at his right hand. This is not a condition arising 
from the essentials of the game ; it is a convenience arranged 
for the sake of uniformity. The sixteen pieces at each player's 
disposal include six different kinds : — ■ 

Eight pawns (abbreviated 
P), and represented thus 

Two Knights (Kt), thus . 

Two Bishops (B), thus . 

Two Rooks, which are 
sometimes improperly 
called Castles (E) , thus 

A Queen (Q), thus 

A King (K), thus . . 

The rooks occupy tho corner squares ; next to them on each 
side is placed a knight ; then a bishop ; the king and queen 
occupy the two centre squares of the first row ; and the eight 
pawns are placed in front on the second row. Thus the arrange- 
ment of the pieces for battle is very simple. The only point to 
be noticed is the proper respective places of the king and queen 
on the two centre squares. The queen stands always on a 
square of her own colour. Thus the black queen stands on a 
black square, and the white queen on a white square. This, 
likewise, is not an essential of the game, but a convenience to 
ensure the indispensable condition that the opposing kings and 
queens face each other. It may be as well to understand here 
that in all diagrams the white men are supposed to occupy the 
bottom of the board, and the black the top. 

Having given the positions and names of the pieces, it is 
time to describe their powers and peculiarities. The attributes 
of three— the rook, bishop, and queen — are simple; those of 
the other three are more complex. To begin with the three 
former : the rook moves in a straight, horizontal, or perpen- 
dicular line, to the right or left, backwards or forwards indis- 
criminately. Fig. 2 is a diagram showing his mode of action. 
It will be seen that his range is bounded only by the sides of 
the board, or by the interposition of a friendly or a hostile 
piece. In the diagram his march downwards is absolutely 
barred by the white pawn. He cannot take his companion -in 
arms, neither can he leap over his head ; only the knight of 
the chess pieces is allowed to perform the latter feat. With 
regard to the black bishop on the left, ho is ©pen to the range 
of the rook, who can capture him. The move of capture in all 
cases, excepting only that of the pawn, is simply the removal of 
the obnoxious man, the capturing piece occupying the victim's 
square. Thus the rook may take off the bishop, and instal 
itself in the prelate's place. He can go no further. 

The bishop moves diagonally, backwards and forwards, over 



the whole length of the board, subject only to the interposition 
of another piece, as in the case of "the rook. 

In the diagram (Fig. 3) the range of the bishop on the white 

trie flight, neither can he extend it. As a compensation, he is 
allowed to leap over the heads of either friends or foes in seek- 
ing his destination. 

HP W, 



HP W" 

wm %p ^L 

ill ill w4 

i fli 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 4. 

square is barred by the white pawn 
and by the black pawn, which he may 
remove, placing himself on the vacant 
square. The bishop on the black square 
is not barred by any obstacle whatever. 
It will easily be perceived that a bishop 
having got upon one colour, cannot by 
any possibility remove to another. Each 
side has one bishop on a black square 
and one on a white square, and there 
they remain. 

The queen combines all the powers 
of the rook, with all the powers of the 
bishop. She can move diagonally, 
horizontally, or perpendicularly, at will. 
Her range is immense, extending over 
nearly half a clear board. She is by far 
the most powerful piece on the board. 
Fig. 4 will obviate further description. 



m m yyl ////m m 

w, mm. 

m -"dTwm 

^?A -5*- 't/z/Zm: 


Fig. 1. 

In the diagram (Fig. 5) the white 
knight, if he would move at all, must 
proceed to one of the eight squares 
occupied by the black pawns, and ho 
can remove them as in the preceding 
instances. If the learner carefully 
examine the principle of one square 
forward and one sideways, he will per- 
ceive that there is no other square 
open to the knight. He cannot inter- 
fere with the intervening squares ex- 
cept by leaping over pieces that may 
occupy them. 

The pawn is the least valuable of the 
chessmen, but possesses the most eccen- 
tric qualities. In the first place the 
pawn cannot move backwards ; he 
can only advance. He may be played 
one square or two at his first move, 



'<m% wm, wm il 


1 Wm. 

W, WM. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 5. 

The knight is a peculiar piece, and his movements are much 
more difficult to describe. His range is confined to two squares 
and he can advance neither more nor less. One of these squares 
is in a horizontal or perpendicular, the other in a diagonal direc- 
tion. In brief, be combines the shortest move of the rook with 
the shortest move of the bishop. He cannot curtail hi3 ecceu- 

at the option of the player ; but afterwards he can advance only 
one square at a time. Under these conditions, if he always 
go forwards and never backwards, he must ultimately reach 
the- eighth square. 

But the peculiarities of the pawn and its further movements 
j must be deferred to our next paper. 





By the Author of " Harmonious Colouring as Applied to Photographs," " The Art of Miniature Painting,'' etc. 

lA CCUEACY of form and truthfulness of light and 
A^> shadow characterise the perfect photograph ; but 
colour, which has been described as the sunshine of 
art, chemistry and optics fail, and probably always will fail, 
to supply. Here the artist must step 
in, with his pigments and brushes, to 
complete the resemblance to Nature, 
and supply colour, that element which 
" clothes poverty in smiles, and renders 
the prospect of barrenness itself agree- 
able ; while it heightens the interest 
and doubles the charm of beauty." 

A clever artistic colomrist will give a 
a photograph its final claim to fidelity 
with curious success ; but in a general 
way those who live, as thousands of 
people do, by colouring photographs 
are not in any just 
sense of the term 
artists, and the 
effects they pro- 
duce, although 
generally tolerably 
pleasing, are the 
result of simple 
mechanical pro- 
cesses quickly con- 
ducted and easily 
learned. Cleanli- 
ness and neatness 
of manipulation, 
with some know- 
ledge of pigments 
and a correct eye 
for colour, are the 
main elements of 
success in practis- 
ing this branch of 

Seeing, then, 
that so many thou- 
sands find recrea- 
tion in the practice 
of photography — 
in which we are 
giving lessons — 
who would be glad 
to add the charm 
of colour to their 
productions ; that 
many thousands 
more find delight 
in practising paint- 
ing as amateurs ; 
and that even 
larger numbers who love colour, but are unable to paint, from 
their ignorance of drawing, would be glad to devote some of 
their leisure to a branch of painting in which no knowledge of 
drawing is required, we give some articles on photographic 

The easiest mode of colouring photographs is that |n which. 

Fig. 8. 

dry colours are used in a state of powder. These are generally 
applied to photographs on glass, technically known as glass 
positives, although they have been very successfully used, and 
with effects analogous to those of crayon or pastel painting, on 

paper photographs, technically known 
as positive prints. To this process we 
shall first direct attention. 

The colours are sold at most photo- 
graphic warehouses in small bottles. 
They should be brilliant, powerful, 
pure, and so prepared as to adhere 
readily to the varnished film of col- 
lodion or albumen, and retain their 
brightness and intensity after varnish- 
ing. They should be very finely ground, 
or they will obscure the photo- 
graph, and produce a smudgy, coarse 
effect. If they are 
selected without 
due consideration 
for their chemical 
nature, as the 
cheaper kinds 
often are, they ra- 
pidly fade ; if they 
do not bite well, 
one touch of the 
brush removes the 
pigment pre- 
viously deposited 
by it, and it is 
then impossible to 
get rich and 
forcible effects of 
colour. The 
cheaper kinds are 
often inferior in 
other respects, 
being made of the 
less expensive and 
more impure ma- 
terials. These co- 
lours are obtained 
at prices ranging 
from sixpence per 
bottle upwards — 
the most expensive 
being the pure 
scarlet, the car- 
inine,and cadmium 
— at the shops of 
dealers in photo- 
graphic or artists' 
materials. The 
colourist should 
obtain all the flesh tints, the pale, the florid, the fair, and .he 
dark, carmine, pure scarlet, the pinks, and crimson ; also a 
colour specially prepared for the cheeks and lips ; the tints of 
blue, including French ultramarine; yellows, including cad- 
mium; greys and browns, including madder brown ; greens and 
purples, including purple lake ; and a bottle of white. 




Good brushes are of primary importance. Some prefer those 
which are specially prepared for this work, although many 
prefer, as we do, ordinary water-colour brushes. They should 
be elastic, with the hair not too long, and when pointed, with 
the aid of a little moisture, their points should be fine, well- 
supported, without straggling hairs, and not apt to divide or 
fork under a fair degree of pressure when dry. Three of the 
smallest sized sable brushes, and three of the larger and 
cheaper camel-hair brushes will be sufficient. Two of the sable 
brushes should be round, and one flat. The cost of the smaller 
two, the round and the flat, will be about fourpence or five- 
pence each ; the price of the other, being larger, will be six- 
pence or sevenpence. The camel-hair brushes will cost you 
from a halfpenny to a penny each, and one more, to be used 
for removing dust or superfluous colour, will cost you from 
twopence to fourpence. The latter brush should be chosen 
with the hair much longer and spreading more than those of 
the smaller brushes. If in addition to these brashes the 
colourist should prefer others to save repeated cleansing and 
avoid soiling the purity of one colour by mixing it with another, 
he can buy a dozen or two of the camel-hair crowquill brushes 
at about eightpence per dozen. 

The brushes are prepared for use by first rinsing them 
thoroughly in a little clean cold water, bringing them to a 
point between the lips, and then putting them aside out of the 
dust to dry. The diagrams on page 17 will help the reader to 
understand the kind of brushes he will require. Figs. 1, 2, 
and 3 show the forms of the sable brushes, one of which (Fig. 
3) is flat, which we prefer, mounted in the tin, to the quill, and 
Fig. 4 is the camel-hair "duster." The other brushes will 
resemble the round sables, only the camel-hair will be softer, 
and their points less firm and elastic. 

In addition to the duster, the colourist will require an india- 
rubber bottle or ball, with a tube of bone or ivory attached to 
it, to blow off loo3e colour where it is not advisable to remove 
it with the dusting-brush. You must be particular not to pur- 
chase the vulcanised india-rubber balls, as the sulphur they 
acquire in vulcanising, and the fact that our picture is formed 
with a salt of silver, ronder them unfit for this purpose. 

In addition to the above, the colourist will also require a 
bottle of Chinese white, price one shilling ; the following water- 
colours, in half cakes, price sixpence each — yellow ochre, 
Naples yellow, the French (or warm) colour, and burnt sienna, 
and a bottle of varnish suitable for covering and for receiving 
the powder colours. This varnish must be perfectly colourless, 
must dry with a smooth and not too brilliant surfaoe to the 
eye, and yet be sufficiently rough to hold the impalpable powder 
colour securely in its interstices. If the varnish is too hard 
and smooth, the colours will not adhere properly; if it is too 
soft, the colours will adhere unequally and in patches. If you 
visit any respectable dealer in photographic materials, and ex- 
plain the purpose for which the varnish is required, he is 
tolerably sure to give you the right article ; its cost will be one 
shilling. A small piece of dark purple to place beneath the 
glass positive, and a piece of white velvet k> serve as a palette, 
will complete your set of implements and materials. 

Supposing the colourist to be also the photographer, he will 
of course provide his own picture. This may be either a posi- 
tive on glass, a positive on one of the thin even plates now so 
much used — selecting one of those more recently introduced 
which give a rich purple -brown colour to the picture — or a 
print on the ordinary albumenised paper used by photographers. 
We take it for granted that it is a portrait you are about to 
colour, as these only are suitable for colouring by the process now 
receiving attention. It should not be too dark — what is techni- 
cally called under-exposed — nor too white, or over-exposed ; the 

half tints and shadows should be of a rich warm black, and 
the white portions of the face, &c, should be as pure as pos- 
sible, and free from any tinge of horny yellow, brown, or grey. 
Positives in which the whites have a metallic gloss are not 
suitable for colouring. The picture should be entirely free from 
such defects, or black and white spots and stains. 

For the first colouring take the collodion positive unvarnished, 
and place it over the piece of dark purple velvet on your desk. 
See that your brushes are clean, free from dust, and pointed. 
Take a little of the pale yellow on the point of your smallest 
sable brush, and apply it to the high light on the forehead. 

The term " high light " is Used by an artist to indicate the 
more prominent parts of an object, those on which the light 
falls most direct. To make this simple but important matter 
perfectly clear, we give two diagrams Figs. 5 and 6. Fig. 
5 is a profile placed facing the light, which falls upon it in 
the direction indicated by the arrows, and a single glance will 
show you the part3 of the face on which rays of light coming 
down at that angle will fall most directly. They are marked 
in the diagram with the figures 1 to 9, and they are — the top 
of the forehead, the projection above the brow, the bridge and 
tip of the nose, the projection of the upper lip, the projecting 
lower lip, the cheek-bone, and the projection of the chin. Ac- 
cording to the prominence of these parts the high lights they 
will receive must indicate a stronger or a fainter degree of light, 
bo that if you make your high lights stronger than the form or 
degree of projection in the photograph indicates they should 
be, you alter that form, and to that extent weaken the likeness, 

Bearing the above hint carefully in mind, we return to our 
photograph. Suppose it to be from a face lighted in the way 
indicated by Fig. 6— which is the way in which photographers 
usually do light the faces of their models — the high light will 
fall on the forehead at 1. Having applied the pale yellow to 
this point with a light circular motion of the brush, you next 
take the flesh tint No. 1, and in the same way strengthen the 
high lights on the other parts of the face, namely, A and B, 
3, 5, and 4 ; after which, with the same tint, you work round 
the edge of the high light on the forehead, softening it into the 
yellow. This slightly yellow tint is given to indicate the 
presence of the bone. 

Take a little of the darker flesh tint in the second round 
sable, and work it with the light circular motion referred to 
before from the high lights up to the edges of the half tints. 

Half Tints. — As we suppose our reader to be a perfect novice 
in art, we shall here pause to explain another very simple 
matter, namely, what we mean by using the term " half tints." 
As surfaces retire from the light they of course fall gradually 
into shadow, just as parts advancing to the light grow gradu- 
ally lighter. The high light is nearest neighbour to the light, 
and the deepest shade is to shadow what this high light is to 
the lighted surface — it is farthest from, as that is nearest to, 
the light. (Of cast shadow as distinct from the shadow we 
refer to now we shall speak directly). The intermediate space 
between the lighted surface and the deepest shadow conse- 
quently falls by degrees into darkness, and it is these degrees 
of faint light •and growing shadow which we technically call 
half tints. In our diagram, Fig. 7, h l is the high light ; L 
and l, the light ; d, the deepest shadow ; and the intermediate 
spaces are the half tints, some belonging to the light, others 
to the shadow. 

If the eye is blue, touch that portion of the iris which is 
farthest from the light with that colour at a point opposite the 
spark of light in the pupil of the eye ; that is to say, at 3, as 
shown in Fig. 8. With the shadow colour touch the darkest 
parts of the ear, the nostrils, and the cast shadow under the 
nose, which is shown in Fig. 6 at s. 




By Wat Beadwood, 


(HEBE have been "whips "from days immemorial. 
' Godheads drove their coaches earlier even than men 
(£5^ paddled their own canoes. Apollo, god of the sun, drove 
daily his chariot " Eothen " from the east to the gardens 
of the Hesperide3 (the " place to spend a happy day"), at a 
time when Poseidon owned tho only other rival team. Among 
humanity Pelops ran a chariot race against (Enomaus for the 
hand of the fair Hippodameia (daughter of the latter), and won 
fortuitously, through the treachery of Myrtilus (the groom of 
(Enomaus), who drew the linch-pins of his master's coach, and 
eo upset him and broke his neck in the heat of the struggle — a 
dirty trick to play one's intended father-in-law. But be it as 
it may, Pelops prospered, married Hippodameia, and the gods 
came down to the banquet. 

What may have been the manners and customs of mankind 
with regard to horse-fiesh before the Deluge we know not ; 
but very soon after that dato chariots and pairs were com- 
mon commodities to ail tho grandees of the cities of tho 
plains, of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Harness seems to have 
taken precedence of the saddle for many generations ; and in 
many countries that could boast of war^chariots the art of 
riding seems to have been at a discount. War-chariots were 
used in Israel in tho days of Jehu, and earlier, yet Rabshakek 
taunts Hezekiah that he will give him a thousand horses, if ho 
bo able for his part "to set riders upon them." Not only 
lack of horsemanship, but the interests of personal safety had 
much to do with tho precedence of the chariot over the saddle. 
The former was the safer means for prosecuting warfare. Tho 
chieftain was less exposed in his car, and could make use of 
a shield and armour-bearer in addition. As classical ages 
progressed, chariot-racing became a standard institution of 
Greece. Not exactly our idea of a satisfactory test of Bpeed 
and endurance. The course was essentially a fluking one. A 
horrible statue, Taraxippus, or the horse frightener, stood in 
the first quarter of the course ; the horses wore no blinkers, so 
no wonder if they shied. At tho end of the ground was the 
" meta," or turning pillar, which was the scene of many a spill, 
and fatal accident to boot. That acoidents were more frequent 
than was necessary, even under such circumstances, may be 
assumed when we consider the style of driving of the period : 
instead of holding their horses well in hand, and feeling their 
mouths with body well upright. 

War-chariots disappeared from the ranks of the Roman armies, 
but were in vogue among ancient Britons. As civilisation pro- 
gressed in our own country, horsemanship made rapid strides, 
but locomotion on wheels was at a discount ; the state of the 
roads forbade it, and apart from the slowness of such a means 
of transit, the non-invention of springs made coaches no great 
luxury in swampy, boulder-strewn tracks. Ladies of distinc- 
tion were wont to make their journeys on horseback, unless tho 
distance was within the range of litter carriage. Coaches made 
their appearance only on state occasions, in the few better-paved 

When stage conveyances first began to make their appear- 
anco, they were piloted by postillions in the saddle, and not 
by a driver from a box seat. The journey from London to 
Edinburgh was advertised to be accomplished, "D. V.," in a 
fortnight. Such a conveyance as that of any magnate 
travelling with his family would not essay a journey without 
the attendance of a wheelwright to repair springs, axles, and 

wheels as fast as they gave way in the rut-grooved highways 
of the day. Ordinary merchandise was still carried on pack. 
horses ; and pack roads, straight from point to point, still 
exist in the rough, though modern engineering has taught 
roads to wind round hills to facilitate draught. 

But with MacAdam a new era was inaugurated ; roads were 
rendered firm and light of draught, and from that date convey- 
ance on wheels made rapid strides, and became in time within 
the reach of every man who was sufficiently well-to-do to keep 
his beast of burden. 

There is now no branch of an Englishman's outdoor educa- 
tion of greater importance, not only to himself, but also to 
others, than that of an ability to " handle the ribbons." 
There is not such a thing as a good Continental team or whip, 
and only one or two Anglicised foreigners can even drive decently. 
Not a bagman, petty tradesman, or man of business, but 
would be ashamed to say that he was incompetent, if in 
fair health and strength, to pilot his own " trap ; " and the 
majority of ladies of ordinary physique, who have had oppor- 
tunities of learning the art, would not like to confess themselves 
unequal to the task of driving a quiet pony. And yet, though 
so large a proportion of society, aristocratic and bourgeois 
alike, can boast a smattering of the science, there i3 no pursuit 
in which perfection is proportionately so rarely attained. 

Any one can make '-'cat" rhyme to "rat," but "poeta 
nascitur, non fit." It does not need deep culinary art to grill a 
chop or fry a rasher ; but a really good chef is a vara avis. 
So in driving: it does not require any deep skill to pilot a steady 
nag, "warranted quiet to ride and drive," along a highway $ 
the brute, if left to himself, would probably jog safely on his 
way, avoid all obstacles, turn securely all corners, and even 
take his right side of the road at a rencontre. But between 
such handling as this, or even the driving of an ordinary broken 
pair of horses, and the first-class professional handling of scratch 
teams, " to time," from stage to stage, there is as wide a mar- 
gin as in either of the previous analogies. 

The first requisite for a tyro is to learn to sit well, and so to 
acquire the proper scope for his own power over his horse. 
And yet this all-important item is too commonly the first to be 
overlooked, both by those who build and those who use car* 
riages. "Elegance" is the primary aim in such architecture, 
and to this not only lightness of draught is sacrificed, but also 
control over the horse. 

" Such a love of a phaeton ! " papa or Charles has given to 
his daughter or wife ; and as far as elegance goes, the long 
sweep from the high splash-board to the low lounging driver's 
seat looks pretty enough. Power for the fair driver is sacrificed 
wholesale by this arrangement. She herself would be the first 
to exclaim if she was asked to mount a second step before she 
reached her seat, perhaps soiling her dress against the wheel 
and risking the accusation of being "masculine." Yet if it is 
not unladylike to mount a box-seat alongside of a gentleman 
driving, why should it" be deemed unfeminine to have a lady's 
driving-seat similarly raised for the sake of mechanical advan- 
tage and safety to herself ? The seat should be above, or at 
least on a level with the horses' heads, not below them ; and 
it should moreover be so placed that the driver can use his legs 
and feet to restrain the pull of the horses if necessary, and that 
cannot he done if the reins pull down over the splash-board 
into the driver's lap. 




Ey Charles Black, Champion. 


7 ! ! 8 

Li far 


GREAT deal of ingenuity has been expended in connect- 
ing croquet with the games of bat and ball played in 
former days. Dr Prior has lately given the public an in- 
teresting work on the historical and etymological points connected 
with croquet; and he seems to imply by the title that he regards 
the different games mentioned as the ancestors of croquet. It is 
always delightful to find that an apparent stranger is only an old 
friend in new guise, and one is prompted by such a feeling to accept 
Dr. Prior's genealogy. It is, however, truer to say that croquet 
belongs to the same genus of games as those arrayed by him, 
but to a very different species. For instance, crook and ball 
is probably the modern 
hockey ; chicane is the 
new game of polo ; jeu 
de mail or pall-mall the 
common parent of both 
cricket and golf. 

Croquet has a common 
element with all these 
in its having a ball 
driven by a wooden im- 
plement wielded by both 
hands i but beyond this 
general feature, there is 
no indication of their di- 
rect parentage. Croquet 
is in very many respects 
a game per se, and any 
of the modern historians 
who delight in demon- 
strating the uncertainty 
of early records, will 
find a congenial study in 
discovering the date of 
the birth of croquet. It 
would be a very whole- 
some study too, for they 
would have to search 
not merely in the folds 
of mnsty MSS., but also A j| 

in the region of cloud. 

The facts known are these : — Croquet came to England from 
Ireland, where it had been known in many private circles 
for a long time ; there is also testimony that the peasants in 
the south of Europe have been seen playing it in a very primi- 
tive fashion. The game was introduced into England some 
twenty years ago ; but the tradesman to whom it was given 
thought he could make nothing out of it, and sold it to Mr. 
Jaques, to whose enterprise its earliest development in England 
is due. 

It may be a matter of astonishment to some that croquet is 
ranked among the popular games of the day. If it is so, the 
following papers, it is to be hoped, will show that it is no pre- 
sumption to give croquet this high position, but merely an act 
of justice. Croquet has long been known as an amusement ; it 
has only in the last few years come into notice as a methodised 
game, and has quickly established its reputation. In spite 
however, of its steady progress in the estimation of those who 
give their attention to it, croquet has been, and still is, treated 
good deal of contempt by people who profess tg 

These papers will 

■ I 


V % S i • 6 "£^*3^ »»«•• • » asea «■ tpoaf if30t*«n>«-" a i$m « • • • m •• • m 

10 k; L 


■ eeaespcDocas (£•« ■'''' -- a<s«»* = c 


with a good deal of 

admire only the manly element in games. 

endeavour to show that this prejudice is unreasonable ; first by 
pointing out that many of the most ardent admirers of the 
game are men of the same natural disposition as those who 
sneer, and secondly by consideration of the game itself. 

Among the spreading ranks of croquet players may be 
found a large contingent of military officers, cricketers who 
have won laurels at the public schools and even in the All- 
England eleven ; boating men fresh from the Isis and Cam ; a 
medallist from a famous gymnasium ; foot-ball players of no 
mean repute ; and fox-hunters. The fact that all these recog- 
nise croquet as a good game, and many of them find it an 

absorbing pastime, is a 
strong proof that it is 
not devoid of a manly 
element. And one of 
the great beauties of 
croquet is that it pos- 
sesses a second element, 
which may be called in- 
tellectual ; that is, there 
is a part of the game 
which demands the exer- 
cise of head in order 
to grasp a ready solu- 
tion of many problems 
which may often arise. 
Among those who pay 
tribute to this side of 
the game are a leading 
Oxford reformer, two of 
its professors and many 
of the tutors at both 
universities, and, last 
but not least, such an 
admirer of games aa 
" Cavendish." 

Hitherto croquet has 
been exclusively spoken 
of as claiming the atten- 
tion of men; it must 
not, however, be for got- 
ten that croquet has a great merit in affording a common 
ground for ladies and gentlemen to join in a real pastime. 
In these days, when ladies are claiming equal education and 
equal right of competition in the struggle for dear life, surely 
it may be a matter of discretion for men to utilise the hours 
of recreation by seeing how they get on at croquet, where 
ladies meet them on an equality. Ought not ladies also 
eagerly to support a game where they may be getting in the 
thin end of the wedge ? Is it too much for them to hope that 
croquet is inaugurating an era in which there are no longer to 
be separate games for men and women ? 

Seriously, though, croquet offers an admirable field for the 
energy of ladies, who, eager to avail themselves of some open- 
air recreation, feel a distaste for the mechanical practice ne- 
cessary for archery. Croquet tournaments possess all the social 
advantages and excitement of archery meetings, while the 
practice necessary to attain distinction in them is by no 
means monotonous. How a rising croquet player can utilise 
such solitary moments will be shown in future papers. 

There is a greater opening in croquet for lady-recruits than 

- -i ■ 


Fig. 1 



for gentlemen ; for though there are several dashing and 
brilliant lady-players, they would all stand a chance of being 
beaten by a new-comer who had learnt how to make con- 
tinuous breaks. If any lady would learn how to effect this 
coup de main, a patient study of the tactics, and more especially 
of the break, which will be given in our ensuing papers, is 

So much for the prospect offered in croquet to those who wish 
to be aotual players ; but there are points in the history of the 
game which entitle its supporters to claim attention to it from 
tho general public. They claim that as a game it has supplied 
an immense social want, and also exercised a powerful influence 
on the development of lawns as a feature of landscape-garden- 

gardens, can deny the great increase of plain lawns in the last 
few years. Where the eye was before dazzled with the glare 
of red geraniums, it is now refreshed by a delicious expanse 
of green sward. Where a small garden was dwarfed by 
being over-crowded with ill-assorted flower-beds and shabby 
shrubberies, justice is now done to its area by a neat lawn 
which is at once a source of pleasure to the eye and recreation 
to the body. 

Whence came these numerous lawns ? To what new demand 
was their appearance due ? Is it too much to say that the uni- 
versal reception accorded to croquet has had a good deal to do 
with this universal taste for lawns ? Did not the importunities of 
the rising generation prevail on Paterfamilias to seal the fate of 


ing. Garden parties are excellent fun, where the entertainer 
has unlimited funds at his or her command to supply special 
attractions for the visitors, but they are beyond the purse of 
most people. A game was undoubtedly wanted which would 
attract a large party for a definite purpose and keep them 
employed for a certain space of time. During the last decade 
croquet has filled the gap, and supplied an inexhaustible fund 
of amusement both for serious and witty friends. 

It has been said that there is "nothing like a good hater;" 
if bo, society owes a vast debt to croquet for affording so 
many opportunities to its members of indulging in that very 
amiable passion. Although the days are past when you were 
exiled by a blow which smashed you and the striker's foot 
at the same moment, there is no telling the dark thoughts 
which may rankle in the mind of the player who finds himself 
thirty yards from every ball, or stuck tight against a thick 
iron wire. 

No one who has any knowledge either of rustic or suburban 

the flower-beds, and give them room for a game which ensured 
certain amusement and prospective parties? Yet this wide 
popularity has not made croquet lawns vulgar ; and they stand 
in the same relation to well-appointed gardens as billiard-rooms 
to luxurious houses. 

If but a tithe of these advantages be conceded to croquet, 
the public ought to be grateful to the game, and give sub- 
stantial evidence of their gratitude by supporting the clubs 
which promote its development, ©r by forming clubs in their 
own neighbourhood. Surely this is the least to be expected 
from people who either acknowledge that croquet has done 
good in its time, or pay tribute to its excellences as a game. 
These excellences must be now fully dealt with, in order to sus- 
tain the claims which have been advanced. To recapitulate 
these, and add some others to them: — it is hoped that the 
game will be shown to have a manly element ; to be well 
worthy the attention of ladies and gentlemen alike ; to require 
some of the finer qualities of our nature, viz., patience, skilU 



( — :■ •=„ 

„A»_->.— .— -* 

r "--». 

J>- 1 

nerve, and judgment; to present some elegant combinations for 
solution ; to possess many social advantages ; and to have a 
kind of Esthetic influence on modern gardens. 

Croquet has emerged from private into public life at least 
five years, and has now a definite code of rules, a definite set 
of technical terms, and a definite class of instruments. 

What then are these instruments ? First, there are the 
hoops, which are only pieces of malleable iron varying from 
three to four feet in length, and bent in the form of an arc ; 
they are painted to preserve them from rust. The balls are 
round pieces of wood about three and a half inches in 
diameter, and painted to distinguish them from each other, 
and preserve them from cracking. The mallets are used to 
Btrike the balls, and are made of two pieces of wood, one of a 
hard wood, for the striking part, the other of a more elastic 
wood, for the handle. The striking part is called the head of 
the mallet, and is a 

round block of wood B 

flattened at the ends, 
the handle being let into 
the side of the block. 
The mallets are grasped 
by any part of the han- 
dle, and either end of 
the head is used for 

"Well, supposing that 
all these implements are 
in the house and a cro- 
quet lawn at hand, how 
is the game to be 
played r First, there 
must be an amicable 
wrangle as to who is to 
tarry out the " things," 
and then a race to de- 
cide who is to get there 
first, the inevitable re- 
sult being that the 
whole lot are indiscrimi- 
nately tumbled on the 
lawn, thereby denting 
the smooth turf and 
chipping the balls and 

Now comes the tug 
of war. How are these hoops to be placed ? The scene is inva- 
riably this : some youthful squire, eager to win his spurs, 
rushes forward, seizes the hoops, strides about the lawn like a 
railway surveyor, lies at full length peering through aventie3 of 
hoops, and after getting very hot, and keeping everybody wait- 
ing, returns to the company with an exultant "There!" The 
result is given in Fig. 1. 

[The dotted line indicates the course in which the balls are to 
be driven through the hoops. The numbers also show the 
order. Between 7 and 8 the peg b has to be hit. The game is 
ended when the balls of one side have hit a]. 

The triumph of the hoop arranger is short-lived. The first 
grumble comes from a veteran. " Hoops ! " cries he, " I've 
always called them bridges, as Captain Mayne Reid does." Of 
course this heresy is promptly suppressed by general indignation ; 
but in truth does not many a baffled player find a hoop to be a 
very " bridge of Bighs." 

The veteran, however, is not to be daunted. Baffled at the 
name of the hoops, he attacks their arrangement. " That may 

i i 
i i 

! ■* 


"---Jr I- 








be your idea," he says, "but it is too old-fashioned ; that's only 
the first setting of all, as they call it ; I know a later im- 
provement." He promptly sets to work, and pulls up hoops 
Nos. 4 and 11, and places them crosswise in the centre of the 
lawn. The result is seen in Fig. 2. 

[The two hoops removed from the sides are placed crosswise, 
as in diagram, and instead of going through the fourth hoop, 
the player has to go through the middle, of them, the opening 
being obviously narrower than the ordinary hoop. In returning 
from the turning peg, the player, instead of passing through the 
eleventh hoop, has to go through the middle of the crossed 
hoops the opposite way to that he went before. The crossed 
hoops are often called the "trap" or "call." The way of ap- 
proaching and leaving the trap is shown by the dotted lines.] 

After the veteran has expounded the way of going through 
his device of hoops, the owner of the lawn chimes in. " I do 

believe," he saj-s, "that 
there's a machine in the 
box to provide for that 
arrangement. Let lis 
see." On searching the 
croquet box, two hoops 
are found fastened to- 
gether, so as to admit 
of being easily driven 
into the ground, as the 
veteran wished. 

But here a difficulty 
arises. An iron hook 
is fastaued underneath 
the piece of iron which 
fastens the hoops. To 
what intent? "Bah!" 
saysthe veteran, "you're 
not going to hang that 
antiquated bell to the 
hook, and allow us when 
we come to the trap to 
go through it any way 
we like provided that 
we make the bell ring ? 
That idea is exploded 
long ago." 

The amorous youth 

vigorously defends the 

custom, and protests 

against being debarred from ringing the bell(e). He quotes 

an old writer in support of it, but even the veteran has now 

given up that authority, and the simple trap is adopted. 

The veteran, seeing that he has rather a raw crew to deal 
with, determines to smooth matters and avert useless disputes 
by a few didactic remarks. " You must know," he says, "that 
your object is to knock your ball with your mallet through the 
hoops in the order I have shown you. To enable you to do 
this, you are allowed to take strokes in turn, but unless you go 
through a hoop or hit a ball, you must not have a second stroke. 
However, should you do either, your strokes continue till a 
failure occurs. If you hit a ball, you must not place your foot 
on your own ball and strike it hard away, as you have seen 
ignorant people do, but you must use it as the rules direct. 
After passing through seven hoops, you must hit the turning- 
peg, and after passing through seven more you are qualified to 
hit the winning-peg, but you must not do so bef ore your partner 
is also there, and then you both hit it together, and win the 
game." So spake the veteran, and the game began. 







By Eliza Cheadle. 

mature s beauties fade — botany- 


'ITH feelings of pure delight we gaze on the tempting 
array of choice heaths, gay geraniums, and sweet-smell- 
ing roses, " laden with the breath of June." What 

prolonged happiness if we could always have these exquisite 

flowers around us ! And why should we not ? They can be- 
come our very own in return for a few silver coins. There- 
upon a bargain is soon struck, and we gloat over our treasures, 

as we proceed to adorn our rooms with these lovely productions 

of Nature. 

But our pleasure is 

short-lived. All too soon 

they begin to pine for 

the fresh pure air which 

town life denies them. 

In spite of our utmost 

care and attention, they 

droop, they wither, they 

quickly die, and we are 

left lamenting. No, it 

may not be. The rose, 

which shows its sweet 

face in almost every 

clime, which blooms alike 

in Sweden, in Africa, in 

Kamschatka, and in 

Mexico, shrinks from 

the smoky, dusty, gas- 
polluted atmosphere of 

a great English city, and 

gradually dwindles away. 

Even the daisy, that 

prime favourite with old 

and young in all ages, of 

which Chaucer declares 

that — 

"Of all the floures in the 

Thau love I most those 

floures of white and 

Suck that men call daisies 

in our toun — " 

even that hardy sturdy little flower cannot bo induced to give 
us the pleasure of its cheerful society. 

You steadily refuse, then, Dame Nature, to let us enjoy your 
beauties ? We cannot command you to do so, it is true, so we 
must e'en submit. But, thanks to more kindly Art, we can 
imitate your productions ; and that so perfectly as often to de- 
ceive the cleverest of your admirers. Nay, according to the 
ideas of some people, we surpass you, for we heard a woman say, 
as she peregrinated round a tent filled with choice specimens, 
" Well, I declare, them's almost as beautiful as artificials ! " 

Ah, ah, Dame Nature ! by the help of wax and cambric, fea- 
thers and paper, we can deck our rooms with flowers of every 
form and hue. In wet and cheerless November, in bare De- 
cember, in cold and frosty January, in bleak February, it mat- 
ters not, our rooms may be bright with flowers. And what 
a refining influence — unconscious it may be, but nevertheless 
real — is shed by the very presence of flowers. A room may be 
decorated in a costly and elaborate manner ; it may have lovely 


pictures on its walls, and elegant articles of vertu scattered about 
its tables ; but if flowers are absent, then its chief grace is want- 
ing. And on the other hand, a room shall be barely and inex- 
pensively furnished ; no gold or ormolu shall glitter there, but, 
decked with flowers, its whole aspect changes, as with the 
touch of some fairy wand, from dulness and gloom to cheery 

Dame Nature has many secrets both curious and wonderful 

in her storehouse of 
knowledge ; but if we 
have a little patience and 
a moderate amount of 
skill, led by the guiding 
hand of art, we shall suc- 
ceed in making ourselves 
mistresses of many seem- 
ing mysteries, and learn 
to imitate fairly well her 
masterly work. The 
mind that directs should 
be inquiring and obser- 
vant; the hand that obeys 
it must be careful, exact, 
and delicate; and then 
our success is certain. 

The first key to. be 
sought for is the one 
which unlocks and un- 
, folds to us the different 
parts of flowers. For 
this information we must 
take one of Nature's own 
productions, and care* 
fully dissect it, at the 
same time fixing in our 
minds the name assigned 
to each particular organ ; 
this will greatly help us 
to understand the in- 
structions given us by 
art hereafter. To begin 
(Fig. 1) with the stem, 
A, which we hold in our hand — this is termed the peduncle, 
a name which is given only to those stems which bear flowers. 
On coming to the flower itself we first find the calyx or flower- 
cup, B, that little outer cover of leaves which encloses and pro- 
tects the flower while it is in bud, and supports beneath tha 
crown of bright petals when it expands into bloom ; it is ai 
extension of the peduncle, as it were, in the form of leaves, 
termed sepals, r>, which differ usually but little either in colour 
or texture from the ordinary leaves of the plant. Having 
stripped off the calyx, we come to the corolla, that portion 
which is placed above and resting upon the calyx, which is of a 
finer texture than the latter, and often displays the most beau- 
tiful colours ; the corolla is made up of distinct parts, called 
petals, E, the "flower leaves," as they are commonly but wrongly 
called. In some flowers, as in the tulip for instance, these are 
separate; in others, as the convolvulus, they are joined to- 
gether. A flower is termed single or double, according to 
whether it has one or more rows of these petals. 



Having denuded our specimen of its corolla or petals, we now 
come to some thread-like substances, which generally bear little 
knobs on their points, G ; these are the stamens, and the knob- | 
like extremities we term the anthers. 

In the centre of all, from the base of the flower — the pericarp 
or seed-vessel, C, where the fruit and seed are formed — rises the i 
pistil, F, a slender tube standing in the midst of the surrounding ( 
stamens ; this again rests upon the receptacle, the solid base j 
by which all the other parts are held together ; and the last j 
thing to be mentioned is the seed itself. It is a curious fact j 
that directly this organ attains perfection all the other parts of ; 
the flower dies. 

Having mastered our botanical lesson, we must next decide > 
of what to make 
our flowers before 
we can begin this 
extremely beguil- 
ing and attractive 
recreation. Wax 
and paper are the 
materials most used 
by those who en- 
gage their leisure 
hours in pursuing 
this art. More 
skill is required to 
model flowers in the 
former than to 
make them in the 
latter. The fol- 
lowers of each 
branch have their 
own particular rea- 
sons for preferring 
the one to the other. 

Those who model 
in wax say that 
they can more 
faithfully show the 
exact characteris- 
tic of each indivi- 
dual flower, while 
when paper is used 
the flowers are all 
made after one 
model. This asser- 
tion is not denied 
by the champions 
of paper ; but, say they, " Look 
your flowers are finished they are 



the results ; when 
so frail, so delicate, so 
perishable, that they have to be placed under a glass shade, and 
then good-bye at once to all appearance of reality ; while we 
fearlessly place our buds and blossoms here and there, mix the 
counterfeit with the real, twine the wire stalks around the living 
stem of some flowerless plant, and have no reason to dread any 
disastrous consequences." 

Before we go into more definite details, we had better see 
what is necessary in the way of tools and materials. The tools 
will not bewilder, for they are both few and simple, and have 
the further recommendation of being very inexpensive. First 
of all there are the two ball tools, differing in size and slightly 
in shape. These are thick pins about four inches long, made of 
box-wood ; the one has a large and a small round ball on either 
end of its pin (Fig. 2), and the other has wooden acorns, as it 
were, of different sizes on each of its ends (Fig. 3). These tools are 
usee* for moulding the petals of the variously-shaped flowers ; 

the round balls for roses, azaleas, etc. ; the acorn-shaped too 
for the petals of bell-like flowers, such as the campanula. A 
steel pin, like a fine knitting-needle broken in two, with a small 
round head on its shoulders, is another requisite. The duty 
that this tool has to perform is with its point to make a way 
through corolla and calyx for the stamens and pedunclo, and 
with its head to mould the petals of minute flowers. 

Next on the list comes a pair of pincers (Fig. 4) with which to 
hold the different parts of the flowers during the process of 
mounting. The pin end of the pincers is used for curling petals, 
for crimping their edges, and for making the lines down the 
centre of petals of China asters, etc. Lastly a pair of finely- 
pointed scissors, and we shall have got all our tools together. 

As to the mate- 
rialstobe provided, 
that depends 
greatly upon what 
the flower-maker 
undertakes to do. 
Every part of the 
flower can be 
bought ready for 
mounting — calyx, 
petals, stamens, 
leaves, etc., all are 
sold prepared. This 
simple method will 
not satisfy an am- 
bitious mind, which 
will naturally de- 
sire more scope for 
talent and taste 
than is afforded by 
merely putting to- 
gether the ready- 
made portions. 
Then, if the flowers 
are to be our own 
handiwork entirely, 
the following mate- 
rials will be found 
to be necessary : — 
French paper, of 
various colours and 
shades, aocording 
to the nature and 
hue of the flowers 
we propose to 
copy; tissue paper, both green and brown, for the covering 
of the peduncles ; wire of three different sizes, the thickest 
similar to that used for bell-hanging, for the stems of the larger 
flowers, the next size for smaller flowers and buds, and the finest, 
the thickness of pack thread, for the fastening on of stamens 
and smaller peduncles ; some cotton-wool for the thickening of 
peduncles; bristles for the making of stamens; powder paints of 
different colours for the tinging of the petals in shaded flowers ; a 
bottle of liquid cement (it is not advisable to use gum as it stains 
the paper) ; these, together with a camel-hair brush, will complete 
our requirements, and we may at once begin our delicate task. 
We will choose for our subject the cheerful Primula. It will 
be well to bear in mind that many of the following remarks and 
instructions will be of sorvice in a general way in the construc- 
tion of other flowers. 

Take two natural flowers for guides, keep one before you as a 
pattern, and pull the other very carefully to pieces, lay its 
several parts flat on thin cardboard, trace the outlines correctly, 



and then cut them out in paper -with scissors. Make the stamen 
by covering a piece of the finest -wire with paper, and dipping 
one end in melted white wax sufficient to form an anther like a 
little globule, then fasten it with wire on to the peduncle, 
which must now be covered in the manner before described, 
after this prepare the corolla by placing the cardboard pattern 
on paper the colour you wish your primula to be ; if your model 
is only tipped with colour, then use white paper, and afterwards 
tinge the edges of the petals with powder paint. Having traced 
the outline, cut it out (Fig. 5), make a hole in the centre for the 
passing through of the stamen, then gimp the edges with the 
scissors, and crimp them slightly by pressing them gently with 

the pin end of the pincers. The next process is that of 
moulding :— Place the corolla in the ball of your hand, and 
with a ball tool of suitable size mould each petal, the effect 
of which is that they lose all stiffness of appearance, and 
look to be of a softer and more natural texture! In the 
natural flower the corolla would extend a little way down 
the stem, but as this cannot be managed in paper, its support 
has to be made a separate part i cut a piece of paper half an 
inch square and gimp one edge, roll it round the pin end of the 
pincers, to form it into a tube, gum it to keep it firm, turn baok 
the little points, put on cement, and place the corolla on them. 
The calyx now remains to be spoken of (Fig. 6). 

the gold-fish trick (page 26). 


By a Professional 

S, strange to say, no dictionary that we know of, either 
ancient or modern, has ever defined the word "conjuror," 
or "conjuring," apart from the idea of magio or dealing 
with evil spirits, we will at once disclaim the use of the word 
in any but its toy-shop sense, if we may be allowed the expres- 
sion, and will give our own definition of the word " conjuring " 

as follows — the art of amusing people by apparently performing 
impossibilities by means of hidden mechanical contrivances, or 
by sleight of hand. That a man like Dr. Johnson, who wa* a 
firm believer in the Cock Lane ghost, should have declared a 
conjuror to be one who either dealt or pretended to deal in 
charms or enchantments, is not to be wondered at ; but it 19 



somewhat strange that Webster, Walker, and others, should 
have fallen into the same error, or rather have made the over- 
sight of omitting the common meaning of the word as under- 
stood by 999 people out of 1,000. 

We will illustrate our definition by describing and explaining 
one of the most effective feats ever performed, and one perhaps 
that on its first introduction into this country caused more 
astonishment than any ever before produced. 

The trick we refer to is that performed so admirably some 
years ago by Frikell, and might be entitled, " How to bring 
bowls of water, in which gold fish are swimming, out of an 
empty cloth." 

The performer advances on the stage, and stands quite apart 
from any surrounding objects ; there is nothing in his dress in any 
way unusual, and in hishandhe holds an ordinary cloth, say about 
four feet square, which he throws to the audience to examine. 
While the cloth is being examined he walks to and fro, occa- 
sionally turning his back to the audience. 
On the cloth being returned to him he 
throws it up in the air, and lets it fall on 
the ground, stamps on it, takes it up, 
and shakes it to show that it is empty. 
He now throws the cloth over his left 
arm and hand, and after a few seconds 
produces from 
under it a glass 
bowl full of 
water in which 
gold fish are seen 
swimming ; he 
pours a little 
water on the 
floor, and hands 
the bowl to any 
one to examine. 
From the shape 
of the bowl it 
can at once be 
seen that it 
Would be impos- 
sible to carry it 
concealed about 

one's dress without spilling some of the water, and at the same 
time causing such a projection that it would be at once detected. 

The cloth is again thrown into the air, examined, and 
shaken) and the trick repeated until four large bowls have been 
produced, the performer, as we have said, standing so that it is 
impossible for these bowls to be obtained from the floor or from 
any article of furniture near. 

It may now be asked, what hidden mechanical contrivance 
or what sleight of hand can render this performance possible. 

Fig. 2 represents an india-rubber cover, the diameter a b 
being the same diameter or nearly so as the top of the bowl ; the 
whole cover turns over at the edge flat about two or three 
inches, so that the opening c d is considerably smaller than the 
diameter a b. After the bowl (Fig. 1) has been about three parts 
filled with water, and two or three fish placed in it, the cover 
(Fig. 2) is stretched over the bowl (Fig. 3) : the part of the cover 
ft b (Fig. 2) is, of course, in contact with the rim of the bowl a' V 
(Fig. 3), and the part c d (Fig. 2) is in contact with the outside 
lower part of the bowl c' d' (Fig. 3). 

The bowl as now covered can be turned upside down and 
carried sideways without any fear whatever of the water being 
spilt. The next point is how to conceal it about one's person. 

Fig. 4 represents a small blaok bag capable of holding two 
bowls side by side (i.e., the glass bottom of one in contact with 

Fig. 4. 

Tie. 2. 

the india-rubber cover of the other), which is tied round the 
waist, the tail of a dress-coat being amply sufficient to hide it. 
The sleight of hand required in performing this trick is to 
manage the cloth so that it hides the movement of the right 
arm in bringing the bowl out of the pocket into position. 
When the bowl is brought under the cloth, rest the bowl on 
the right hand, and bring away the left from under the cloth. 
In taking off the cloth incline the bowl- very slightly towards 
one end, peel off the india-rubber cover by means of the loft- 
hand finger and thumb outside the cloth. The cover remains 
in the cloth, and must be conveyed away into any pocket during 
the examination of the bowl. The direction of the eyes, so im- 
portant in conjuring, and on which we shall have a good deal to 
say another time, must be with the bowl, as should the eyes rest 
on the cloth after the bowl has been taken out, people will at once 
suspect that there is something there, and possibly put awkward 
questions or ask to examine the cloth too soon. There is, how- 
ever, no harm in purposely pulling the 
cloth about in a nervous manner after the 
cover has been removed into the poclcet, in 
order to excite suspicion, as some sharp 
person is sure to want to see it, and by 
instantly throwing it to them the trick is 
made to appear more simple and more 
wonderful. To 
bring out four 
bowls, either the 
conjuror, on pre- 
tence of fetching 
a cloth, leaves 
the room or stage 
for an instant 
after bringing 
out two, when a 
friend quickly 
pats two fresh 
ones in the bag, 
or two more 
bowls can be 
concealed one 
on each side of 
him inside his 
Two bowls are, 
to perform 


waistcoat in a pocket made in it on purpose 
however, amply sufficient to enable amateurs 
really wonderful trick. 

There is some art required in putting on the india-rubber 
covers : at first they will be found occasionally to slip. We 
cannot conceive a more horrible catastrophe to a sensitive 
young gentleman of seventeen or eighteen than for him to 
feel one of the covers give way in the middle of the performance 
before a mixed audience, as of course the water would instantly 

If proper care be taken, there need be no fear of any such 
accident taking place. If the covers slip, it is owing to there 
being too much air under them, and in putting them on suf- 
ficient air must be expelled to render the surface of the india- 
rubber concave and not flat : if this precaution be taken, there 
need not be the slightest apprehension of any disaster happen- 
ing. It is perhaps needless to add that for the fishes' sake the 
bowls should not be covered till just before they are wanted. 

It must be borne in mind that there is a great distinction 
between a confederate and an assistant. It will perhaps be 
best to explain what we mean by " a confederate ;" we mean 
one who pretends to be one of the audience, when in reality 
he is a friend of the conjuror, and helping him all the time. 
Suppose, for instance, a conjuror borrowed a coloured silk hand« 


kerchief of a confederate, there would be nothing wonderful in 
the same handkerchief appearing anywhere afterwards. 

We believe that as a rule good conjurors never have con- 
federates, but all mu3t necessarily have assistants. Trap-doors 
will not open themselves ; many things may require preparation 
behind the scenes which it would be impossible for the conjuror 
himself to do. When, therefore, the same man can be employed 
night after night, such as a man to clear away apparatus, etc., 
he may or may not assist in the performance, but he cannot 
fairly be called a confederate, but simply an assistant. 

The most "apparently impossible" feat that we ever heard 
of was performed many years back in Paris, we believe by M. 
Houdin, but are not absolutely certain. We will describe the 
trick, and explain how it was done. 

The conjuror advanced down the centre of the theatre, having 
in his hand a lemon, which he gave people to smell. He ad- 
vanced to a box, the occupants of which on the night in ques- 
tion were of such high rank, and so well known to all present, 
as to preclude the possibility of their being confederates, and 
asked a gentleman in it to hold the lemon so that it could be 
seen by all present, at the same time placing a small knife on 
the edge of the box. 

After the professor had done this, he said politely to one of 
the ladies in the box, "Madame, would you oblige me by lending 
me your handkerchief P" 

The request was of course complied with : the conjuror re- 
treated, placed the handkerchief in the flame of a candle till 
it was reduced to ashes, then placing the ashes in a small pistol, 
he fired, and said, " Pass." 

Turning to the gentleman, who was still holding the lemon as 
he had been before even the handkerchief was borrowed, he 
said, "Will you have the kindness carefully to cut off the end 
of the lemon you hold P" 

He did so, and, to the astonishment of the crowded audience, 
inside was the very selfsame handkerchief which he had just 
borrowed of the lady. 

Of course, every one will say that such a feat must be 
absolutely impossible, but they must bear in mind that conjur- 
ing tricks are intended simply to astonish and amuse, and that 
almost any means to attain these ends are lawful. 

The following anecdote explains the trick. The same 
conjuror one day, during his walk on the Boulevards, observed a 
man pick a pocket with such consummate address that none but 
a conjuror's eye would have detected him. Laying his hand on 
the man's shoulder, he said, " My friend, come along with me ; 
Should you refuse, I give you in charge." The man, of course, 
having no choice, complied. He was asked if he would like to 
earn an honest living, " or at least," said the conjuror, " pick 
pockets only when I tell you, and when I am responsible for the 
result." The offer was accepted, and the late thief became 
box-keeper at the theatre where the tricks were performed, and 
among other duties, had, in handing a lady a programme, occa- 
sionally to pick her pocket of her handkerchief, and to sub- 
stitute for it a similar one out of the almost infinite variety 

the conjuror had by him. Like Columbu3 breaking the egg, 
when once known the trick is nothing ; but, then, who 
would have thought of it ? At any rate, this trick for some 
months appalled all Paris. 

Some months ago an account appeared in the Times of a man 
getting into a corded box by himself, and being found there, the 
box being still corded outside, the writer saying, " I do not know 
how the feat was done, but it beats spiritualism into fits." A Mr. 
j Clarke observed, "Now it appears to mo that this confession 
| of being unable to fathom the mystery of that surprising and 
baffling trick is a weakness on the part of the professed exposer 
! of spiritualism ; for a man without sufficient invention to account 
' for any feat of legerdemain is not qualified to detect supposed 
secrets of the ' mediums.' " " Without entering into details 
which would require a diagram, I would suggest to anybody's 
commoii sense what is the explanation of the wonderful box 
t trick. A little reflection will show that if the conjuror had 
I first to loosen the portion of the cord, next to open the canvas 
i cover, and then to open the box, in order to get inside, he must 
of necessity have re-fastened those parts in reverse order of 
succession when shutting himself up. Thus, when once inside 
the box he first tied the cord, next secured the strings of the 
canvas wrapper, and then closed the box. Of course the box 
lid was" shut, or neither the cord nor the wrapper could have 
tightly fitted in their proper form ; but a portion of the box 
made to open inwards was that finally shut. Any one who 
knows how conjuror's boxes are constructed to deceive inspection 
by means of veneer 3 which look like real dovetail joints, by 
screw-heads without screws, and nail-heads without nails be- 
longing to them, will perceive how an end or side, or part of an 
end or side, could be movable." 

In our ensuing series we will give a list of conjuring tricks 
that, with a little ingenuity, can be made at home ; also de- 
scribe how to make a proper conjuring table, as well as explain 
some of the more wonderful tricks which have during the last 
century been performed in public theatres. 

We will conclude this introductory paper, for the benefit of 
our younger readers, by describing a trick, easily made, easily 
performed, and yet very effective. Purchase two small toy 
wedding-rings, which can be obtained at any toy-shop for a 
penny each. Get a piece of black elastic, such as is used by 
ladies for bead bracelets ; fasten one end of it inside the coat- 
sleeve, high up under the arm, and attach one of the rings to 
the other end, so that when the ring is held between the finger 
and thumb the elastic is fully stretched. On leaving go of the 
ring it will, of course, instantly fly up the sleeve. When pre- 
tending to drop the ring into a jug or vase, it is very easy to 
cause the ring, on its way up the sleeve, to strike the edge, 
making a sound exactly similar to that which it would make if 
it had fallen inside. By previously placing the other ring 
anywhere, you can apparently cause the ring to pass from the 
vase. It is an improvement to have one in each sleeve. Care 
must, of course, be taken to hide with the hand the piece of 


By J. C. Leake. 


~E are about to invite your attention to a very plain 
and practical series of articles on the beautiful art 
of Photography ; but before entering on the details 
of the subject, we think it as well to offer a few general sugges- 
tions, which will perhaps help you to a better understanding of 

that which is to follow. In order to become a successful photo- 
grapher, three things are absolutely essential— namely, cleanli- 
ness, order, and perseverance. If not cleanly, nothing more than 
dirty plates will result from your operations ; if not orderly, 
your chemicals will become mixed one with the other without 




hope of remedy, causing much expense and many vexatious 
failures ; if not persevering, you cannot hope to succeed in 
making pictures by photography, any more than you could by 
means of the pencil. In both cases you must try, and dili- 
gently seek and find the cause of your failure. Having done 
this in a few cases, your task will become easy: and you will 
rapidly become a successful photographer. 

At the outset, however, we must warn you that at first you 
must allow us to think for you. We shall lay down a simple 
and definite course of proceeding, which we shall ask you to 
take without question or hesitation, for the present at any rate. 
Presently, when you have succeeded in making good photographs 
by the means which we shall here describe, we shall let go 
our leading-strings, and leave you to traverse the vast field of 
photographic experiment at your own sweet will. At present, 
however, this would not be safe : the road is to you unknown, 
and you must trust to our guidance until you have travelled 
over, and at least obtained some knowledge of it. After this, 
branch off where you will, and you will at least be sure of 
readily finding your way back to the old paths in safety. 

But by this time you will be beginning to inquire, ' ' How, then, 
are we to make photographic pictures ? Tell us, that we may at 
once begin." Well, then, there are well-nigh as many ways of 
producing photographs as there are roads to Charing Cross. 
In the early days of the art, pictures were mostly taken upon 
silvered plates, by a process called, after its inventor (Daguerre), 
the Daguerreotype. Those were the days in which photography 
was not at all recreative ; for the plates required much polish- 
ing, which on a hot day was very hard work indeed, while the 
results were, as a rule, not at all of a satisfactory character. 

We all remember the polished, looking-glass kind of things 
produced by this process, which required placing in a particular 
light before the faint impression could be seen at all. Wonderful, 
indeed, did these pictures seem at tho time, and a vast improve- 
ment upon those distorted misrepresentations of tho "human 
face divine" perpetrated by the artists of the Miss La Creevy 
Bohool. But better things were in store. Certain chemical facts 
having been determined, many wise heads were at work trying 
to discover a better method of producing pictures, and many 
busy hands engaged in experimenting. And right well were 
they rewarded when Mr. Scott Archer discovered what is 
known as the collodion process, which still is, and seems likely 
to remain, the best and most practically useful of all. At once 
easy to learn and to work, certain in its action, and exceedingly 
beautiful in its results, this process is of all the most useful, both 
to the professional and amateur artist, and it is to this in its 
various forms to which we shall at first direct your attention. 

We shall suppose, with your permission, that you are desirous 
of taking portraits of some of your friends, and shall now pro- 
ceed to show you how to do it. 

In the first place, you must understand that photography 
is chiefly a chemical process, and that the various reactions 
necessary to produce a picture are of exceeding delicacy ; 
hence the necessity of the greatest care in all the manipulations. 
In order to prepare a plate which shall be sensitive to the 
action of light, and capable of receiving an impression in the 
camera, a properly arranged room will be necessary. This is 
what is technically termed the " dark-room." Those who have 
given sittings to a photographer will remember that when the 
pose has been settled upon, the operator goes into a mysterious- 
looking chamber, from which he returns bringing a thin box, 
mostly wrapped in a cloth. After the ordeal of sitting still and 
looking at a spot upon a screen has been gone through, the 
artist returns to this room ; and as he enters you perceive that 
this chamber is lighted by one window only, and that a email 
one of orange glass. This is his dark-room or laboratory, and 

it is in this that the plate has been prepared. Our first work 
will therefore be the preparation of a similar dark chamber, in 
which we may work. It is advisable to select a room for this 
purpose which is not required for general use, both on account 
of the injury caused to the plates by dust, and the trouble and 
inconvenience of removing all the apparatus upon the termina- 
tion of the day's experiments. A small room will answer; and 
should it have more than one window, all but one must be com. 
pletely blocked up. 

A ready mode of effecting this last necessity is to make a 
light frame of wood just large enough to fit over the entire 
window. To this frame may be tacked a sheet of the stout 
brown paper known as carpet paper, which will exclude tho 
light and form a handy and portable shutter, which may be 
secured in its place by buttons, or, if more convenient, a couple 
of strings. When these shutters are set up they should be 
carefully examined to ascertain if any light finds its way into 
the room, and if, as is frequently the case, there are any small 
holes in the paper, these must be covered by pasting paper over 
them. This part of the work must be most carefully done, as 
the smallest gleam of white light falling upon the plate will 
inevitably spoil it. 

When the whole of the light has thus been excluded, an 
aperture should be made near the bottom of one of the screens 
by cutting with a penknife three sides of a square about a foot 
across, making one cut along the bottom and one at each side 
so as to form a kind of flap of brown paper. This may now 
be folded back, and across and over the opening thus formed, 
should be secured, by pasting at the edges, at least four thick- 
nesses of yellow paper. When the screen is replaced at tho 
window it will be found that sufficient yellow light is admitted 
to allow of comfortable working, and this yellow light, curiously 
enough, does not affoct the plate. 

Immediately beneath this window we must place a strong 
table upon which to operate, and if a couple of shelves aro 
within convenient reaching distance it will be a great improve- 
ment. It is better, though, to have such an arrangement as is 
shown in Fig. 1, with barrel of water, b, on the shelf e, and 
pipe, h, passing through the aperture C to supply the tray or 
sink D. 

As we havo determined upon taking portraits, we must next 
provide a suitable background. We have no well-appointed 
studio, so we must be content with the open air ; but as it will 
not do to have our background left out of doors, as it would 
soon become spoiled, we must make it of such a size as to be 
easily removed in-doors when done with. A rather strong 
frame of wood should be made about five feet wide and seven 
feet high, which should be covered with stout calico very 
tightly stretched and tacked to the edges of the frame. This 
calico should be well painted over with either double size or 
strong flour paste, and allowed to dry. A sheet of brown carpet 
paper of the requisite size having been provided, it should be 
laid the best side upward upon a clean flat surface and well 
wetted. When just surface-dry it should be turned over and 
well pasted for about Bix inches all round the edges, taking care 
not to paste the centre portion at all. The sheet must then be 
carefully lifted on to the calico screen, and having been turned 
over, the edge3 must be well rubbed down to ensure adhesion. 
When dry this sheet of paper will be found to be perfectly flat, 
and will form an excellent and cheap background, but of course 
it must not be left out in the wet. 

Our next care must be to find a suitable place in which to 
take our pictures. We may if we please work in-doors if we have 
a room with a large window, such, for instance, as the large bays, 
now so common ; but, as a rule, we shall find it better to operate 
out of doors, if for no other reaBon than a desire to be merciful 



to our first models by saving them the torture of a prolonged 
sitting. A north light is the best, since it is the least variable, 
and as our house faces south we have a good and steady light 
at the back. As we find, moreover, that there is an out-build- 
ing about twenty feet long extending from the back of the main 
building, we at once avail ourselves of the excellent shelter 
thus formed, and determine that our background shall be placed 
against the back of the house, the 
sitter facing north ; while we at 
the same time observe that by 
turning the head slightly towards 
the wall of the out-building we 
obtain an excellent arrangement 
of light and shade, one side of the 
face being rather darker than the 
other, producing a fine round effect 
with good detail. 

As, however, the strong light 
from the sky falls directly upon 
the top of the head, and gives, by 
contrast, a shade of rather too 
marked a character under the eyes, 
nose, and chin, we suspend a sheet 
by means of strings over the back- 
ground, which at once remedies 
these defects and gives us the 
effect we wish for— namely, a bold 
system of light and shade without 
any violent and harsh contrasts. 
Having thus satisfactorily arranged 
these preliminaries, we may at once 
go out shopping and procure the 
necessary apparatus and chemicals. 

Anybody can spend money, but 
few know how to spend it well. 
Bearing this in mind, we have 
carefully considered the size and 
class of apparatus which we think 
will be most useful to us. A very 
inviting stock indeed is that of the 
photographic dealer in whose shop 
we stand. Bril- t 

liantly polished ca- <ssmSi 

meras, and still more 
brightly burnished 
brass settings for 
the lenses, are set 
temptingly before 
us; but though "on 
pleasure bent, we 
have a frugal mind, ' ' 
and select a small 
unpolished camera of 




Fig. 3. 

what is technically known as quarter-plate size, made square, 
so as to allow of the plate being used either upright or flat, as 
we shall hereafter want to take some landscapes (Fig. 2). 

The cost of this is about eighteen shillings. It will be 
observed that the body of this camera consists of two parts, 
marked A and b, the one sliding inta the other to allow of a 
proper adjustment of focus. Into the back part of this camera 
is fitted a frame containing a square of finely ground glass, upon 
which the image is to be projected by the lens. It will also be 
observed that a second slide, marked c in the figure, is pro- 
vided, and that in this there is in the front a sliding shutter, 
and at the back a hinged door. These arrangements are made 
in order that the prepared plate may be carried in perfect dark-: 

ness from the dark-room to the camera. In the front of the 
camera, and quite in the centre, the lens is to be placed, a3 
shown in the diagram. 

We find that this camera is suitable for pictures of four and 
a quarter inches by three and a quarter, a size easily and cheaply 
worked, and suitable, moreover, for subsequent enlargement, if 
we wish it. The "next article" required is a lens (Fig. 3), 

and here we hesitate a moment. 
If we want a good lens we must 
pay a good price. But we know 
that it is utterly impossible to 
succeed with a bad one, so we 
invest in one of a superior cha- 
racter, the quality of which is 
guaranteed by the vendor, and 
which costs us from thirty shil- 
lings to two pounds, inwardly re- 
solving to make up for the extra 
cost of this by making for our- 
selves certain minor pieces of ap- 
paratus. Only four things more 
in the way of apparatus do we pur- 
chase — namely, a dipping-bath or 
trough of porcelain (Figs. 4 and 5), 
which is to contain the nitrate of 
silver solution used for sensitising 
the plates ; a pair of scales and 
weights ; and a small glass funnel 
and graduated measure, costing 
altogether about Sight shillings. 

Our attention is next directed 
to the chemicals required. These, 
as we intend to commence opera- 
tions on a very small scale, will 
not cost us a large amount. The 
first and most important item is 
nitrate of silver, of which we re« 
quire two ounces. This we ask 
our dealer to put into a clean 
stoppered bottle, and also to pro- 
vide us with a quart bottle of dis- 
tilled water. We 
shall also require an 
ounce of protosul. 
phate of iron, the 
same quantity of 
nitrate of potash, twa 
ounces each of gla- 
cial acetic acid and 
alcohol, one ounce of 
pure nitrio acid, and 
one ounce of cyanide 
of potassium. Of 
course, we are not likely to taste these on our way home, but our 
chemist warns us that this cyanide of potassium is a poison 
of the most deadly kind, and, moreover, will not sell it to us 
except in presence of a witness, and without the signing of his 
poisons' book. With one more purchase our chemical department 
will be complete. We now only want some collodion, which we 
ask for as ''positive " collodion. The meaning of this term we 
shall understand presently. As our pictures are to be taken 
upon glass, we of course require some plates, which we inquire 
for as " quarter-plate flatted crown." Thus stocked, we may 
return to our dark-room to prepare our chemicals and apparatus. 
On examining the invoice we find that the cost of our chemi- 
cals jg $9 follows ;— Nitrate of silver, eight shillings; iron, 



threepence ; distilled water and bottle, sixpence; acetic acid, 
alcohol, and cyanide of potassium, sixpence each: nitric acid 
and nitrate of potash, twopence each ; and collodion, one shil- 
ling, besides the cost of the bottles. The glass plates cost ns j 
one shilling per dozen. 

Haying unpacked our treasures, we find that the chemist has 
placed our chemicals in very neat bottles, duly labelled, and 
we carefully arrange them upon the shelf over or near to our 
operating table. Our next care is to provide ourselves with 
some six or eight stoppered bottles of various sizes and per- j 
fectly clean, in which we may mix our solutions ; as well as 
with a clean coarse towel, a piece of soap, a good supply of 
water, and a large basin or dish. Our first proceeding will be [ 
to prepare the nitrate of silver bath. In order to do this, we ; 
set up the porcelain trough (with which, we find, has been sup- | 
plied a dipper, A, Fig. 4, for holding the plates) upon the table, 
and by means of the glass measure ascertain how much flnid 
is required to fill it within half an inch of the top. This may, 
of course, be done by measuring common water into the vessel, i 

We now measure into a perfectly clean bottle as much dis- : 
tilled water as will fill the trough, and most carefully weigh , 
out sufficient nitrate of silver to add to it, in the proportion of i 
thirty-five grains to each ounce of water. When the crystals 
are dissolved, wash out and dry the glass funnel, and fold, so as ' 
to fit into it, a sheet of white blotting paper into the shape of 
a cone. Place the funnel in a second clean bottle, and pour 
the silver solution gently into it. The solution will gradually j 
filter through the paper, and be perfectly cleansed from ail i 
floating particles of dust. Label this bottle nitrate of silver 
lath, and set it carefully aside, closely stopped. 

We now proceed to mix a solution of protosulphate of iron, 
which we do by measuring into a clean bottle ten ounces of i 
clean common water, to which we add one hundred grains of 
tho iron salt aud fifty grains of nitrate of potash. As soon as j 
these have been dissolved, we add to the solution half an ounce I 

j of glacial acetic acid and the same quantity of alcohol, after- 
I wards dropping in five drops of nitric acid. This bottle we 
label developing solution. 

Our third and last solution is one of cyanide of potassium, 
which we mix with common water in the proportion of ten 
grains to each ounce of fluid, and label, in large letters, fixing 
solution, and in still larger ones, POISON, in order to pre- 
vent accidents. 

In all our weighing we have, of course, been careful not to 

place the chemicals upon the scale-pans, but have cut clean 

white paper to the requisite size, and placed one small piece in 

each pan, using separate papers for each weighing, so as not 

1 to mix our chemicals. 

But now it is quite time that we should definitely understand 
what sort of pictures we intend to produce. We have used the 
term "positive " as applied to the collodion, and as a positive 
implies a "negative,"' we must explain. The pictures called 
positive are those which are taken direct by one operation in 
the camera, while those called negative, although taken in a 
similar manner, are not used as finished pictures, but only as a 
means of producing pictures by a subsequent process, termed 
printing. The matter will be easily understood if we take a 
piece of white paper, cut it into a circle, and paste it on to a 
glass plate ; if we place this upon a piece of black velvet, we 
shall see the white circle upon a black ground : that is a posi- 
tive. But if we hold the glass up and look toward a light, we 
observe that the circle is dark while tho margin is light : that 
is a negative. 

Our glass plates must be carefully cleaned, and so we pre- 
pare them by rubbing them on both sides with a little whitening 
mixed with clean water, afterwards cleaning them with a piece 
of soft linen and a chamois leather, and setting them up against 
the wall after carefully wiping the edges. A soft, broad brush 
will be required for dusting them before use. Our camera and lens 
is next dusted out and cleaned, and we are now ready for work, 


By J. C. AYilcocks. 

HE most useful size for a small 
boat in which a beginner can 
learn the practice of sailing is 
about fourteen feet long, and 
five feet wide, for in one of this 
size, if anything gets out of 
order in the shape of running 
rigging, the boat can be imme- 
diately held under command 
with the oars. It is not wise to 
build and rig any very small 
boat exclusively for sailing, for 
they are then so hampered 
with fittings that there i3 very 
little room to move about on 
board them, and when it becomes necessary to use the oars, 
they are not as efficient as in a boat entirely open, owing to 
the additional weight of decks and extra rigging. We have 
a variety of rigs in use in pleasure-boats at the present day, 
namely, tho lug, sprit, cutter, schooner, yawl or dandy, Bermuda, 
shoulder of mutton, lateen, sliding-gunter, settee lateen, etc.; 
these and modifications of them have been fitted to boats of all 
eizes, but the majority are not calculated for email boats, in 


which the greatest simplicity of arrangement, provided it 
ensures efficiency, should ever be kept in view. Of these rigs, 
the two first named, the lug and the sprit, are the most general, 
because on the whole they are the most useful for small boats ; 
and as regards the others, we can defer the consideration of 
them for the present. 

There are three varieties of the lug-sail — the dipping lug, the 
working lug, and the Chinese lug. The first is so named because 
it requires to be either partially or entirely lowered when the 
course of the boat is changed ; the second because it works from 
side to side, not requiring to be lowered on a change of course ; 
and the third because it has been partly copied from the sails of 
the junks in China. The dipping lug is a sail to be avoided by 
amateurs, for its use is fraught with danger, owing to the follow- 
ing peculiarity. A- considerable portion of the canvas is in 
front of the mast when the sail is set, and as the lower fore 
corner of the sail, termed the tack, is also much in front of the 
mast when hooked on in its place, should the wind by a sudden 
shift or any inadvertence of liiie helmsman get on the wrong side 
of the sail, the canvas is pressed against the mast, and the boat 
is subjected to the backward force of this part of the sail, and 
the forward force of that portion of the canvas behind the mast. 
This is termed being "taken abaok," and it has frequently 



happened under these circumstances that the boat has upset, as 
it is rarely possible to haul down the sail soon enough to avoid 
the mischief, from the fact of the canvas being firmly pressed 
against the mast, by the force of the wind. 

Neither the working nor Chinese lugs are open to this danger, 
for they are so arranged that they can be trimmed at any required 
angle to the wind, instantly, and the boat be relieved of undue 
pressure by allowing the sail to shake. 

The illustration on page 32 represents a boat fourteen feet in 
length and five feet beam or width ; a simple and at the same 
time a very effective rig is recommended for her in the two 
working lug-sails. The management of these two sails is quite 
sufficient for a beginner, but a third can be added if desired 
after experience has been attained. The larger lug is termed 
the foresail, the smaller the mizen. 

The larger sail is in fact both foresail and mainsail in one, 
but as it is hoisted in the fore part of the boat, it is always 
known as the foresail or fore lug. A metal ring is provided 
for each mast, a hook and eye forming part of the same ; these- 
rings are termed travellers, and should be of galvanised iron 
covered with leather. 

The spar3 which extend the sails are termed yards, and bear 
the names of the sails to which they belong : thus they are known 
as the fore-yard, the mixen-yard, etc. Each yard is encircled 
by either a single or double piece of small rope called a sling, 
which is hung over the hook of the traveller to enable the sail 
to be hoisted. In the eye of this sling, a ring of brass or gal- 
vanised iron having a groove round its circumference is placed, 
which prevents the eye of the sling being cut by the hook 
of the traveller. This hollow- edged ring is known as a 

The foreyard is eight feet six inches long, and the sling placed 
two feet four inches from the heel or lower end. The length 
of the mizen-yard is five feet eight inches, and the sling is placed 
on it at two feet three inches from its heel. A rope for hoisting 
the sails is spliced into each of the travellers, led through a 
mortise cut through the mast, and brought down to the level of 
the seats or thwarts, where it is secured under a pin passing 
through the thwart. Each mortise should be supplied with a 
grooved wheel or sheave of either brass, galvanised iron, or 
lignum vitas, to facilitate the hoisting of the sail by diminishing 
the friction. It will be found a very good plan to get a three- 
inch block spliced into the end of the fore-halliards, or rope by 
which the fore -lug is hoisted, for this combining with the sheave 
in the mast will give a great accession of power in setting the 

A smaller rope is put through this block having an eye or 
loop on one end of it, which eye being passed over a pin pro- 
jecting downwards through the seat or thwart which supports 
the mast, the other end of the rope is hauled on, and easily 
raises the sail. When the halliards thus consist of two parts, 
that passing through the mast is termed the tie, and the smaller, 
running through the block, the fall. Each part of every sail 
has also its particular designation, as well as the rope to which 
it is sewn. The top of the sail is naturally termed the head, 
the bottom the foot, the front edge close to the mast the luff, 
the after edge the leech, and the rope to which the sail is 
sewn the bolt-rope. The highest angular portion of the sail 
is the peak, and its apex the peah-eari/ag ; the upper portion 
of the sail close to the mast has received the name of the 
throat, and the angle of it the throat- earing. The lower 
corner close to the mast is the tack, and the after lower 
comer the clew. 

Both on the fore and after edges of the two sails, or, to speak 
correctly, on their luffs and leeches, the reader will observe 
certain eyes or holes. These are the reef cringles, each ooatain* 

ing a thimble, to receive a small rope termed a pennant or 
reef pennant, used to haul the sail down on the boom at the 
foot of it, when either one, two, or three reefs are re- 

All ropes by which the sails are trimmed to any desired 
angle with the wind in fore-and-aft rigged boats and vessels 
are called "sheets;" thus the double rope led through a 
thimble on the boom at the foot of the foresail is termed the 
foreshect ; and that from the lower after corner of the mizen, 
the mizera-sheet. The term "fore and aft" signifies a line of 
direction immediately over a parallel with the line of keel of 
any boat or vessel, as in the present instance, and is also used 
in a comprehensive sense, as including the whole extent from 
one end to the other. 

Formerly lug-sails were not fitted with booms, for they are 
an addition of quite recent date ; they are, however, so very 
useful that amateurs for the most part avail themselves of the 
convenience they afford. In the fore-lug in the illustration, the 
tack is passed through the end of the boom, and a knot is made 
below it to keep the boom close up to the thimble; a hole is bored 
through the mast thwart, the tack passed through, and secured 
below. By this means the sail is kept close to the mast. Thi3 
end of the boom should be a little flattened for the last six 
inches, and the extremity rounded like the handle of a screw- 
driver, so as not to present any angle to catch against the mast 
when the sail works from side to side. If a bit of thin leather 
be sewn over the tack-rope long enough to cover it from where 
it passes through the boom to below the mast thwart, it will 
not be chafed through by the action of the sail. 

The ordinary method of fitting a mainsheet for boats is to 
splice this rope into the lower after corner or clew of the sail, 
and to lead it aft through a hole under the gunwale in the top 
plank or etrake. Another method is to provide a hook inside 
the gunwale for the same purpose, and a third to put a peg or 
pin through the stern or transom board, and to take a turh 
over it both outside and inside. These methods, however, 
require the shifting of the sheet from side to side every time 
the boat is put about, which is avoided by the use of the boom, 
as it allows the sheet to be attached to the middle of the after 
thwart, in which position it is suitable for trimming the sail on 
either tack desired. 

The ring of rope on the boom is termed a grommet, and 
should be just sufficiently large to encircle the boom, and to 
receive a brass thimble an inch in the clear inside. As the 
mainsheet is to be used double, quite a small rope will be suffi- 
ciently strong. An inch in circumference will be the best size, as 
it will run freely through the thimbles, a matter of the utmost 
importance. To get the length, attach a piece of twine to the 
after thwart, pass it through the thimble on the boom, then 
under the after thwart to the sternboard or transom. Push off 
the boom until square or at right angles to the boat, fix it by a 
lashing in that position, and drawing the twine tight at the 
stern, cut it off there, when you will have length enough to 
include a splice, etc. 

To fit and place the mainsheet in position, proceed as fol- 
lows : — Bore a hole through the after thwart large enough to 
receive the main sheet doubled, splice a thimble into the end 
and double it the length of three inches, putting on a lashing 
or seizing to keep it thus doubled j pass the double part down 
through the hole in the thwart, secure it below the thwart by a 
stout peg or toggle through the eye, reeve the long end of the 
sheet through the thimble on the boom, and then through the 
other thimble on the thwart, and all is complete. The peg or 
toggle should have a notch in the middle, which will prevent it 
slipping out of the eye, and should be fastened to the thwart 
on the under side by a bit of leather; thus it will bo 


always in place. When the sail is not in use, the peg or 
toggle can be drawn out and the sheet coiled up and stowed 
in the sail. 

The boom for the mizen ig usually termed an outrigger, and 
passing through the transom or sternboard, is received into a 
eocket on the inside. In front of the boat the reader will ob- 
serve the mast and its running rigging, which has been delineated 
apart from the sails, that the details may be the more readily 

Although the methods for obtaining and reducing the addi- 

The very familiar flat sailing barges of the Thames and 
Medway, numbers of Dutch vessels and fishing boats, and a' 
great proportion of coasting craft belonging to the Humber 
and the Wash, still retain these lee-boards ; but as they have a 
very unsightly appearance, they do not find favour with the 
owners of pleasure-boats, and as one board in the centre of the 
boat or vessel is just as effective as two on the sides, it is now 
frequently in use. The keel requires to be somewhat stouter 
than ordinary; in the present fourteen-feet boat it should be 
three instead of two inches thick; and on the keel, and reaching 

L I I .1 


ticnal draught of a boat at pleasure are by no means of modern 
date, they have not been commonly met with except in certain 
localities, where a shallow kind of boat or vessel was abso- 
lutely necessary. 

As all shallow boats and vessels offer but little sideway 
resistance to the action of the water, they will not gain any 
given point to which they are directed by the helmsman unless 
the wind is very favourable, but move in a sideway direction as 
well as ahead at the same time, so that the actual line of pro- 
gross forms an angle with that it is desired to maintain. This 
difference is known to seamen as the lee-way, and to overcome 
it as far as possible, heavy wings of wood, called lee-boards, 
were adopted, and lowered by the side of the vessel to a cer- 
tain depth below the level of the bottom, in order to pbtain 
additional hold of the water. 

to the level of the thwarts, a water-tight well or case is fixed, 
reaching as high as the level of the two latter seats or thwarts, 
and the same length as the space between them. 

Simple as sailing seems when a man in charge of a boat is 
seen to shift his tiller here or there, and haul in or slacken 
the sheet or rope that governs his mainsail, yet there is much 
to be learned, and it will be our object so to teach this that no 
lad need fear to take up the management of a small boat, and 
steer her clear, not only of shoal and rock, but of dangerous 
squalls ; taking advantage of cross current and sweeping tide ; 
and above all learning that amount of prudence that is so 
necessary for all those who would enjoy with safety this 
most pleasurable of all pastimes within reach of those who 
dwell near river, estuary, lake, or uppn any part of our 
storm-beaten coast. - - 




Bi C. ¥. Alcock. 


"XiT^THAT is cricket ? This is not what Artemus Ward 
~\/>^P was wont to call a " kernundrum. " Nor is it 
<~<y what Lord Dundreary would term a "widdle." I 

fancy though that I can hear the chorus of indigna- 
tion from young and old at the idea of such a frivolous 
question. " What bosh," says young Chillworthy in the 
Eton Eleven, who was born as surely with a cane-handled 
bat in his hands as with the luxury of a silver spoon in 
his mouth. " He's a muff," chimes in young Grenville, who 
is now pursuing the curriculum of classical education with 

of the greatest batsman — even the ponderous assertion of 
Stubbles that " cricket is a sport that connects every class 
sir, and puts on one level the peasant and the peer, the sport 
of Britons all over the globe, and none of your foreign kick- 
shaws," moves me not. I am determined, youth and old age 
notwithstanding, to repeat my original question in a spirit of 
historical inquiry. What is cricket ? 

It would be idle to attempt anything like a proper treatise on 
cricket without a few words on the early stages of the game. I 
am not going, believe me, to recapitulate what has been written 


■the rival congregation on the hill at Harrow, for both 
are agreed on the point that "it's the jolliest game under 
the sun." 

Never mind, my young friends, spare your ire, for I belong 
to the order of mammalia and am pachydermatous as the rhi- 
noceros. Even the indignation of old Stubbles, once so slim 
and graceful, but now, alas ! so podgy and fa.t— the Stub- 
bles, who was in his time the most graceful and agile of 
oover-points, now sobered down into the most cunning old 
wicket-keeper, bent on enjoying the game with as little possible 
trouble to himself. Tou remember Stubbles well enough, 
for you see him every day. Tou know how persistently he 
tells that story of his "of the brave old days of Kent, sir; 
of Wenman, of Mynn, of Felix, and Pilch; how Kent used 
to meet England and lick their heads off, sir," — the expression 
emanates from Stubbles, not from me — and how the bowling 
genius of Stubbles used to overcome all the masterly batting 

on the same subject by countless other writers, who have made 
the study of cricket in all truth a labour of love. Nor am 
I going to offer theories of my own, for theory after all is 
a poor substitute for fact. I am going merely to give my 
own ideas, gained from the practical experience of others, aa 
well as from a personal connection with the game, and an inti- 
macy with its most distinguished exponents extending now over 
many years. Crede experto is my best recommendation. You 
will trust one that has tried. 

At present I shall confine myself to a few reasonable sug- 
gestions relative to cricket. Here there are witnesses whose 
own testimony I have myself received, and whose veracity or 
authenticity it would be high treason to impeach. My old 
friend Mr. Pycroft has gone headlong into the study of cricket 
lore, ahd collected a mass of evidence to prove the antiquity 
of the game, as well as to determine the precise source fr®m 
which the nursling sprung. I could quote numberless other 



authorities, but the task of sifting would prove too long-, and 
require too much elaboration for my present purpose. For all 
reasonable minds, Mr. Pycroft and another equally accurate 
historian 'will be sufficient to decide the moot point of the age 
and origin of cricket. How old is cricket ? that is the ques- 
tion. I pause for a reply. 

Mr. Pycroft claims the old pastime of "cat and dog" as the 
fountain-head of cricket, and his case is made out with all the 
skill of the best legal practitioner. The evidence is rather t»o 
strong on his side, but there is still another counsel to under- 
take a brief on the same behalf. I allude te Mr. Bolland, the 
distinguished founder of the wandering tribe known a3 tha 
" I Zingari," the most influential as well as the most aristo- 
cratic of all the various sects that adopt the religious teachings 
of cricket. Both Mr. Pycroft and Mr. Bolland are agreed on 
the origin of cricket in the abstract, though the former goes 
more abstrusely into the historical question, and executes the 
process of unearthing with even greater success. 

Under which king ? To which flag shall we pin our faith ? 
There is much to support Mr. Bolland' s view, who affiliates 
cricket on the humble sport of tip cat, the favourite amusement 
of ragged urchins in populous alleys and squalid courts. It may 
be that the parentage is not very select, but I vote un- 
hesitatingly for Mr. Bolland, and his less illustrious progeny. 
"Tip cat" and "cat and dog" are very much in the 
position of Caesar and Pompey — " berry much alike, especially 

First, the materials were very similar in both sports, and this 
is of itself high as well as direct evidence. It is true that tho 
implements were more than scanty, and that there could have 
been little dissimilarity in amusements that were so closely 
connected in point of time, but the link of evidenoe is none 
the less very firm and well sustained. The instruments were 
more than similar too, for they were precisely identical. There 
was in each case a stick for a bat, aad the ball was a piece 
of wood> notched at each end, instead of the leathern article 
now in use. 

There was, too, at each end of the playing ground a circle 
of about eighteen inches in diameter, and these were in all 
likelihood the parallels of the present " creases." What more 
do you need in the way of conclusive testimony ? Mr. Bol- 
land, however, thirsts for corroborative evidence of a stronger 
character, and he drinks deeply of success. He instances 
the record of a match at double wicket tip cat, which was 
played at the commencement of the present century between 
the cat players of Lincoln's Inn Fields and the rival players 
from the district of Westminster. Here there were eleven 
players, and a notcher on each side, so that the resemblance 
between the parent sport and the game now in vogue becomes 
still more striking. 

It was, I have no doubt, from a genuine mixture of those kin- 
dred amusements, with possibly a suggestion or more from tho 
popular pastime of " rounders," that cricket was first embodied 
into a practical shape. And whence the name of cricket ? is 
the next question. It was in all probability either a corrup- 
tion of some phrases that were applied to the sport in prac- 
tice, or it was merely a corruption of the Saxon word " cricce," 
which signifies a crooked stick ; but as this borders rather 
closely on the region of theory, I shall refrain from further 

Let it thea. be conceded that as far as we can prove, cricket 
can lay claim to an existence of about 130 years. Theory may 
bestow on it a higher antiquity, but the onus probandi will bo 
difficult, and facts will be wanting. 

Tou would like to know, too, how they played cricket in the 
brave days of old. Perhaps you have not had an opportunity 

of seeing the old pictures that serve as the only illustrations 
of the game in its infancy. Perhaps you have not cared to 
trouble yourself at all about the matter, and possibly you 
would not even now trouble yourself at all, but rather let some- 
body else explore, as long as the result of the exploration is 
published for your own benefit and that of others. But 
still you are in your own small way ardent supporters of the 
game, and you do your own small share in its behalf. There- 
fore, listen while I give you briefly a description of the old 
game of cricket as it flourished in the eighteenth century, 
whea. George II. was king, when the Young Chevalier was just 
preparing for the ill-fated ' campaign that ended at Culloden, 
and Pitt was just about to enter on that brilliant career which 
gained him at last a resting-place among England's noblest sons 
in Westminster Abbey. 

At first cricket was merely confined to what is now known as 
"double wicket," for obviously the game of " single wicket " 
was merely an offshoot of the original tree grafted to produce a 
less complicated form of the original pastime, to suit tho con- 
venience of a lesser number of players, though governed by 
laws of a similar character. 

According to the definition of a well-known ponderous old 
writer, cricket was " performed by a person who, with a 
clumsy wooden bat, defends a wicket raised of two slender 
sticks with one across, which is attacked by another person, 
who endeavours to beat it down with a hard leather ball from a 
certain stand. The further the distance to which the ball is 
driven, the oftener is the defender able to run between the 
wickets and tho stand. This is called gaining so many notches, 
and he who gets the most is the victor." The difference even 
now is not so great as you would believe. Only alter the 
number and arrangement of the sticks ("stumps "), and desig- 
nate " notches," in the present vocabulary of terms, as " runs," 
and you will have a positive definition of the ruling purpose of 
cricket as it now exists. There is a crudity of description, pos- 
sibly, but one can trace the lineaments plainly enough for all 
practical purposes. At present the game universally adopted 
is that of " double wicket," and it is only indeed on the very 
rarest occasions that " single wicket " is ever practised or wit- 

What is generally known as "cricket," then, must be 
understood to be " double wicket," for so little is single wicket 
known by tho present generation of cricketers, er so rarely is 
tho spoctacle of a single wicket match now furnished, that I really 
question whether hundreds of those who have reached eminence 
in the profession could pass a satisfactory examination in the 
rules specially made for single wicket. Still the game recalls 
to many of us sunny memories of the past that one can ill 

To me it revives many a long pleasant chat with the oldest 
living cricketer of the day, honest old John Bowyer, of Mit- 
cham, astat. eighty-three, the last link between the two great 
eras of cricket history, as well as many a cheery gossip in the 
snug parlour at Canterbury with old Fuller Pilch — as indisputa- 
bly the marvel of his day in batting as is Mr. William Gilbert 
Grace of ours — only a few years ago numbered with the 
" famous nations of tho dead." It brings back forcibly to my 
mind the tales of many a great single wicket match in the days 
when there were giants ; of the descriptions given by " Old 
Fuller" of his two great contests at Norwich and Sheffield, 
when he defeated Marsden, of Sheffield, the greatest player of 
the day, first by an innings and 70 runs, and next by 128 runs ; 
of Alfred Mynn, the Lion of Kent, and his victories over 
the trusty helpmate, who became famous under the soubriquet 
of " Felix ; " of Dearmanand Eedgate, and many other heroes 
who are now gone to their last long rest. Fuller Pilch was a 



typical specimen of the fine old English cricketer, in the days when 
nobles and squires used to have professionals attached to their 
service as they had gamekeepers and the usual domestic nuisances. 

Poor old Fuller ! How famously he used to revel over the 
story of the first visit that Dr. Grace — E. M., the eldest of the 
two, par nobile fratrum, msst distinguished brothers of that 
distinguished family — paid to Canterbury. It was rather a 
joke, though the proceeding itself would hardly have been 
termed strictly honest, so that it will bear repetition. The fact 
was that the doctor was then in the zenith of his fame, and 
Canterbury and Pilch were anxious to witness for themselves the 
marvellous powers of hitting that rumour had ascribed to him. 

Fortunately old Pilch was umpire, and in the due exercise 
of his official duties he transferred what was apparently a pal- 
pable case of " out" to the benefit of the bat, if 
to the sacrifice of his conscientious scruples. At 
least " the doctor" went scot-free the first time, 
and the score rose to the extent of almost one 
hundred runs. Of course a gentle remonstrance 
ensued from one of the spectators when the 
innings was over. 

Fuller's immediate answer was sublime : " Well, 
you know, sir, I'd heard a lot of this 'ere Mister 
Grace, and I warnted to see whether he could bat." 

No shame-faced apology was this, but a frank 
avowal of his guilt. It is true that he used 
to assume a certain air of innocence when the 
story was re-told, as it was often enough, you 
can imagine, in after years ; but the attempt 
failed signally. 

The last time I saw Fuller Pilch — on "the 
Canterbury week" — before his death, there was 
still the moving spirit as of old. " That's a 
good enough story of yourn, sir, but you will 
have your joke." Brave old Fuller ! the joke 
was yours. May the turf lie gently over your 
body, for you were a good soul. 

But to resume : Old James (familiarly known 
as "Jimmy") Dean, the slow bowler of Sussex, 
was the last who gave us a chance of ofliciating 
at a single wicket match ; but the revival was 
not a success. It was indeed until the end a 
dubious matter whether the affair would come 
off at all, for Pagden, another worthy of Sussex, 
was a victim to "this too solid flesh" as well 
as his opponent, and. one was as shy as the other 
was afraid. They both looked as if they would 
melt on the slightest provocation. It was as recently as two 
years ago, on the Sussex County Ground, and the spectators were 
mostly prominent players of another era. At last the rivals were 
brought to the wickets but it was evident that old Jimmy had 
been in careful training ; and his crafty wiles— for he had lost 
none of his old command over the ball — were far too much for 
his rivals, and the slow bowling, that Jimmy used to term the 
" procrastinate," effectually settled his weightier foeman, after 
Jimmy had committed suicide by knocking down his own stumps. 

But of single wicket perhaps more anon. 

The game of double wicket is so called by way of contradis- 
tinction, for it requires a double array of materials — two bats, 
two " wickets," two popping creases, two bowling creases, and 
in fact is in every way, as far as accessories are concerned, a 
duplicate of single wicket, which only needs one wicket, one bat, 
one popping crease, and one bowling crease ; although obviously 
there must in each be the same necessity for two contending 
parties, even if the numbers engaged may be different. So that, 
premising cricket at present to be the game of double wicket, I 

Fig. 1 

as before stated, the specialities of single wicket may be left to 
a later period. Originally the wickets did not consist of 
three upright stumps as now, for I have in my possession 
the original engraving, dated 1743, showing what is, I believe, 
the earliest illustration of cricket, of which we give a reduced 
copy. Tou can see the original at the Surrey Cricket Ground, 
Kennington Oval, and welcome. Here are the principal fea- 
tures of the game as it is there represented, when cricket was, 
undoubtedly, in a sort of chrysalis condition merging from club- 
ball into cricket. The wicket was then more after the fashion 
of a skeleton hurdle, consisting of two small sticks, instead of 
three stumps as now, and in the place of the two bails that 
now surmount the top and connect the three stumps, there 
was then merely a thin piece of stick placed across, without 
groove or other support. Tou can see the player 
in the act of striking with an instrument not un- 
like the hockey stick now usually used, and the 
bowler on the alert to receive the baH that he 
has just delivered, while with outstretehed hand 
and head, devoid of wig, the wicket-keeper re- 
mains behind the wicket in anticipation of a 
chance of stumping. Look at them well} for 
they will bear inspection. 

Cricket must have been an enjoyable sport in 
those days. Manslaughter must have been easy 
enough, it is true, from the positions of the 
figures, but the homicide was perhaps justifiable. 
It is evident from the illustration that the bat, 
as I have just said, was not the shapely instru- 
ment that it is now, but rather a rough piece of 
wood, fashioned as best it could be for offensive 
purposes ; that the ball was a very inferior 
sample of the article as it is now manufactured, 
and that the sport must have been of a some- 
what more passive description than it is now, 
else the young gentleman in the three-cornered 
hat, who sits so quiescently within a few yards 
of the batsman (where point usually stands), 
cutting the notches on a piece of wood, as was 
then the primitive method of scaring, would 
hardly have been able to pursue his avocation 
without serious danger to wind and limb. 

There was, too, another arrangement that 
wanted alteration, for midway between the 
sticks at the base there was a hole cut, in 
which the batsman was to ground his bat after 
running, before the fieldsman at the wicket 
could ground the ball. 

But misunderstandings would and did arise from this or- 
dination. It may be surprising, but the knuckles of the 
latter and the bat of the former did so often meet— inten- 
tionally or unintentionally, of course, depends on the con- 
struction placed by those thai* weigh the chances of the two 
eventualities, but always to the discomfort of the knuckles 
— that a popping crease was substituted, and the distance fixed 
as it still remains, within a limit of two inches. Cricket, it 
is true, is now played on more rational principles, but in its 
main features the game remains the same now as it was of old, 
subject to the same penalties, and moved by laws much the 
same in the abstract. If the knuckles are safe, the back some- 
times forms a good target for a fieldsman. 

I have spoken already separately of "wickets" and "stumps," 
and it may be so imagined that there is a difference in the pre- 
cise signification of the two words. Wickets there are, of course, 
and stumps. There is a distinction, though the difference 
may not be very marked, for the word "wickets " is used in 



the angular to denote the entire arrangement of the stumps 
collectively, at each end (e.g., each "wicket"), while in the 
plural it often serves to signify the ground on which the 
match is played, or the entire area frem one set of stumps 
to the other, as instanced by the injunction to the umpires 
to pitch " fair wicket." The wickets are now formed of three 
upright stumps, made usually of ash of the best growth (see 
engraving, Fig. 1). Across these are two " bails," or pieces 
of wood neatly carved and turned, and also made of similar 
material, each one of which connects two of the three stumps, 
the grooves on the top of each of the stumps serving to secure 

the ends of each bail. These are what is termed collectively a 
" wicket," and at each end of the ground, at a distance of 
twenty-two yards, three stumps are placed, the two erections 
serving to illustrate the distinction of " double wicket." 

The various stages through which the wickets passed before 
they reached their present perfection have been fully detailed 
by old Nyren, one of the earliest historians, but here they are not 
material. At present I think that I have written enough on the 
historical in relation to the game and its principal accessories. 
In my next I hope to treat on other points of equal utility 
and describe the weapons in use, both bat and ball. 


By James Mason. 


us form ourselves into a 
Round Game Club, meet 
regularly, and play over every 
game worth mentioning." So 
said Emily : she was the 
youngest of us all, but had 
a trick of always speaking first. 
" A very good idea," said 
a gentleman we rudely call 
the Laughing Hyaena. 

"And some one might write 
an account of cur games and 
publish it," exclaimed Emily. 
" Suppose you do it ? " 

"Very well," said I, and 
from that moment I held the post of the Eeporter. 

The rest of the company murmured assent to this conversa- 
tion. There were twelve of us —six ladies and six gentlemen. 
The ladies were Emily ; Arabella, a quiet girl with a decidedly 
sentimental turn ; Mary, always known as the Princess, from her 
dignified carriage ; Alice, a black-eyed, raven-haired beauty, with 
a little, perhaps, of fire and fury in her composition ; Kate, a 
matter-of-fact young lady ; and Maggie, who has one of the hap- 
piest dispositions ever known. It is not worth while enlarging 
on the characters of the gentlemen ; these will be exhibited no 
doubt as the games go on. Their names were, David Maxwell, 
John Fergusson, an antiquarian gentleman we call usually 
Notes-and-Queries, the humorous gentleman nicknamed the 
Laughing Hyaena, the Reporter, and Tom. The last is the 
comparatively small boy of the party. 

It was settled then ; we were to meet often, play over all 
games of interest, and publish our proceedings, just as if we 
were an archaeological or philosophical society. We felt sure that 
in this way the public would be put in possession of a collec- 
tion of round games more complete, more interesting, and more 
instructive than any at present in existence. " We shall have 
everything," said Alice, "from Blind Man's Buff to Capping 
Verses and Crambo." " Let us classify the games," said Notes- 
and-Queries, " and play all the pen-and-pencil game3 first, then 
all the catch games, then all the games of action, and so on." 
"Oh, you dry-as-dust old stick !" cried David. It is a pity he 
said "stick," but as he did, it must be set down. "Classi- 
fication," he went on to remark, " will never do : let us take them 
in any order, and manage so that each evening we shall play 
specimens of every sort." 

" When shall we begin ?" asked Emily. 

" To-night," said everybody, and it was decided that Conse- 

quences was to be the first game. But before commencing it, 
and whilst David, in whose house we had met, was cutting slips 
of paper for us to write upon, Notes-and-Queries sat down to 
the piano and sang an old song, something to the effect that 
man " hardly hath a richer thing than honest mirth." 

" The best men," said the Laughing Hyaena, "have a vein of 
fun and nonsense running through their composition." 

"And if one has no sympathy for round games," added 
Alice, " what a melancholy specimen of humanity he must 

" Or else," said Notes-and-Queries, " he must be deserving of 
the name once given by the great Dr. Clarke to Beau Nash. The 
Beau interrupted him and a few of his friends whilst they were 
playing about like school-boys. Now," said Clarke, " let us be 
grave : here comes a fool. By the way, I'll undertake to say 
that I can name a hundred famous men who have been known 
to enter with spirit into round games of different kinds." But 
no one gave him any encouragement to exhibit his learning, 
and the conversation took a new turn. 

" I think," said Maggie, " we should make it a rule that, in 
playing all the higher-class games — the poetry games, the con- 
versation games, and such like — no one is to try to be clever. 
It spoils all the fun if any one is labouring to write or speak 
profound or witty things." 

" That is good advice," said the Reporter ; " the charm of all 
play is freedom, and thoroughly to enjoy any pastime, the player 
must abandon himself to the spirit of the moment and have 
nothing to do with anything but easy humour." 

"The first rule is settled then," said John Fergusson : "I 
propose as the second that Notes-and-Queries, who, though r ot 
very sedate, is the most sedate of us all, shall have the power to 
stop all active games just at the point when they become 

"Nobody here, I am sure, can object to that rule," said 
Mary; " and as for the writing and speaking games, I hold that 
we should all promise never to go beyond the line which sepa- 
rates nonsense from what might possibly annoy any one of the 

There was quite a chorus of " Oh! certainly, we promise that." 
Everyone seemed determined not only to secure his own gratifica- 
tion, but the happiness of others. David, who had long ago 
finished cutting the slips of paper, made a remark which proved 
that he kept his eyes open. 

"No affairs of life," he said, "can compare with fireside 
amusements for furnishing opportunities of saving others from 
what is disagreeable and showing them those little attentions 
which do so much to sweeten existence." 



" Now," said Emily, tired of all this talk, " when are you going 
to begin Consequences ?" 

" Immediately," said David, and the company rose and took 
seat3 round the table. 

Every one was provided with a long slip of paper, and those 
who had pencils sharpened them, and those who had none 
borrowed from those who had to spare. David was chosen 
leader of the game, and as soon as there was silence he gave 

"Write," he said, "at the top of your papers the description 
of a gentleman, then fold the papers down, so that the writing 
cannot be seen, and pass them on to your neighbours on the 

That was done. 

" Now," said David, " let every one write on the paper he 
has now the name of a gentleman ; fold the paper down, and 
pass it on to the right, then an adjective or two descriptive of 
a lady; then a lady's name ; then the place where the lady and 
gentleman met ; then the time of the meeting ; then what the 
gentleman said; then what the lady said; then the consequences; 
and, last of all, what the world said. After writing out each of 
these items of information, every one must fold down his paper 
and pass it on to the right, so that no one may write twice 
running on the same paper." 

The papers were at last all filled up ; they were then handed 
to David, who unfolded them, and read them aloud for the 
amusement of the company. The first one was as follows (the 
words in italics were filled in by the leader to complete the 

" The waspish and spiteful — Mr. Jones — met the lovely — 
Miss Smith — at the opera — on the 1st of April. — He said to her, 
'Time is money.' — She said to him, 'I never had a good opinion 
of you in all my life.' The consequence was that the Iron Age 
succeeded the Age of Brass — and the world said that ' Nothing 
wastes so much precious time as disputes.' " 

Several more were read, and at last came one in which it was 
reoorded that the gentleman said to the lady, "What is the 
difference between a honeycomb and a honeymoon ?" and she 
said to him, " Because the one is made up of many cells, whilst 
the other is one great sell." 

"What a shame it is to cheat !" cried Emily, when we had 
ceased laughing at the conundrum ; and it was quite clear that 
some misguided individual had secretly turned up his paper so 
as to make the lady's reply harmonise with the remark of the 

. " Cheating," said David, in his severest tone, " is not in the 
least allowable, and will be visited with the severest penalty it 
is in the power of the company to inflict." 

" Not much of a threat that," said Tom. 

All the rest of the papers were then read, and after that came 
a second round of consequences, but the only thing worth 
noticing about it is that Notes-and-Queries — it was evidently 
Notes-and- Queries — took it into his head to make all that he 
wrote relate to one particular subject : his two characters were 
Mary Queen of Scots and Darnley, and he made these two 
appear in every paper that came under his hand. Some thought 
this was rather a good idea, others were of quite the contrary 

"Come," said Alice, "we won't settle the point to-night— let 
us play at something else." 

" Word-making let it be," said David; so word-making it was. 

" This is a capital game," remarked the Eeporter, " for in- 
creasing or practising one's vocabulary." 

" How is it played ? " said Emily. 

" Don't you know P " said he ; " it is a common enough game. 
But David is going to be leader, and he will explain." 

The company divided themselves into two sides, the ladies 
on the one, and the gentlemen on the other. 

" Now," cried David, "be quiet, and hear what I have got to 
say. We must fix on a word ; it should be a long one with 
plenty of vowels, and as much variety of letters as possible." 

Population, capacious, beautiful, flourished, fortunate, were 
suggested. The last was decided on, because it was a lucky 

How little sometimes serves to influence our decisions ! 
" Write ' fortunate,' " said the leader, " at the head of your 
papers " — every one had a sheet of paper — " and now all start 
together, and make as many words as you can out of the letters 
of the word, using no other letters, and never repeating the 
same letter twice in any of the words you make. Every word, 
too, must begin with the first letter ' f ,' of course. The time 

allowed for writing will be 1 really forget; it was three, 

four, or five minutes." 

There was dead silence for the time named. 
" Time's up," said David, and all stopped writing. Then the* 
players, first the ladies and afterwards the gentlemen, read 
their lists of words, and note was taken of those which the one-, 
side had and the other had not. They stood as follows : — 

Ladies.— Fortunate, *Poe, *Pern, Par, Fur, •Fate, Fun,. 
♦Fat, *Fen, For, *Forte, Pear, Pan, Fret. 

Gentlemen. — Far, Pun, Fur, For, *Fort, Fortune, *Fare, ... 
Fret, Fan, *Fro, Fear. 

The ladies had six w®rds (those distinguished by a *) which 
the gentlemen had not; the gentlemen had three words exclu- 
sively their own. The leader therefore marked down six for 
the ladies and three for the gentlemen. 

" But this is not all," said David ; " we now take the second 
letter, ' o,' and make every word begin with it, using no letters 
but those in ' fortunate.' " 

The ladies' list this time ran, "*Ore, or, of, on, *one," etc. - 
The gentlemen's, " Of, *ornate, *oft, on, or, *often," etc. 
The third letter was then taken, and so on to the end of the • 
word. At last the figures representing the numbers of each 
side were added up, when it was found that the gentlemen had ' 
sustained an ignominious defeat. Notes-and-Queries consoled 
himself, however. "The ladies," he remarked, "have always" ■ 
had most words at command. It is said that a country labourer 
sometimes maintains all the relations of life on the slender stock" 
of three hundred words. I have no doubt his wife knows five 
times the number." 

By this "time the other players had made arrangements for the 
last game of the evening, which was to be The Trades. All 
took their places in a circle and chose trades for themselves : 
David, for example, was a blacksmith, and hammered away at an 
anvil. The Laughing Hyaena was a knife-grinder, and ground 
knives. Mary was a maid-of-all-work, and made as if she were 
washing dishes. N'otes-and-Queries was a tailor, and stitched 
a coat. Emily was a joiner, and planed a piece of wood. "Some- 
one," said David, "must be appointed King of the Trades." 
" Be it yourself," said Emily; so he commenced the game by exer- 
cising his calling, hammering away with all his might. The 
others followed his praiseworthy example, and began working 
at their respective industries. In a little the king took it 
into his head to imitate one of the party : it happened to be 
Emily, the joiner ; he stopped hammering and took to planing. 
All the players immediately — for that is the rule of the game — 
ceased work, except Emily, who had to take up the calling of the 
king, and commence hammering like a blacksmith. In a little 
the king fell to his own trade again, when all went on working 
as before. 

"But suppose," said Kate to David, "that, after imitat- 
ing one player you do not at once return to your own trade, 


but take to imitating 1 some other ©f the party, what must 
we do?" "You must all," answered he, "continue idle but 
the one imitated. I can imitate as many players too as I please 
before taking to my own work ; m fact, I am just like a real 
king, and do whatever suits me, and if any of you chance to 
make a mistake you must pay a forfeit." 

The game of the Trades was played till every one was tired, 
and then came the settling of the forfeits, which was uproarious 
enough, and frequently required the interposition of the most 
sedate of us all — Notes-and-Queries. Then the Round Game 
Club broke up ; every one promising to meet in the same place 
on a certain date. 



•» 5*f • • 

By Samuel Highley, F.G.S 

OOKING back to " the days 
young" (I am 


when I was 

afraid to think how many years 
ago, but an infantry corps of 
which I am commander re- 
minds me that it cannot be 
"a few"), I call up in my 
memory the then common cry 
at Christmastide of " Galanty 
Show ! Galanty Show ! " and 
the mind-photographs of two 
particular proprietors of this 
mystic exhibition who an- 
nually displayed their won- 
drous pictures within "the 
magic circle "in a darkened room, 
for the delectation of a chosen band 
of friends. These two men formed a 
joint-stock or very-limited liability 
company, and as they moved in re- 
spectable society, of course they had 
regard to appearances — that is to say, 
both wore chimney-pot hats, snuff - 
brown great-coa>ts, gaiters, and stick-up 
collars embraced by bird's-eye necker- 

Nevertheless, our old housemaid, 
who, I may incidentally remark, was re- 
sponsible for the plate, made a strong 
point of seeing them up and seeing them 
down with a sharpness of aspect that 
gave me the idea she was a woman of a 

suspicious turn of mind. The man that carried the magic lan- 
tern and who focussed the lenses wore a patch over one eye. 
Whether this was to cover the result of accident or to give 
greater precision while fulfilling his optical duties, I could never 
ascertain, for he was uncommunicative on all matters relating 
to the mysteries of his calling ; but as I had noticed that all 
persons when looking through telescopes, spy-glasses, micro- 
scopes, and other optical instruments, always placed their fingers 
over the uaemployed eye, I favoured the latter hypothesis. 

His companion, who carried the box of " sliders " and a gig 
umbrella, did the talking, was endowed with a gruff voice, 
which, by a stretch of the imagination, might be regarded as 
sepulchral when the ghost put in an appearance on the screen 
— which, by the way, was a sheet always furnished from the 
household store, for probably the exhibitors, from past expe- 
rience, had discovered the futility of attempting to provide 
clean sheets for their evening's entertainments, when the cold 
season tempted them to employ them for domestio use. 

I was given clearly to understand that " it warn't the lantern 
as was the galanty show, nor it warn't the sliders neither," 
but the combined action of lantern, sliders, and united efforts 

Fig. 1. 


of the exhibitors, that produced that so-called delightful enter- 
tainment for inquiring youth. Nor can I forget that part of 
their honorarium was " summat hot," for, as one remarked, it 
was " dry work," and the other that talking necessitated the 
operation known as "wetting one's whistle;" and great 
ingenuity did both display in securing a maximum of supply, 
with a genteel diffidence as to asking for more. 

This was effected as follows: — After a deep "pull" at 
the steaming tumblers, both simultaneously pronounced the 
mixture "really too stiff," and filled up with hot water. Then 
came another milder "pull," and the discovery that in the 
exercise of their temperate natures they had " overdone it," 
and "would the guvner oblige with a little more spirit;" and 
this little dodge was repeated between the acts — and every 
year — as if this give-and-take system was perfectly undis- 
coverable by human perception. 

What an extraordinary combination 
of tea-case and sugar-canister that 
magic lantern appeared ; how redolent 
of melted tallow, and with what a 
smoky atmosphere it was surrounded, 
suggestive of " the emancipation of 
the blacks." Then, as to the sliders. 
Well, they did not " go in for beauty" 
in those days, or for "educational 
aims," but broad, mirth-moving or 
terror - inspiring figures — the broad 
grinning clown, with rolling eyes ; the 
kicking donkey ; the sanguinary ghost ; 
the dancing skeleton, that fell to pieces 
in a heap, and then became reanimated. 
Who can forget the history of the 
"House that Jack Built" and the " Cow that tossed the Dog " ? 
or the party-spirit elicited amongst the youngsters by that 
stirring scene when all the parish espoused the cause of the 
rival curs, and hung tenaciously on to their respective tails ? 

Ah ! tenypora mutant mores, my masters, for hobgoblins have 
gone out of fashion. What a remarkable collection of animals 
that was which went into the Ark ! The hippopotamus was 
nearly as lif e-like as that specimen in the British Museum which 
Ernest Griset so faithfully represented in the pages of Punch 
that it could not be said he caricatured its aspect. How my 
youthful brain was troubled as to how the whale '(so " very 
like a whale ") could ever have been lodged within the walls of 
that barn-on-a-barge-like structure which overhung a sugar- 
loaf mountain, unless he was a creature of accommodating dis- 
position, and took in all the other animals — elephant included — 
as steerage passengers ; but even then I fancied the long necks 
of the pair of giraffes must have hung out of his mouth — he 
must have been so like an omnibus on a wet day — " full inside." 
Human nature will be human nature, and I must confess 
that after three seasons of this same delectable entertainment, 
it palled upon our taste, and we went in for a conjuror of 



vast skill. A year or so after, a friend presented me with a 
lantern and a box of slides. This, of course, I took to pieces, 
and found (what I now know to be) the type of eonstructien of 
the magic lantern, and which I will here describe. The 
outward aspect of the apparatus is shown in Fig. 2, and the 
section of same in Fig. 3. B represents the japanned tin 
"body," with its chimney so arranged as t» exclude all light 
from the room in which the pictures are shown on the screen ; 
C the condensing lens that collects and converges the rays 
from the source of light L, which pass through the transparent 
picture placed in the stage s, and p the power or lens that 
magnifies the picture and projects, in diverging rays, its 
enlarged image on the screen, placed at a suitable distance, 
proportionate to the size of image desired — the nearer the 
screen is to the lantern the smaller and brighter is the picture 
produced, the farther the screen is from the lantern the larger 
but fainter is the picture produced, according to the law of 
inverse squares, to be hereafter described. 

But this lantern was a small one, bought at a toy-shop, with 
pictures only about 1£ in. diameter, and I yearned for grander 
effects ; so I annexed the bull's-eye lantern pertaining to the 
warehouse, and, being of a mechanical turn, I rigged a stage 
with a double-convex power on in front of the bull's-eye lens, 
as shown in Fig. 4, and, without knowing it at the time, pro- 
duced an arrangement of superior type— that is to say, the 
type now universally adopted — where the condensing lens is 
placed between the light and the picture. This lantern showed 
pictures 2 inches in diameter, and proved a decided improve- 
ment on my first ; but this in turn gave place to another of 
still better construction, wherein the bull's-eye was replaced by 
a double-convex condenser of 3j; in. diameter, with a plano- 
convex lens of ljj in. diameter and 3£ in. focus for the power, 
which showed pictures, single and double slipping slides, levers, 
and chromatropes, 2£ in. in diameter, by aid of an argand-solar 
lamp, M, as shown in Fig. 5. 

This satisfied my youthful desires, for my aim was mere 
amusement of friends during the winter season. But a time 
came when I saw that the magic lantern was destined to take 
position as an instrument of the highest educational aims — 
that was, when the method of producing transparent photo- 
graphs on glass became known to the world, for by such means 
we were enabled to produce faithful transcripts of nature and 
art upon a small surface, and, by aid of the lantern, enlarge 
these up to ten, twenty, or thirty feet in diameter, so as to re- 
produce every detail, even of microscopic subjects, clear and 
distinct, and so artistically rendered as to light and shade as to 
cause the magnified images to appear stereoscopic in aspect, 
consequently in a manner to address themselves impressively 
to the eye and mind of the spectator or student. 

As this alliance of photography with the magic lantern 
promised to prove a happy one, since 1856 (when I gave a 
course of lectures on natural history thus illustrated) I have 
devoted time, thought, and money to the development of this 
method of imparting instruction and perfecting the apparatus 
required by the demonstrator, and the result of my experience 
I purpose giving in these pages. 

Having described the simplest type of lantern, it will not be 
uninteresting if we look into the early history of this instru- 
ment ; for though most persons are only accustomed to regard 
it as a toy, it has probably been used as an implement of 
priestly power in days gone by, as it will prove an educational 
power in days to come. As both metal specula and glass 
lenses have been discovered among the ruined buildings of 
Egypt) it is not improbable that the priests of the ancient 
Egyptian temples — men learned -in many branches of science — 
availed themselves of the means such optical aids afford for 

producing illusions of supernatural aspect for the purpose of 
acquiring influence over the minds of the people, and even the 
mighty of the land. The intense illuminating power of an 
eastern sun supplied their deficiency in regard to their know- 
ledge of producing a bright light by artificial means ; and we 
caa imagine their adopting some such contrivance as that 
suggested by Schottus, but shown in more elaborate manner in 
Fig. 6. In this we find a polished metallic speculum, across 
which a word suited to the desired manifestation, such as 
cave, is written, and placed in reversed position on the 
dwarf wall of a courtyard at o, on which the brilliant rays of 
the sun s would fall at a given hour. Opposite to and in line 
with the inscribed mirror, a double-convex lens, L, is inserted in 
a wall standing opposite to a drapery, d, suspended in the con- 
jugate foci of this lens, consequently in the position where an 
upright image, I, of the object o would be projected above the 
altar of the temple, in view of an awe-inspired crowd or a king 
who had to be brought to the priest's way of thinking. 

The next glimpse we get of optical contrivances being 
employed for the wonderment of the people is in the Oxford 
legend, which relates that Friar Bacon had been seen walking 
in the air between two steeples, " which was thought to be 
done by glasses when he walked upon the ground." Some 
authors ascribe the discovery of the principles of the magic 
lantern to the learned friar, which would carry it back to 
about the year 1260. It was not, however, till the seventeenth 
century that any definite description of the construction of the 
magic lantern was given to the world. In the first edition of 
Athanasius Kircher's " Ars Magna Lucis et Umbra," or " The 
Great Art of Light and Shadow," published at Borne in 1646, 
a rude engraving, of which a f ac-simile is given in Fig. 1, repre- 
sents a barrel-shaped lantern, with one end closed by a concave 
mirror, A b, for the purpose of collecting the rays from a wax 
taper, f, and projecting them through a double convex lens, d, 
fixed before the open end of the "body," a space being left for 
the insertion of a smoked glass, on which the subject to be 
represented was scratched ; the object of this arrangement, we 
are told, being to throw an inscription on a wall at some 
feet distance. The smoke from the adjustable taper, F, was 
carried off by a double concentric chimney, c. This lantern 
was portable, and could be carried about by handles, E, pro- 
jecting from the sides. 

There is every probability that this was the crude kind of 
optical arrangement employed by the Sicilian priest whose 
incantations in the Colosseum at Borne are so graphically de- 
scribed by the celebrated Florentine engraver, Benvenuto 
Cellini. This necromantic ceremony, he states, lasted above 
an hour and a half, whereat legions of fiends seemed to fill that 
vast amphitheatre. Cellini seems to have had some knowledge 
of how these demons were " raised," as he says that he tried to 
quell the intense fear and horror of his companions by telling 
them that " all these demons are under us, and what ye see is 
but smoke and shadow," thus indicating an optical origin for 
such frightful visions. A declaration made by a youth who 
accompanied Cellini on this occasion further confirms the con- 
viction that some kind of magic lantern was employed, for the 
boy states : " As we were going home to our houses in the 
Quarter Banchi, two of the demons whom we had seen at the 
Amphitheatre went on before us leaping and skipping, some- 
times running upon the roofs of the houses, and sometimes Upon 
the ground." 

Cellini died in 1570, and his description, here curtly 
rendered, has caused some authors to refer the discovery of 
the magic lantern to the early part of the sixteenth century. 

In the second edition of Kircher's great work, published at 
Amsterdam in 1671, the author professes to give the result of 



Fig. 2. 

Rome. Kircher, born 
in 1601, was educated 
for a Jesnit, and it ap- 
pears he for a long 
period gave exhibitions 
in his rooms at the 
Jesnit College, which 
were nightly thronged 
by the noble and learned 
inhabitants of Rome. 

In his " Ars Magna 
Lncis et Umbrae," edi- 
tion of 1671, Kircher 
gives a large and beauti- 
fully engraved represen- 
tation of the arrange- 
ment adopted at these 
exhibitions, a reduced 
fac-simile of which is 
given in Fig. 7. By 
this we find that his 
apparatus was shut off 
from his reception room 
by a partition, through 
a hole in which the 
image-yielding beam of 
light passed on to a wall 
opposite. The lantern 
itself seems to have been 
a chamber some six feet 
square, fitted with a 
huge open lamp, l, sus- 
pended beneath a chim- 
ney, and a tube, c, that 
carried the condensing 
lens and sliders, pro- 
bably also the power or 
magnifying lens ; but 
it is remarkable that 
neither in this nor in 

his knowledge of 
this instrument, ac- 
quired, as he states, 
from a Danish ma- 
thematician named 
Thomas Walgen- 
stenius, who con- 
structed magic lan- 
terns and sold them 
as curiosities to the 
Italian princes and 
other wealthy per- 
sons resident in 

his figure of the skeleton 
on the wall, by a small 
hole in front of the 
! pieture — such an ar- 
j rangement as is known 
! to opticians in " the pin- 
| hole camera" — there 
would be a deficiency of 
light, and this is not 
indicated in the disc 
surrounding the skele- 
ton. It is more proba- 
ble his "power" was 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 4. 

fixed in a sliding tube 
fitted into the partition, 
so as to effectually pre- 
vent any person peep- 
ing into his operating 

The author's reti- 
cence on this point is 
very striking, when in 
all other instances, in a 
work teeming with op- 
tical information, his 
illustrations are elabo- 
rate as to every detail ; 
but in our own days lec- 
turers on optical illu- 
sions have been very 
communicative as to de- 
tails that have oozed 
out and become com- 
mon property, but have 
proved very reticent on 
" things not generally 
known," and a with- 
holding of the truth 
has been considered 
sound policy. 

Kircher' s slides con- 
sisted of rude figures 
of spectres, skeletons, 
etc., painted on glass, 
within circles, three 
or four subjects being 
depicted on one 
slider. He also in- 
dicates an arrange- 
ment wherein the sub- 
jectswere painted round 
a large disc of glass, 
that rotated on the axis 

Fig. 3. 

another representation he gives 
of his lantern, does he in any way 
indicate the existence of this 
essential part of the apparatus. 
A mere concentrated beam of light 
passing through a painting on 
glass would give but a misty, 
shadowy image, such as a stained 
glass window would cast upon a 
wall when the sun shines brightly 
through it. If he formed a sharp 
image, such as he represents in 

of a circular stage, so that 
subject after subject could 
be brought opposite a cir- 
cular aperture correspond- 
ing to the tube shown in 
Fig. 7. 

Most authors seem to 
credit Kircher as being the 
inventor of the magic lan- 
tern ; but, according to his 
own statements, he is in- 
debted for all his knowledge 

Fig. 5. 



of the subject to Walganstenius the Dane, to whom he dedicates 
his "Ars Magna." 

It is probable this instrument took form by gradual steps, 
such as first admitting artificial light through a stencilled plate, 
and focussing the image on a wall by aid of a lens, next cover- 
ing the apertures in the stencilled plate with coloured paper, 

mica, etc., then the tinted stencilled figures would give place 
to crude figures scratched on smoked glass, etc. ; then to rough 
paintings on glass ; the reflecting concave mirror would be 
supplemented with a condensing lens, till we find the ar- 
rangement much as Eorcher described it in the seventeenth 


By Major Hough. 

weapon to weapon — greek swords — scipio and the buckler — the amphitheatre — french 

fencers — duelling — the position. 

(Bo < 

, VEE. since men invented weapons with which to pierce 
each other in earnest, they have probably sought to 
acquire skill in the use of them by practising in sport. 
When the Spaniards first invaded Mexico, they found the Indians 

practice of individual ingenuity to the laying down of certain 
fixed rulps for general use. The Athenians were the first of 
whom it is recorded that they taught the use of the sword as a 
science, and amongst whom fencing was a necessary branch of 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 6. 

armed with wooden swords, which they used with surprising 
address; and even in the case of more barbarous peoples, 
when a waddy meets a waddy, there is a great deal of feinting, 
and springing from side to side in search of an opening for a 
blow, which proves a certain amount of study and exercise. 
But so far as we can judge, it was a long step from the 

education. Following their example, all the other nations of 
Greece, and particularly the Macedonians, adopted the thrust- 
ing sword. The Spartan blades were only fourteen inches 
long, which shows that they must have trusted to the point 
rather than the edge ; and this is further exemplified by the 
reply of Agis, the Spartan, to an Athenian who bantered him 



about the short swords of his people : " And yet we manage to 
spit our enemies upon them," he said ; and when an officer of 
King Agesilaus complained to him of the shortness of his 
Made, the king replied, " Take another step forward, and it 
will be long enough." 

The Romans also paid great attention to the management of 
their weapons. Both Trajan and Adrian taught recruits them- 
selves, and offered rewards for the most expert. And not only 
did the Eomans practise with their own weapons, but with the 
long sword invented by the Gauls, who were very skilful with 
it. Scipio the younger, when appealed to by the owner to 
admire a very beautiful buckler, said, " Very handsome indeed, 
my lad ; but a Roman soldier ought to put more confidence in 
his right hand than in his left." And the long career of 
Roman victories is generally attributed to the deadly skill 
which that people attained in the thrust of their strong short 
swords. When the sports of the arena became the most ab- 
sorbing of popular interests, great was the attention paid to 
the fencing-schools kept by classical matt-res d'armes, termed 
lanistce, where the gladiators practised with wooden swords. 

But, after all, the skill attained even by these professional 
fighters in the use of the sword must have been of a very inferior 
description to that acquired by modern adepts in the art of 
fencing, for the left arm bore a target, which was employed to 
ward off the thrusts and strokes of the adversary. Tou re- 
member how Roderick Dhu fared when he somewhat quixoti- 
cally threw down his target in his combat with Fitzjames, who 
did not possess, and did not want one. 

" For trained abroad his arms to wield, 
Fitzjames's blade was sword and shield. 
He practised every pass and ward, 
To thrust, to strike, to feint, to guard ; 
While less expert, tbeugh stronger far, 
The Gael maintained unequal war," 

and was killed. 

As a rule, though, it must be evident that the more power- 
ful of two men armed with sword and buckler would be able 
to press down upon his weaker adversary, force his shield 
aside, and cut him through the helm, even if he were more 
cunning of fence than himself ; and it was probably owing to 
this that the connoisseurs of the amphitheatre did not much 
care to see two men who were similarly armed encounter one 
another. Thus the mirmillo, whose arms were those of the 
Gauls, was matched' with a gladiator, who bore the small round 
shield and the sica or falchion of Thrace ; or with the Samnite, 
whose shield was broad at the top and narrow at the bottom; or 
with the retiarius, who had a net in which to entangle his ad- 
versary, and a three-pronged spear, with which to prod him. 

Let us then take a considerable leap, and in the commence- 
ment of the sixteenth century we shall find that the science of 
arms, as understood by the moderns, was cultivated in Italy 
under the names of espadon, estocade, estramagon; and there is 
a trace of this still extant in the fencing-schools of the present 
day, if we may trust Mr. Knight, who affirms in one of his 
Shakespearian annotations that the "Hah!" which fencers 
habitually utter when they lunge, is derived from the Italian 
hail (Tou have it !), which in its turn probably came from the 
halet ! of gladiatorial Rome. 

It is singular that at the period alluded to fencing was 
entirely neglected in France, a point of honour, begotten of 
chivalry, causing it to be banished from the court of Francis I. 
Montaigne tells us that in his yeuth the nobility avoided the 
reputation of being good fencers. They considered that a 
combat should be a test of courage, and not a trial of skill. 
And this feeling, which was not a very consistent one, con- 
sidering how carefully horsemanship, and that skill with the 
lance which should ensure success in tilting was cultivated, had 

not vanished entirely until about the middle of the seventeenth 

In the reign of Charles IX. some fencing schools were esta- 
blished in France, and in Henry H's time the practice of the 
sword, in sport and earnest, was carried to a very great height. 
The king himself excited the duelling mania by an imprudent 
speech, which he bitterly repented afterwards. Pestered one 
day with some case in which he had been appealed to as arbi- 
trator, and the rights of which were hard to get at, he said in a 
moment of impatience, " It is very strange that gentlemen who 
wear swords by their sides should come to me for justice." 

Henry HI. (we are still speaking of France) was one of the 
best fencers of his time, and the gentlemen of that period 
carefully studied the art, and, as was always the case, were too 
apt to test their proficiency with the unbaited weapon. This 
monarch raised such magnificent tombs to such of his favourites 
as fell in duels, that "I will cause you to be carved in marble," 
became a cant phrase among the courtiers when they reached 
the threatening stage of a quarrel. One of the duels of this 
reign is so famous, and so characteristic of the manners of the 
time, that it cannot be passed over in a treatise like the present- 
One April day in 1578, Mangiron, Quelus, and Livarot on the 
one side fought with d'Entragues, Riberac, and Schomberg on 
the other, at Paris, in the Rue des Tournelles, opposite the 
Bastile, with the following result : — Maugiron and Schomberg 
were killed on the spot ; Riberac died next day ; Livarot and 
d'Entragues were more lightly wounded, and survived; and the 
sixth, Quelus, pierced in nineteen places, lingered for thirty- 
three days, and then died in the arms of the king, May 29th. 

Quelus bitterly complained that d'Entragues, to whom he 
was opposed, made use of a dagger to assist him in parrying 
the thrusts, while he himself, understanding that by the terms 
of the combat no second weapon was allowed, had not brought 
one ; and as d'Entragues, when appealed to, declined to forego 
his advantage, he had to use his unarmed left hand, which was 
soon cut to pieces. Opinions were divided at the time as to the 
conduct of d'Entragues, which does not appear to us very chival- 
rous, inclined though we are to pay all due homage to success. 

The next great impetus given to fencing was by Louis XTV., 
who, by patronising and encouraging the best maitres d'armes, 
and raising them in social position, did more than any one to 
exalt fencing into a science. 

It may be well here to point out the difference between the 
rapier and the small sword, weapons which are sometimes 
erroneously considered identical. The rapier has a flat blade 
with a sharp edge, so that it could be used for cutting as well 
as thrusting ; while the small sword is triangular, with the 
sides fluted or hollowed out to lighten it without detracting 
from its strength. 

In the reign of Louis XV. was invested the duel au premier 
sang, in which the first blood drawn decided the affair ; and 
this arrangement, which, while it encouraged the practice of 
"going out" on slight provocation, also enabled sensitive 
gentlemen to do so at little risk to their valuable lives, has 
remained customary in France to the present day. 

In 1785 a duellist of the name of Dorsant had three en- 
counters in one week : the first with a man who had dared to 
look at him askance ; the second with an officer who had stared 
at him ; and the third with an Englishman who, having been 
introduced to this susceptible gentleman, failed to recognise 
him, and passed without looking at him at all ! It must have 
been difficult for a peaceable contemporary to avoid giving 
offence to M. Dorsant. 

Perhaps the last-named gentleman's honour would have been 
less sensitive if many men had been as irascible and earnest as 
a little gentleman living in Paris at the same time, who, quarrel- 



ling with some one in a restaurant on an upper story, and 
being a bad swordsman, challenged his adversary to jump out 
of window ; but withdrew the challenge when the other, after 
considering, replied, "I will, on condition that you jump first." 

Happily the days of duelling belong to the bad old times, 
and in our land no such follies are perpetrated. We have grown 
too wise to consider that an affront neeessarily calls for an 
appeal to arms. Fencing, however, still holds its place as a 
graceful, manly art, one which calls forth agility and skill as 
well as quickness of eye in its votaries. 

The principles of fencing laid down by Grisier are these : — 

To form a correct and rapid judgment of the mental and 
physical resources of your adversary, and how far he has 
learned to avail himself of them. 

To divine his intentions and frustrate them. 

To profit by any irregularity in his guard. • 

To learn whether his strength lies in defence or attack. 

Lastly, to find whether he acts at hazard, or according to a 
preconceived plan. 

The object of him who desires to become a good swordsman 
must be to combine with perfect coolness the greatest possible 
rapidity of movement, with firmness on the legs, and suppleness 
of body ; to parry without effort, and yet effectively ; to feint 
with safety. 

Five qualities are necessary for the attainment of this ideal : 
knowledge, precision, rapidity, a quick eye, and a strong wrist. 
The first three are only to be acquired by careful practice of the 
rudiments before loose practice is indulged in. Let us there- 
fore begin with 


If attitude is not " everything " in fencing, it is at least a 
very great deal, for without securing a correct position, into 
which the learner shall fall instinctively, without thinking 
about it, further progress is impossible. The more pains he 
takes to come on guard and longe correctly, the quicker will he 
get on afterwards. 

Place yourself with your right breast opposite the adversary, 
your eyes fixed on his, your right foot pointing to the front, the 
left to the left, at right angles ; the right heel in front of the 
left ankle ; the body upright ; the hips rather drawn back, but 
without constraint ; the head erect, but not thrown back ; the 
hands hanging easily at the sides, the left holding the foil as 
if it were a sword in its scabbard, convex side of the handle 
upwards (Fig. 1). 

Raise the right hand in front of the body as high as the face, 

palm upwards, and bring it across to the hilt of the foil, which 

grasp lightly. Raise both hands above the head, separating 

' them, so that the left hand shall hold the point of the foil 

(Fig. 2). 

Bring down the right arm with the foil, until the elbow is 
about on a level with the waist, and some eight inches in front 
of it. Thumb along the surface of the hilt ; forefinger under 
the thumb ; the point of the foil as high as the chin : the fore- 
arm and foil in a straight line. The left arm must remain in 
the position in which it held the point above the head, except 
that the palm of the hand is to be turned to the front. Then, 
without moving the body, head, or neck, bend both knees, 
sinking down as low as you can, and advance the right foot 
some twelve or fourteen inches, so that the leg from the knee 
to the ground is perpendicular (Fig. 3). Now you are on guard, 
which is the position from which all attacks are made, and in 
which all attacks are parried. Short men should have their 
guard as high as their necks, men of middle height a little 
above the middle of the chest ; tall men should take the middle 
exactly. As a rule, you must always regulate the height of your 
guard by that of your adversary. 

Pay great attention to the hold you have of the hilt, for 
upon it depends that freedom and suppleness of the wrist 
without which the various movements to be described hereafter 
cannot be performed. However the arm and hand may be 
turned and twisted, no finger should ever stir from the posi- 
tion in which it is first placed on the handle (Fig. 4). 

The foil then must be held firmly, but not grasped hard; the 
thumb advanced along the upper side of the hilt, and nearly 
touching the shell; the forefinger exactly underneath it; the 
other fingers close up to the forefinger, not separated. 

Remember also with regard to the feet, that in all positions, 
whether you advance, retire, or longe, they must remain as they 
are placed when on guard, i.e., at right angles, the right foot 
pointing to the front, the left to the left ; for if the toes are 
turned outwards or inwards, the body will at once lose its 
balance, while in the case of longeing, your point will be turned 
aside from the adversary's breast. 

The Advance. — Take a short quick pace to the front with the 
right foot, which must not be raised high, but just skim the 
ground. As the right foot touches, bring up the left the 
same distance, taking care to keep the feet in their relative 
positions, i.e., at right- angles, and the right heel on a line witli 
the left ankle. 

The Retreat. — Take a short quiek pace to the rear with the 
left foot, and as it touches the ground bring back the right 
foot, planting it firmly on the ground. 

The Longe. — Straighten the right arm, raising the hand, and 
depressing the point of the foil, until arm and foil form one 
horizontal line ; and as you do this turn the nails upwards. 
Then step forward from fifteen to eighteen inches with the 
right foot, and straighten the left leg by pressing back the 
knee, taking care not to move the left foot, which must be 
kept flat and firmly. planted : at the same time let the left hand 
fall to within a few inches of the thigh (Fig. 5). 

After a little practice, these actions are performed simultane- 
ously, but it is of such vital importance that the nails should be 
turned upwards (Fig. 6), a slight movement which gives strength 
and suppleness to the wrist, while it communicates rigidity and 
accuracy of direction to the sword ; and also that the arm 
should be perfectly straight when the right foot darts forward, 
that you must begin by making two distinct movements ; first 
straighten the arm, then longe. It is well to have a mark on the 
adversary's plastron to aim your point at; or for private practice, 
make a mark on a wall at the height of the centre of a man's 
breast, and longe at that. Tou cannot take too much pains to 
acquire the habit of performing this movement properly ; for if 
you once get in the way of plunging forwards with a bent arm, 
and making a poke, you will find it very difficult to break 
yourself of it. Tou would never have the opportunity of 
doing so if you were opposite a weapon with a point to it ; 
on the first occasion of the experiment, your adversary would 
merely hold his sword straight, and you would plunge upon it. 

Pay great attention also to the position of the body when 
extended ; that the feet remain at right angles ; that the right 
leg is perpendicular from the knee t© the ankle — if the foot is 
beyond the perpendicular line, you have " longed " too far ; that 
the head and shoulders are not bent forward, but retain the 
same position as when on guard. 

The lowering of the left arm is of use in preserving the 

To recover from the exteaded position, press the ground 
with the right foot, springing back to the position of the 
guard, re-bending the left knee, and tossing up the left hand 
again. These are the movements which may fee considered as 
having reference to the position in fencing ; in the next paper 
we propose to treat of the defence. 




By Greviixe Fennell. 

a few words on fishing- — tackle in general — the choice of rod — bamboo v. hickory — fixed joints — river fish. 

having unwarily seized the •worm, was jerked right overhead 
and lay kicking and gasping among the tender grass ? What 
was this book that should teach us ? "Who was the author, that 
he should endeavour to make small boys unhappy for the term 
of their summer holidays, and lead bigger ones into self-denying 
outlays of pocket-money on expensive gut-lines and bamboo rods ? 
Had we not caught trout with horse-hair and a two-joint hazel ? 
Let him be of small account henceforth. So said we in our boyish 
days, and so say we now. Unquestionably, you cannot throw a 
fly with a cane roach rod, nor can you troll comfortably with a 
fly-rod ; but your selection of this article of tackle, as of every 
other, must be governed to a certain extent by convenience and 
to some extent by the nature of the water you are going to 
fish. A rod of four joints, with a stiff top and a longer pliant 
one, and one that will fit into the second joint (and be nearly as 
stout as the ordinary third joint), for trolling, will answer every 
purpose of bottom fishing that can be imagined. Whether this 

have but little fault to find 
with the countless treatises on 
angling which have appeared 
in the English language, beyond 
the fact that they bewilder the 
tyro with what we consider 
an undue importance attached 
to different tackle for dif- 
ferent kinds of angling, and 
perhaps that singular omis- 
explanations of the 
and the " wherefore " 
various tenets the 
are desirous of im- 
upon the reader. We 
take up some of the best works, and what do we find ? That if 
we are to subscribe to the doctrine of our teachers, and implicitly 

sion of 
" why " 
of the 

Fig. 1. 

follow their instructions, we should, before we started as a faith- 
ful pupil, require, particularly if we were a youngster, a far 
more liberal allowance of pocket-money than generally falls to a 
youngster's lot. Here we take at random the list of an angler's 
outfit — a bag rod for general fishing, a stiff cane rod, eighteen 
feet long, for roach-fishing, a four-joint stout bamboo for perch, 
a different one for spinning, another for trolling, a double-handed 
fly-rod for salmon fishing, and a single-handed fly-rod for trout 
angling; and who has not become more and more perplexed 
as he has read on of the costly, if not of the altogether unattain- 
able, equipment indispensable to qualify for an angler's career ? 
Not to say anything of reels, "plain," "click," and "multi- 
pliers," landing-nets, gaff-hook, rod-spike, clearing-ring, bait- 
kettle, pannier, fly-books well furnished, plummets, swivels, 
traces, floats, and a hundred other items deemed by the tackle- 
manufacturers, but not by us, essentially necessary to be at hand 
before the tyro dare think of looking with profit upon the waters. 
Upon this the first part of our text, a dear friend once wrote 
us : " How often have not I retired, full of much murmuring 
and disquietude of heart, to my favourite promontory of turf 
projecting a little way into the stream, under shelter of some j 
friendly pollard willow, throwing its shadow over rippling 
shallows, there to pursue in solitude a ruthless campaign 
against the minnows. But who shall picture the delight with 
which the first huge gudgeon, fully two ounces in weight, was 
hooked and fairly landed ? Who shall describe how the scales 
fell from my youthful eyes when a trout — yea, a little trout — 

rod should be of bamboo or hickory, you shall presently deter- 
mine for yourself. The bamboo is lightest, stiffest, and tires 
the arm less ; the hickory is less likely to break than the 
bamboo, and is easier to mend." 

As it will be our object in these papers to deal as much as 
possible with the "why" and the " wherefore " — in a word, to 
render " philosophy in sport science in earnest " — we shall 
endeavour to explain in the most simple and practical way the 
reasons for the adoption of certain rules, which rules we shall 
select alone for that popularity earned for them by their success 

Here, then, we have to explain why the bamboo rod is superior 
to the hickory, beyond that already advanced in its favour — its 
lightness and stiffness. It is that in float-fishing, for roach 
more particularly, in which the action of the hand ought rapidly 
to follow the detection by the eye of the slightest indication of 
a bite, there should exist no undulation along the rod from the 
strike of the wrist to the extreme tip of the top joint ; but this is 
the case generally with the best hickory rods, and sometimes, it 
must be confessed, with a badly-made rod of bamboo. 

It is extremely easy to tell whether a fishing rod has this 
great and serious defect, or is altogether free from the disadvan- 
tage, and as this test can be applied before the purchase is 
made, it has this additional recommendation, that you are not 
saddled with a piece of tackle you daily wish would meet with 
some accident to justify your getting rid of it. Put the rod 
together in the shop, and holding it as in the attitude of angling 
with its top joint over the counter, evenly and horizontal, within 



a couple of inches of it, strike with the customary turn of the 
■wrist, and if the top bends towards the counter first before it 
rises, have nothing to do with it, for in that period it will 
lose by its action in giving the necessary tautness to the line, 
and consequently, in hooking your fish, your prey will detect 
that the bait is held by a lure and will reject it. 

Again, you may be told by the manufacturer invariably to 
observe certain marks upon the ferrules, which are always to come 
opposite to each other to secure the equality and straightness of 
the whole. Our opinion upon this point is, that well-finished 
joints should permit of their being put together without any 
such conditions — conditions which in the hurry of fishing, more 
particularly when the sport is fast and furious, are sure not to 
be observed. 

together, at an accurately plumbed swim, dropping in and 
drawing out, and ground-baiting with the regularity of a pen- 
dulum, but, in fine autumn weather, to start up such a river as 
the upper Thames, with a good stock of red worms, and walk 
over three or four miles of water in the course of the day, 
making a cast wherever I see a likely spot, in happy indiffer- 
ence whether perch, chub, roach, rudd, dace, gudgeon, or other 
of the fish delineated below (Fig. 2) accept the proffered dainty. 
And as, to avoid any squabbles with landowners, I prefer keeping 
to the towing or public footpath, it is very often necessary to 
make a far cast, for fish of any size will usually shun the fre- 
quented side, and keep either in the middle or on the further side 
of the stream. Now it is by no means easy to pitch float and 
bait lightly and accurately into any tempting locality — as, for 

Fig. 2. 

In the purchase of a rod, the chief thing, next to sound 
material and workmanship, is the balance. A good rod should 
rest fairly in the hand when grasped, neither dipping at the butt 
nor above it, and such a rod may be held all day with scarcely 
any fatigue, provided there is little or no wind. During windy 
or boisterous weather, a bamboo rod certainly possesses objec- 
tions which do not fall with the same force to those of a heavier 
description, and the longer the rod the more unmanageable it 
becomes under these circumstances ; but as the bamboo rod is 
almost wholly confined to roach fishing, and roach fishing is 
almost always pursued in calm, unruffled weather, these objec- 
tions to the use of bamboo do not apply but in exceptional cases. 

Still, there are those who altogether eschew the bamboo rod, 
and affect the hickory or lance-wood, and as they have an equal 
right to be heard, we will quote a passage from our common- 
place book on this head. " My favourite mode of enjoying my 
darling sport is not to sit in one place all day, or for hours 

example, between two patches of weed in the middle or at the 
other side of a river — particularly if the tackle is fine (which it 
always should be), and such as the wind might take. If you 
have a bamboo rod, and there is anything of a breeze, you will 
find it pretty fatiguing work, for the impetus has all to be 
given by your arm ; but with a hickory rod you avoid this 
labour. Being much heavier than bamboo, it resists the wind 
better ; and if, holding it in one hand, you take the bait or float 
in the other (according to the length of line required for the cast), 
and make a spring of the rod, you will find, with a very little prac- 
tice, that you can pitch the bait into any space big enough to hold 
it. And let me add, too, that in a weedy river it is no small 
advantage to have a pliant, limber rod, that will take the 
strain off your fine gut or single hair, as a bamboo never will. 
Giving line to a heavy fish under such circumstances would be 
fatal to your hopes of landing him, and to your tackle too; and 
this ia why I consider a hickory rod preferable for thia kind of 



fishing. I confess, however, that its greater weight is a 
serious primary objection, and that, like many other instructors, 
I do not always practise what I preach." 

The above presupposes that the rod ia fitted with rings and 
reel for running tackle, and in this respect the Nottingham 
style of angling leaves the Thames and other modes of angling 
very far behind, for not only does the line run off the Trent 
winches or reels with extraordinary facility in comparison to 
the ordinary description, but the weight of the float and con- 
sequent number of shot (the float generally is a simple pinion- 
quill from the swan or goose, of which we shall have presently 
more to say in praise) permits of and facilitates a far greater 
range of cast. 

We have seen, however, a compromise between these two 
kinds of rod, part bamboo and part hickory, or lance- wood, which 
has all the stiffness and suppleness combined for both styles of 
fishing ; but where the angler is seated to his work, and he fishes 
with a tight line, keeping the end of the top of his rod immedi- 
ately over the float slowly moves down stream, there is no 
rod to excel the bamboo for rapidity of strike (most important in 
roach fishing) and the facility of killing or securing the fish. 

A worthy old Waltonian, to whom we owe some of our first 
lessons beside the stream, used to say, "Don't buy a rod with 
screw, or bayonet, or any other fancy joints ; they are always 
getting out of order, nor do I like metal round the bottoms of 
the joints- it gives additional weight without compenso/ting 
advantages. Let the sockets be of metal, if you please, but let 
wood fit into them. As for the difficulty of separating the 

pieces should water get to the joints, I always consider that 
an advantage rather than otherwise. Following the example 
of a friend of mine, the best angler by many degrees that I ever 
knew, I always wet my joints thoroughly before putting them 
together, for there are few things more disgusting than whea 
making a vehement cast to hear the piteous splash which tells 
you that one-half of your rod is sweeping helplessly down the 
stream, attached to the remainder in yqur hand by a slender 
link of running line, and carrying float and bait into inextri- 
cable difficulties. I acknowledge that they stick fast occasion- 
ally, but a little dexterity will generally separate them, and 
very often sooner than is expected ; but if they do not readily 
yield, by no means use too great force. Holding the trouble- 
some joints about a foot above the flame of a candle for a 
few minutes, or, what is better, letting them stand near the 
kitchen fire for an hour or two, will soon part them." 

Our Mentor here, however, overlooks the annoyance of 
having to carry the stubborn joints, perhaps for a long dis- 
tance, to candle or fire, and thus subjecting them, perhaps, to 
damage upon the road ; and we have learned since to well 
grease the joints occasionally with tallow or mutton suet, 
which has invariably prevented their obstinate adhesion. 

In our illustrations we have given (Fig. 1) the best ordinary 
form of general bag rod, the convenient " walking-stick," and 
the butts of trolling and fly rods. In Fig. 2, the ordinary river 
fish, from the tiny minnow to the powerful barbel — friends that 
we hope a careful perusal of our articles will enable you to 
capture with the greatest ease. 



T has often puzzled me, when 

seeing a number of egg-shells 
lying upon the kitchen table, 
why the ingenious fancy- 
worker has not oftener tried 
her skill upon an article so 
beautifully and symmetrically 
modelled by Nature, and 
which it would be no waste of 
material to persevere upon to 
make up into articles both 
useful and ornamental. We 
always admire in the egg its 
fitness to its purposes, and 
the arrangement by which the 
greatest possible strength with the least expenditure of material 
is acquired. 

One description of ornamentation is that acquired by the 
tolerably well-known process of colouring for presentation as 
Easter offerings. But this process is attended with great un- 
certainty, inasmuch as the results are scarcely to be measured 
by the means of which use is made ; still, in its uncertainty, there 
are great advantages at times which occur from the accidental 
markings of colour, which are sometimes exceedingly effective. 
I will now give a few ways which have been tried by my friends. 
One tells me to take a clean egg, rub a little arnatto (a cheap 
buff dye, to be obtained at any chemist's) on one or two 
places, drop a little finely-powdered cochineal on one or two 
other spots, and, if I choose, rose pink and cudbear in different 
patches, these all on one egg. Then tie the egg in a piece of 

rag, and place it in a pan of cold water. Take care not to let it 
boil too fast, but just to simmer for half an hour. 

To dye plain mauve, put a very little finely-powdered 
cochineal in water. " When dissolved, boil the egg in it half an 
hour. To dye plain yellow, use arnatto or saffron. Logwaod 
dyes black ; rose pink and cudbear both give pretty colours, 
and can be obtained for a few pence. 

You can boil as many eggs at once as your pan will hold, 
taking care they do not boil too fast to knock against and 
break each other. 

In Cumberland they are dyed all colours — red, purple, yellow, 
and black. They are there called "pace eggs," and are much 
prized by the " bairnies." 

Another friend tells me she always found her plan successful 
for Easter eggs — namely, tying up and boiling the eggs in 
pieces of silk or print, which should be of cheap, common 
material, bright red, mauve, or blue, such as will not wash. 
Whole cochineal makes a beautiful crimson, or logwood chips 
a rich dark purple or black. Dry onion peelings dye in rich 
shades of orange, brown, and yellow. Variety may easily be 
obtained by mixing the colours on the same egg, as one half 
logwood and the other half red. The egg should be covered 
with the dyes, and then wrapped up well with old linen to keep 
the dye in, and boiled at least half an hour. The cochineal 
should be crushed before putting on the egg. 

The third practiser of the art says, "Use liquid dyes, of 
which you can procure any colour at the chemist's for sixpence." 
As the fashion of presenting eggs in spring is being revived, it 
may not be amiss to give my readers a little account of some 
of the customs in France with regard to Easter eggs. In an 



old work, published at the beginning of the century, I find the 
following : — " In the week preceding Easter, in France, baskets 
full of egga boiled hard, of a red or violet colour, are seen in 
the streets, and the children amuse themselves in playing 
with and afterwards eating them. The egg entered into 
all the mysterious ceremonies called apocalyptic ; and the 
Persians, who present eggs at the commencement of the new 
year, know that the egg is the symbol of the world; and 
whether the Christians, whose year commenced at Easter till 
1563, have borrowed the custom of presenting eggs to children 
from the Persians, or from the paschal ceremonies of the Jews, 
there is little doubt that the red colour given to them is 
derived from the Jews and the Egyptians. Throughout the 
country of Bonneval, on the day preceding Easter Sunday, and 
during the first days of that week, the clerks of the different 
parishes, the beadles, and certain artisans — as those who were 
constantly employed in constructing the implements of agri- 
culture, or in making harness for the horses — went about from 
house to house to ask for their Easter Day with red or yellow 
eggs. The following custom on Easter Day is general through- 
out Prance : — The different mechanics, such as the smith, the 
wheelwright, the shepherd, the ferryman, the miller, etc., go to 
their customers and ask for eggs, which are never refused ; the 
children of the village also proceed on the same errand, and 
have red eggs given them. This kind of begging is called les 
roulees, or going the rounds." 

Many very pretty and useful articles can be made with the 
shells of eggs, provided they be of sufficient strength to admit 
of manipulation. Of course the eggs of swans, emus, ostriches, 
and even geese, would come under this category ; while some- 
times those of the common fowl and domestic duck, from their 
occasional thickness, would serve. 

For this purpose eggs which are newly laid should be chosen, 
as any decomposition of the contents will cause a discoloration 
of the shell. Make a hole at the smaller end with an awl or 
some other pointed instrument, and another at the larger end, 
which should be as small as possible ; merely a pin-hole will do. 
To this latter the mouth must be applied to blow out the 
contents. If the yolk does not come out readily, get a cup full 
of water, and, immersing the sharp end, put your mouth to the 
blunt end, and draw some of the water up into the shell ; then 
shake it about well, and blow it out again ; but as it may 
sometimes happen that the eggs may not be fresh, it would be 
better to procure a little glass or tin tube, tapering to a fine 
point, and having a hollow bulb in it about two-thirds of its 
length, like the accompanying cut (Pig. 1). By the aid of this 
(which can be procured at any bird-stuffer's), the yolk is 
sucked up, the bulb preventing it coming into the mouth. 

Of course you have a basin of water beside you during the 
operation, and by alternately sucking and blowing-water into 
the shell you soon get it clean. In blowing with the mouth, be 
careful to remove the lips before you draw your breath again, 
or you may chance to find that, instead of blowing downwards, 
you draw up, and may get a taste of something that will turn 
you for ever from egg -blowing, unless you are an enthusiast. 

The ^egg being emptied of its contents, the operator decides 
whether he will employ the whole of the egg to make a vase 
and cover, as in Figs. 2 or 3, or one without a cover, as 
in Pig. 4. To do this the egg-sh^H is cut by drawing a 
fine line around it (see diagram, Fig. 5) with an ivory point 
or sharp piece of wood dipped in strong acid (sulphuric 
is the easiest obtainable, and must be kept in a stoppered 
bottle), which will eat into the egg, and render its division 
facile with the assistance of a knife or any sharp-edged 
tool. To get this line exact, the egg should be put into 
a circular vessel, a little larger in circumference than itself, 

containing sand or flour ; the egg should be sunk in this until 
that portion to be separated reaches the rim of the vessel, 
which will afford a reBt for the acid pencil to traverse with 
correctness around it. 

If the shell is soiled in any way, wash it well in strong 
lather made with curd soap, using a nail-brush if the stains do 
not come off readily, but great care must be taken in the 
handling of so brittle and fragile an article. 

The stand of Pig. 3 is made with one of those common 
imitation bronze oandlesticks, a pair of which may be bought 
at any German warehouse for less than a shilling. Into the 
nozzle some prepared plaster of Paris should be inserted to 
overflowing, and while in a liquid state the base of the egg-shell 
pressed down upon it, taking care that it is truly and exactly 
poised. It should now be allowed to rest without disturbance 
for twelve hours to set, when it will be found that the bronze 
stem will afford an excellent handle for the remaining opera- 
tions. These will consist, according to fancy, of decorations, 
which are very readily applied with any description of colour 
if the shell itself is first washed with a little ox-gall and water 
to remove all grease, and then covered with glycerine, which 
will dry rapidly. A narrow binding of thin gold paper may 
now be gummed round and turned in over the edge of the shell, 
taking care to nip the paper here and there, in order that it 
may be evenly attached and free from creases. When the 
bordering is finished, and the gum is dry, should the rim under 
the border be gold, as in Fig. 3, the pattern may be drawn 
with a little gum, slightly coloured to show the design, and, 
while wet, bronze powder shaken over it, or the more expensive 
gold leaf may be applied. The stand of No. 2 is a small slab 
of marble or stained wood. 

I have been trying decalcsmanie lately for decorating eggs, 
and have had marvellous success with it. Purchase from the 
stationer's some small bunches of flowers, such as are sold for 
l|d. a dozen, for use on small eggs, and larger sizes in pro- 
portion to the egg to bo decorated. Have ready a saucer of 
clean water and a thick pad made of linen rag ; dip the bunch 
©f flowers in the water, and place it while wet just where you 
want it to remain on the egg. Apply the pad so as to fix your 
subject well, taking care not to shift it ; then slip the paper, 
which will be loose, gently off. Be very careful not to lift the 
paper until you see your design well developed on the egg. Let 
it dry, when proceed the same with another, letting one dry 
before trying a second. The rim at the top in gold and the 
bunches of flowers round, with an arabesque in gold under, 
have a very happy effect. Over the whale a good coat of 
varnish or copal mastic will secure the art application, and 
give additional strength and beauty to the effect. 

The hinges of the vase may be formed of a small piece of 
narrow China ribbon, gummed inside. Of course the covers 
should be made to correspond with the vase. 

Should you desire to have figures in relief on your egg, the 
following is the plan : — 

Design on the shell any figure or ornament you please with 
melted tallow, or any other fat, oily substance ; then immerse 
the egg in very strong vinegar, and let it remain till the acid 
has corroded that part of the shell which is not covered with 
the greasy matter ; those parts will then appear in relief 
exactly as you have drawn them. 

In Vienna the natural egg has been almost entirely super- 
seded by the artificial one amongst the aristocracy, as it gives 
more scope for the introduction of valuable presents of what- 
ever size needed. Gold, silver, bronze, and other metals are 
used in the manufacture of the shells, as well as other materials, 
such as papier mache, mother of pearl, ivory, glass, and choice 
woods, handsomely finished on the outside with floral and other 



designs, engraved, perforated, 
coloured, etc. Some are co- 
vered with silk and satin, and 
bedecked with embroidery. 
Scarcely any material is to be 
named that is not made into 
Easter eggs. At the Imperial 
glass-cutting manufactory at 
Moscow two halls were seen 
filled with workmen employed 
on nothing else but cutting 
flowers and figures on eggs of 

Very beautiful mosaic work 
may be executed in endless 
variety of pattern, and even 
pictures composed of 
human and other 
figures, with small 
portions of the eggs 
of wild birds, quite 
equal in effect to 
many works which 
form the attractions 
of some of the finest 
and choicest collec- 
tions of foreign exhi- 
bitions. It may be 
reasonably supposed 
that as every portion 
of the egg-shell forms 
an integral segment 
of a concave and con- 
vex form, the absence 
of perfect flatness of 
the coloured surface 
presented to the eye 
would form an ob- 
jection to this mode 
of decoration. I am 
far from thinking 
this to be the case, 
as the individual 
irregularities of sur- 
face, catching each 
its own light, en- 
hance the effect, and 
get rid of that mo- 
notony which by injudicious ar- 
rangement might fall to the share 
of some of the more early opera- 
tions of the tyro. ■ 

Another very great objection 
might be advanced by the humani- 
tarian — namely, the encourage- 
ment which this practice might, 
if generally obtained, give to the 
purloining of the nests of our 
feathered companions. This may 
have its weight ; but if we should 
have to resort to the homes of 
living birds, we might confine our 
spoliation to the early parts of 
the season, when, by only the 
removal of one or two of the 
eggs, the birds will make up the 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 6. 

deficiency, and the general 
community of our favourites 
will scarcely suffer in number. 
But we do not anticipate any 
such attacks upon the denizens 
of our woods and glades, for 
we have ample store in the 
debris of foreign imports and 
the casualties of our cabinets. 
Even setting aside these re- 
sources, we need not go beyond 
our own farmsteads for the 
coloured material to commence 
our pleasing work, without a 
charge apon our conscience of 
wanton robbery, whether fair 
or foul. For instance, 
the greyish blue is 
found in the eggs of 
the domestic duck ; 
our Guinea fowl gives 
us a reddish white, 
freckled with a darker 
hue ; the Cochin China 
varies in colour from 
our common barndoor 
fowl. But should 
we not get sufficient 
variety of colour by 
this means, we can 
easily fall back upon 
the artificial ones 
already given for 
Easter eggs, from 
which pieces of the 
more exact may be 
selected ; and while 
upon the topic of 
selection, I would 
suggest that the vari- 
ous hues, or as far 
as they may be ap- 
proximated, should 
be kept separately 
in divisional parti- 
tions, running from 
white through a regu- 
lar chromatic scale. 
A plain shallow cardboard box, 
such as is used by shirt-makers, 
with separate compartments, will 
answer the purpose, as our in- 
tention is to make our work 
as simple and inexpensive as 
possible, ever a pleasurable ele- 
ment in objects of recreative 

Suppose we take for our first 
essay one of the well-known com- 
mon plaster fonts, like the illus- 
tration (Fig. 6), procurable for 
a small sum at the Italian 
figure-makers, and commence 
upon its plinth or base, giving 
first to the surface a good coating 
of boiled oil. 



R O W I N G. 

By Lambton Young. 


P all English athletic sports there is very little doubt 
that the essentially English exercise of rowing has now 
"~<.J$s2™ f or m any years stood on an equality with the fine sport 
of crieket. This arises in a great measure from the exertion re- 
quired for its thorough enjoyment, and from the insular position 
of Old England, with its numerous streams, lakes, canals, and 
pieces of water suitable for rowing on, as well as the oppor- 
tunity it offers of displaying'the muscle of our rising young men. 
It seems as if all boys in England are born with a turn for 

the water, as immediately they can get into a boat the choicest 


less in number, and whose interest in the successes of the 
various champions of their acquaintance tends to their making 
greater exertions to win the coveted prize. 

But all these inducements would not be strong enough if the 
magnificent contests between Oxford and Cambridge, the many 
boat-clubs in all parts of the United Kingdom, and the Henley- 
on-Thames Eegatta, as well as the little less exciting but 
smaller meetings of towns on the Thames and the provinces, 
with their numerous prizes for the victors, did not keep their 
ambition in full force, and make them train carefully to arrive 


present that can be made to them is a small paddle with 
which to join in propelling the skiff with their older and 
more accomplished companions ; and the faster they go, the 
more delight is derived by the child. The lessons learned 
at such a tender age are of great benefit ultimately, as the 
good-natured chaff given to the child who does not feather 
rightly, keep time with the others, or who catches crabs, 
deluging the occupants of the boat, makes such an impression, 
that great care is taken that such awkwardness is corrected 
on future occasions. 

Boat-racing is now the most popular sport amongst all classes 
of the community, from the many pleasant associations connected 
with it — the picnics and enjoyments afforded by the presence 
of our friends and relations, who can join in parties more or 

as near perfection on the day of contest as constant practice 
can make them. And we must not forget that Eton, West- 
minster, Radley, Trinity College, Dublin, etc., are constant 
feeders of our array of finished oarsmen, both at Oxford and 
Cambridge and in the many clubs so abundantly spread about 
the country. 

One good sign of the times is that the officers of the Royal 
Engineers and Royal Artillery at Chatham, known . as the 
" sappers" and the "gunners," have now an annual contest for 
the ' ' honour of the thing. ' ' The younger officers coming up from 
the public schools are of course good oarsmen, and very soon 
show a " good form " in the rival boats. It is much to be 
hoped that they will put in an appearance at Henley regatta 
this year, and if possible add to the popularity of the sister 



corps by coming to the point to contest for the honourable dis- 
tinction of " Champions of the Thames." 

In treating this subject at length, it will be necessary to 
divide it into three parts — Bowing, Training, and the Laws of 
Boat-racing j and these three heads must be again subdivided 
into many and various matters embraced in the three before- 
named headings. 

Firstly, boats and their fittings will be treated of as copiously 
as this work will permit, and all the most recent inventions 
and additions that may tend to make these boats approach 
perfection will be explained as clearly as needs be. 

As a rule all boats used in racing at the present day (pro- 
pelled by oars and sculls) are built and fitted as outriggers — 
from the twelve-oars, eight-oars, four-oars, pair-oars, to the 
sculling boats — and the old-fashioned in-rigged boats, in which 
the rowlock was fixed on the gunwale or upper plank called the 
wale, being hardly ever used in races in the present day unless 
under special circumstances, such as the annual race for Dog- 
gett's coat, badge, and freedom of the Thames, rowed from 
the Old Swan at London Bridge to the Old Swan at Chel- 
sea, on the young flood-tide, and in some waterman's races, 
where, by previous agreement, these old-fashioned boats are 

The term " outrigger" is of comparatively modern date, and 
means something rigged out or fitted outside the gunwale of a 
boat, and is now understoood to mean the iron frame-work fixed 
to the boat's side to support the rowlocks ; the term "outrigger" 
is also generally applied to any boat fitted with this contri- 
vance. Another name for them, which is but seldom used 
now, is that of the " Clasper boat," from the builder " Henry 
Clasper " of Newcastle-on-Tyne, who is generally supposed to 
have invented this simple but most useful addition to our old- 
fashioned boats. But to put the facts of this addition to our 
powers of propelling our racing boats through the water with 
the utmost velocity clearly before our readers, we cannot 
follow a better course than to give from some letters that 
appeared in a newspaper in 1865, the real history of the case, 
which may safely be considered to set this much-contested 
question at rest once for all. 

The first outriggers used in racing were fixed on a boat 
called the " Diamond " of Ouseburn, Tyneside, where she rowed 
against the " Fly," of Scotwood-on-Tyne, in the year 1828 ; 
but they were only rude pieces of wood fastened on the sides, 
and were invented by Anthony Brown, of Ouseburn, and fixed 
by Ridley, a boat-builder of that period. In the same year 
Frank Emmett claimed the invention, and fixed something 
similar on a boat belonging to Dent's Hole, Tyneside ; and 
there can be no dispute that the " Eagle," of Dent's Hole, by 
Emmet, in the year 1830, was the first boat with iron out- 
riggers ; outrigged craft then came to be the usual form of 
racing boats on tho Northern rivers, Tyne and Wear. 

When regular regattas were established by the Durham 
University about 1834 or 1835, London-built six-oared racing 
boats were procured from Searle, but they were found to be so 
inferior in speed to the native outriggers that the latter were 
not allowed to compete in the same races, and consequently 
the boats were divided for separate races into two classes, i.e., 
gutters, and gigs (as outriggers were then termed).- The force 
of Southern fashion, however, appears so far to have prevailed 
over common sense and experience — just as fast-sailing vessels 
for many years were used in preference to faster going 
steamships — that many boats of the London pattern were built 
in the North after that time, until the Clasper victory on the 
Thames established the reputation of the Northern type of 
boat. The principle of Clasper's boat was the same as the 
traditional form, only he was the first builder who v reduced the 

substance of the boat to the limit of lightness and fine work- 
manship, or nearly so ; as it cannot be denied that the racing 
outrigger has undergone a very marked improvement since 
he achieved his well - deserved reputation. In 1842, then, 
Clasper. commenced to build the four-oared boat which was to 
produce such a revolution in the art of boat-building down 
south ; but he was dissuaded from completing one for the .£200 
match with Coomber's crew, which took place on the Tyne on 
the 16th July, 1842. 

It now takes a good long time to acquire the proper knack 
of sitting one of these racing-boats, and many upsets must be 
expected before that perfect command of them is acquired 
which these delicate craft require. 

The sculling boat is composed of two portions, the body, or boat 
proper, and the projecting irons or outriggers to support the 
rowlocks, which necessarily are placed one on each side exactly 
opposite one another. The body is generally built of cedar 
wood, in lengths, with ribs or "timbers" of ash, edible chest- 
nut, sometimes beech, fixed to tho inwale, at the upper part 
(the inwale is a long strip of deal running lengthwise down the 
inside of the upper edge of the boat), and below, into the inner 
keel or keelson. Upon the inner keel is fastened a long piece 
of wood, generally fir, which rises in the centre, under the 
thwart or seats, which are fastened to it, to their level, and tapers 
off fore and aft ; the object of this false kelson or backbone 
being to impart strength to the floor of the boat, and to assist 
in carrying the thwart. The inner keel, kelson, and inwale are 
first laid down, bottom upwards, on the frame upon which these 
boats are usually built, and, when built on moulds, the moulds 
next ; the skin is then bent on to the inner keel, inwale, and 
moulds by the application of hot wator, and fastened to the 
inner keel and inwale ; this having been done, the boat in her 
then condition is turned over, right way uppermost, and firmly 
fixed on the stocks or frame ; the timbers are then put in, and 
the mould removed as their places are thus supplied. Some 
builders, however — Biffin for instance — eut out the timbers by 
rule, and, using no moulds, fasten the skin at once on to them, 
before turning the boat over. The stem and stern are made of 
solid pieces of wood, which is sometimes mahogany, cedar, fir, 
or arbeal, at the option of the builder, and the skin worked 
up to them ; the stem is usually protected by a brass clamp ; 
and the nails used are all made of copper. In addition to the 
ordinary kind of timbers, larger, or " outrigged timbers," are 
inserted where the iron outriggers will be fixed, and to them the 
latter are fastened. The interior of the boat is divided into 
three portions by bulkheads, upon which are fastened the 
wooden decks, at whose upper corners are small holes for 
allowing the water to run out, when leaky, by turning the 
boat topsy-turvy. The washboard rests upon the forward deck, 
and prevents rough and broken water from coming in. Tho 
breakwater runs round the sides of the boat to the coxswain's 
thwart, and crossing the boat abaft his thwart, so ends. The 
remainder of the boat is covered over with what is technically 
known as the " canvas," but the covering is made of linen, well 
varnished, stretched, and nailed to the inwale. It is supported 
by a long strip of wood running longitudinally down the centre, 
and called the rising piece, and by cross-beams, which run 
transversely from the rising piece to the inwale. The canvas 
is nailed on the outside through the skin to the inwale, and its 
edge is hidden by a thin beading which runs fore and aft. 
The skin meets in the centre of the boat at the joints, and is 
fastened into the inner keel ; and there being no outer or visible 
keel, the bottom is round. The lengths of which the skin is 
composed are joined by "scarves" put in opposite one another. 
There are usually four scarves, two on each side ; and the boat 
is thus divided into three lengths of skin, one long and two 



short ; but this rule is not universal. The centre portion of 
a sculling-boat is called the " box," and of oar-boats the 

It is almost needless to observe that all these boats are 
well varnished outside and in. The stretcher against which 
the rower's feet are placed is a strong piece of fir fitted into 
a rack with brass thumbscrews, and this shifts according to 
the length of the rower's leg ; a leather strap for the toes is 
fastened ts it by a small staple. In some boats there are 
bottom boards or burdens, and in others there are not. If 
you go to twenty different boat-builders, each will have a 
different way of putting the work together, and of fitting 
out his boats ; it is therefore of no benefit to enter into a 
very lengthy description of all the small technicalities of 
their business, as it will not answer our present purpose. 

The iron outriggers now in use are made of four round stays: 
not so long ago they were of square iron, and the two lower or 
middle stays were then crossed. The two upper stays are the 
shortest, and, with the rowlock plate, are in one piece ; the 
thowls, which are generally made of beech-wood cased with iron, 
are separate, and, being fitted with shoulders through holes in 
the rowlock-plate, receive the lower stays, fastened underneath 
by means of nuts screwed tight and firm. All four stays 
are fastened (at their lower extremities) through the out- 
rigged timbers by means of nuts and bolts. When required, 
cross-stays are also placed inside the boat. The thowls are 
known by the names of " thowl " for the fore one, and the 
" stopper " for the after one ; across their tops there is 
generally fixed a piece of twisted string, to keep the oaf or 
scull from unshipping or jumping out of the rowlock. 


By Ellis A. Davidson, Author of " Drawing for Carpenters and Joiners," " Linear Drawing," " Drawing for Cabinet Makers," etc. 


B do not know any amusements 
which afford so much real 
pleasure as those which leave 
permanent records of ingenuity 
and skill. Every time we look 
at some useful or pretty object, 
the construction of which has 
employed our leisure hours, 
the pleasure revives. We re- 
member the difficulties we en- 
countered, and the energy 
with which we vanquished 
them : the gratification is thus 
rendered ever green. 

Our friend Jones calls to 
see us, and remarks, admiringly, " Why, what beautiful book- 
shelves you have ! I wish I had some ! I say, Alfred, where 
did you get them ?" Fancy the modesty with which we are 
suffused, as we reply, " I made them myself." 
. This satisfaction is not however a merely selfish feeling, for 
by the art that is treated of in these papers, much additional 
pleasure and comfort may be given to those around us, and 
numerous things may be made at the mere cost of the materials ; 
whilst on the good old principle that " a stitch in time saves 
nine," the power of executing little repairs in a house not 
only saves much money, but often prevents further damage 
and expense. 

We intend therefore giving a series of patterns for numerous 
useful and ornamental articles, together with hints for their 
construction, which, whilst being thoroughly practical, will be 
found sufficiently simple to be followed by the amateur. 

Now the very fact of our friend Jones admiring our book- 
shelves and yearning to possess a similar set, evidences his 
appreciation of them. And we must remember that Jones is 
but the " type of a class." If Jones wishes for such a set of 
shelves, depend on it there are many others who have their 
books lying scattered about, and who would only be glad of a 
similar receptacle for them, so we will help them to " rig up " 
a book- case of the simplest character. 

We do not in the first place give a long list of tools which 
our readers are supposed to require before setting to work. We 

shall in commencing give subjects which require but few tools, 
suggesting others which may be purchased singly, as the neces- 
sity for them arises. 

We do not wish to ignore a well-fitted tool-box, but to in- 
timate that an amateur need not wait to begin work until 
he has one. We would however throw out a hint to those 
who are about making such an investment, viz., purchase at 
a regular tool-shop at which you can depend on the quality of 
the tools. 

Do not buy a tool-box which is merely a toy ; this is absolutely 
a waste of money. Further, the tools fitted in the boxes are as 
a rule of a smaller size than those used by regular joiners, and 
as certain tools are supposed to be required to make up a set, 
it follows that in many cases, the boxes being sold at stated 
prices, some are introduced to make up the number which are 
of inferior quality. 

There is an old adage that " a good workman can work with 
bad tools." Of course he can, because he is a good workman, 
and knows how to get over every difficulty, so as to make his 
tool "do its best," but he could do much better, and work more 
quickly too, if he had good tools. 

We are not, however, writing for " good workmen " but for 
amateurs ; and as neatness, accuracy, and careful fitting (or 
"joining") of one part with another are main features in joinery, 
the necessity for good tools, by which alone he can attain these 
results, cannot be too strongly insisted upon. 

One of the greatest luxuries the amateur joiner can enjoy is 
a room all to himself — a kitchen or other place on the ground 
floor ; but in lieu of this an attic will do. 

The former is, however, preferable, since wood is more easily 
brought in, and chips, shavings, etc. removed without being taken 
through the house. Of course, if this desideratum cannot be 
obtained, the embryo joiner must be content to work in the 
kitchen, or wherever folks will let him, but this involves much 
waste of time, as all the parts of the work have to be got 
out, and put away again. The inconvenience of this will be 

And now let us proceed with our work ; and we will assume 
that it is required to build a nest of shelves, 3' 6" wide (when 
one dash is placed over a figure it means feet, and two dashes 
stands for inches, thus 3' 6" means three feet six inches); such 



a set of shelves may either be placed in a recess, or may stand 
at any other part of a room. 

As all the boards employed must be very nicely planed, wo do 
not advise the beginner to attempt this, but to content himself 
in the first instance with the absolute construction of the piece 
of furniture, and such operations conneoted with the work as his 
" plant " or tools may enable him to carry out. 

Now let us come to sizes. As has already been said, the case 
is to be 3' 6" wide inside measurement, and thi3 will therefore 
be the length of all the shelves. 

It is not usual in cases of this 
kind to bring the shelves down 
to the bottom, a space is gene- 
rally left for portfolios, draw- 
ing boards, etc. ; and, of course, 
an extra shelf in this space can 
be added at any time it may be 
found needful. 

Do you remember the story 
of an old lady who, when 
asked how to jug a hare, gave 
as a starting-point of the re- 
ceipt, "catch a hare ? " Well, 
we must follow this excellent 
plan. Ton know wo have said 
we mean to be thoroughly prac- 
tical, so you must in the first 
place, get the wood. 

At most large timber-yards 
there are planing machines, and 
you can buy the boards ready 
planed; but if the yard is at a 
distance from your house, there 
may be some difficulty in getting 
your purchase home, and there- 
fore the better plan is to buy 
your material from some car- 
penter in your own neighbour- 
hood, who will charge you per- 
haps a little mora than they 
would at the yard, but still 
the little extra money paid on 
"the wood will bring profit to 
your amount of knowledge, for 
whilst in the carpenter's shop, 
if you make a rule to " walk 
through the world with your 
eyes open," you will see many 
things which will be of service 
to you; and if you " cultivate " 
the carpenter, you will get 

from him numerous practical lessons in manipulation which 
can only be understood by seeing the work actually done. To 
see a. regular workman handle his tools; to watch how he uses 
force to his saw only in the downward stroke; how he presses on 
the plane only as he pushes it forward, but lifts it as he draws 
it back, instead of rubbing it about on the wood a3 if he were 
using a duster — all this is important and instructive : you can in 
fact tell by the very sound produced whether the saw is cutting 
or the plane biting ; then, again, look how he uses his screw- 
driver — he doesn't keep up a series of hurried little jerks, working 
himself into a perspiration not at all commensurate- with the pro- 
gress made by the screw, but placing the end of the tool in the 
" nick " on the head, and keeping it in a line with the screw, he 
turns the screwdriver deliberately round as far as his hand will 
turn, then again and again, until the screw is driven home 

and the head nestles down into the conical home which has been 
countersunk for it ; and so regularly does a practised artisan 
work, that if he has to put in twenty screws he will use nearly 
the same number of turns for each. 

And then watch how he hammers. Did you ever hear the 
housemaid nailing down a carpet or knocking in a nail ? Listen 
— tap, tap, tap, tap ! about a hundred of them in a couple of 
seconds, a sudden stop, for, instead of striking the right nail 
on the head, she has struck the nail on her finger, or you 

hear hollow blows whilst she 
is straightening up the nail, 
' " which would go in sideways." 
Now look at our friend the 
carpenter ; he holds his ham- 
mer at the end of the handle 
the most distant from the 
head, and thus obtains the 
greatest possible force, and he 
strikes the nail straight on the 
head with firm and decided 
blows. Watch all this, and 
you will be much the better 
for it. 

Let us advise the amateur 
joiner, before he goes for the 
wood, to calculate what and 
how much he wants, and to 
put the quantities down on a 
piece of paper for the person 
who is to supply him. Now 
in this case the following is a 
copy of the order : — Two pine 
boards, 9 inches wide, 1 inch 
thick, planed both sides and 
edges — they are called inch 
boards, but are rather less than 
that when planed on both sides 
— 12 feet (the usual length) 
long. Ton will get this at 
2Jd. to 3d. per foot. One 11- 
inch wide pine board, 1 inch 
thick, planed both sides and 
edges, and 12 feet long. The 
price of this will be 3d. or 3|d. 
per foot. Six-feet of mould- 
ing, 3 inches wide, and some- 
what of the pattern shown in 
Fig. 1. The price of this will 
be about 9d. the six feet. 

The following measurements 
will show you the length you 
are to cut the sides : — 1st or lower space for portfolios, etc., 
3 feet ; first shelf 1 inch ; 2nd space 11 inches, second shelf 
1 inch ; 3rd space 10 inches, third shelf 1 inch ; 4th space 9 
inches, fourth shelf 1 inch ; 5th or upper space 11 inches (of 
which 3 inches will subsequently be covered by the cornice, 
leaving the space for books 8 inches). These added together 
give the total height of the sides 6' 9". 

Place your board on a long table, and, with your square placed 
as in the illustration (Fig. 2), draw a line across near the end,, 
so as to make sure of getting the end quite square, which, in 
the rough way in which the planks are sawn, cannot be de- 
pended upon. From this line mark off along the board the 
divisions for the spaces and shelves already given, and moving 
your square along, rule lines across, carefully observing that the 
wooden part of the square is held tightly against the edge of the 



board. The square (Fig. 2), consists of a piece of wood about 
seven inches long, with a steel blade at right angles to it. The 
price is Is. or Is. 6d. If you happen to have a T-square, such 
as is used for drawing, of eighteen inches long or more, you 
might place the two boards close to each other, side by side, 
and then draw the lines across both in one operation. This 
ensures absolute accuracy, and saves the trouble of "setting 
out " the divisions on each board separately. The boards are 
then to be sawn off at the end of the measured parts. 

It is advisable for beginners to mark the line in which they 
are going to saw on both sides, and on the edges, and to 
observe that the saw should pass through both lines. Carpen- 
ters' pencils are flat, both as regards the wood and the lead. 
The wood should be cut away, leaving the lead exposed, and 
this should be merely scraped down or filed, so as to bring it 
to a chisel-shaped edge — not a point — and in ruling the broad 
side of this should be placed against the rule. By this 
means a more accurate line is obtained, and the lead keeps 
sharp much longer than in the usual round point. 

When you are going to saw, place the board on two kitchen 
chairs, and, standing on your right foot, place your left knee on 
the board, holding it also with your left hand. Let your saw 
move perpendicularly, starting it very gently, or you will chip 

away the edge of the board. Press on your saw during its 
downward motion, but not as you draw it up ; and let us again 
remind you not to attempt the cut by a quantity of short jerks, 
butbyregular "pushes " down and "pulls" up, extending almost 
the whole length of the saw. 

The saw (Fig. 3) we advise you to purchase is called the "hand 
saw," the price of which is about 5s. 6d. new. You can, how- 
ever, buy this, and most of the other tools, second-hand at many 
shops for half the money, but be careful to see that the tools 
are second-hand, that is, that they have been used by working- 
men ; do not buy a new tool at a second-hand shop, for common 
goods are manufactured and sold as second-hand ; but if a tool 
shows that it has really been used, it is to a certain extent a 
proof of its quality. 

Your boards were twelve feet long, and you have cut from them 
6' 9", leaving pieces 5' 3" long. Cut out of the two pieces 
thus left two of the shelves, which are to be 3' 6" long, and you 
will then have two pieces 1' 9" left,, which you may lay aside 
for future small purposes. Thus far for the mere structure, 
which we shall proceed to finish in the next paper. 

The other tools you will require are the gauge (Fig. 4) , gimlet 
(Fig. 5), plane (Fig. 6), screwdriver (Fig. 7), and hammer (Fig. 
8) j the descriptions and cost of which will also be given. 



OST people have a hobby of some 
sort ; as for me, I have all my 
life had a mania for toys, and am 
just as fond now of making 
kites, and iEolian harps, and pa- 
per boxes, and darts, and watch- 
spring guns, as I was twenty 
and never mind how many years 
ago. There is now less time, 
certainly, for such work, but the 
relish for it is not gone. My 
object in the present series of 
papers is to tell everything I 
know about the subject. I shall 
do my best to describe all those 
toys which can be made easily and at small cost, and shall 
also give an account of every toy-game worth speaking about. 

It does not seem worth while to enlarge on the importance of 
toys. Does any one doubt it ? Did not the famous Faraday 
once say that toys were " the most philosophical things in the 
world." Looked upon in the right light, they are by no means 
frivolous, and the making and playing with them are really 
profitable recreations. I might point out how inventive genius 
is quickened by them, I might say that, even supposing one has 
not much inventive genius to be stirred up, the making of toys 
will encourage neat-handedness, and the playing with them will 
greatly improve one's quickness of eye, and often one's readiness 
and grace of motion. But I leave these remarks to be enlarged 
upon at another time, and proceed at once to the matter in hand ; 
and the first toy I shall speak of is the Sucker. 

A sucker is made by cutting r.. circular piece out of a scrap of 
stout leather, boring a hole through its centre, and passing a 
string through the hole, with a knot at the end large enough to 
prevent its slipping, er instead of a knot one may put a small 
button of leather. To the other end of the string tie a piece of 
wood a few inches long, for the 'handle. Before using the 

sucker, soak it well in water ; then place the leather on a stone- 
and press it down with the foot till all the air is excluded. By 
taking hold of the string after that is done, the stone may be 
raised to a considerable height. This ia in consequence of the 
existence of a vacuum beneath the sucker, and the pressure 
upon it en all sides of the external air. If the sucker could 
act with full effect, a weight of fourteen pounds would be sup- 
ported by every square inch of its surface. 

The next toy to be mentioned is the Cut-water, which is con- 
structed in the following way : — Take a circular piece of tin or 
sheet lead, three inches or so in diameter, and cut it all round 
so as to look like a circular saw (see Fig. 1). Now bore two 
holes in it, marked A A, making them about an inch apart; 
thr©ugh these holes pass the two ends of a string, tie the ends 
of the string together, aad the cut- water is complete. The way 
to use it is this : — The string is held as in Fig. 2, and the tin saw 
is thrown round and round till the string is twisted as tight 
as possible. The hands are then drawn outwards, and, by the 
untwisting »f the string, the saw of course revolves rapidly. 
When the string is all untwisted, the hands should be allowed 
to go slightly nearer each other, when it will be found that the 
cut- water will begin to revolve in the opposite direction from 
that in which it went previously. When the string has become 
twisted again, the hands are to be drawn outwards, then brought 
a little nearer each other, then drawn outwards, and so on, as 
long as you please. The name " cut-water " applied to the toy 
is derived from a common way of playing with it. It is dipped 
a little below the surface of a basin of water whilst being spun, 
and it is highly entertaining to see how it sends showers of 
spray over the player whilst it spins in one direction, and 
splashes the spectators when it goes in another. 

An imitation of the cut- water may be made by passing a piece 
of thin string through the holes of a common large button. This 
was its ordinary form in the school in the north in which I re- 
ceived a considerable part of my tey education ; and many a time, 
I confess, have I made it spin, instead of writing half-text in my 



copy book, or listening to the lessons of a master for whom I 
then felt indifference and now entertain the highest respect. 

The Cup and Ball was a favourite toy at the court of Henry 
III. of Prance, and is still often played with. It consists of a 
stem of ivory or hard wood, with a point at one end, and a 
cup, which should be small and shallow, at the other. To the 
stem a ball, also of ivory or hard wood, is attached by means 
of a string of soft silk. Tou will find it somewhat difficult to 
acquire dexterity in playing with it ; but it is worth taking 
some trouble about, for few pastimes are better fitted for train- 
ing the eye and hand. Hold the stem, but not too 
tightly, in the right hand. Now make the ball re- 
volve by twirling it between the finger and thumb of 
the left hand. When its motion becomes steady, 
throw it up with a slight jerk of the wrist, and 
catch it either in the cup or on the spike at the end 
of the stem, to fit which spike there is a small hole 
made in the ball. The latter is by far the more diffi- 
cult feat; but it is possible by practice to accomplish 
it thirty or forty times in succession. A variety of 
the game is to catch the ball 
in the cup, when holding the 
stem by the point between the 
forefinger and thumb, instead of 
by the middle. Another variety 
is to swing the ball into the cup 
instead of throwing it; and a 
third is to catch the ball in the 
cup with your eyes shut. When 
you can do this, I shall give you 
a certificate as being a really 
good player at cup and ball. 

Let us now give our attention 
to that highly popular toy, the 
Watch-spring Gun. The reason 
of its popularity is no doubt 
that we are by nature rather a 
pugnacious people and fond in 
our early days of even the imi- 
tation of fire-arms. The ten- 
dencies of nations, it has been 
observed, are exhibited in their 
"toys as well as and sometimes 
better than in their graver 
affairs. I shall give as plain 
directions as possible for its 
manufacture ; and hope that 
you, the reader, will succeed 
in turning out quite a superior 
article. The first thing is to 
get a piece of wood about four 

inches long, and cut it into the form of the stock of a gun. 
In the upper part of the stock, where the barrel lies in an 
ordinary rifle, scoop out a groove ; in this groove place a large 
quill, open at both ends, and fasten on the quill with waxed 
thread ; one end of the quill should project beyond the 
muzzle-end of the stock, and the other should reach as far 
as the middle of it. Get a piece of old watch-spring, about 
as long as the quill, bend it backwards, and then tie one 
end of it firmly to the upper part of the butt-end of the 
stock. Through the middle of the stock, about half an inch 
from the mouth of the quill, bore a small hole, break a pin in 
two halves, take the half with the head, and round the head 
tie a piece of thread, , fasten the other end of the thread to 
the string that binds on the spring. The gun is now ready 
for action. When you would fire it, place a shot between the 


Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 



/ ■•••■• •-•'"■••• / 

"•-. /\ /'-■: -A. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 7. 

hole in the stock and the mouth of the quill, put the pin in the 
hole, bend back the spring, and let its loose end be- caught by 
the pin. Now that you have made ready, " present " — " fire," 
that is to say, draw out the pin and let the watch-spring free. 
By the action of the spring the shot may be sent to a consider- 
able distance. Sometimes the watch-spring is fixed in a different 
way ; you will see it represented in Fig. 3. A B c is the barrel, 
which may be a brass tube ; the upper half of it is cut away 
between A and b ; a a is the trigger, passed through a hole cut 
in the stock, and moving on a pin, b ; c c is the watch-spring, 
one end of which is inserted in a notch in the 
,. /v ,- trigger ; it is then 1 passed through the piece of the 
tube a, and is caught by a pin, d, which has been 
driven through the barrel, the head being allowed 
to project so as to serve as a catch. When the gun 
is fired, the shot is placed in the groove before the 
watch-spring ; the lower part of the trigger is then 
pulled, and that throws the spring forward and 
causes it to free itself from the pin-head, and propel 
the shot through the barrel B c. 

We come now to speak of 
two toy games, Jerk-straws and 
Spillikins. However trifling 
they may seem, to play them 
well requires the exercise of 
considerable judgment and cool- 
ness and steadiness of hand. 
Jerk-straws, or jack-straws, or 
joggling sticks, is played with 
a number — forty or fifty will do 
— of small sticks, about twice 
as long and half as thick as a 
lucif er match. These are thrown 
in a confused heap on the table, 
and the players have to remove 
them one by one by means of 
a longer stick. No one is al- 
lowed on any account to dis- 
turb the rest of the sticks in 
the heap. The first player re- 
moves as many as he is able, 
but whenever he shakes the 
heap, even in the slightest de- 
gree, ho gives place to another, 
and consoles himself by reckon- 
ing the number he has taken off, 
which counts towards his game. 
The second player goes on as 
long as he can, and then gives 
place to the third, and so on, 
till all the heap is removed. 
He who in the end has removed the greatest number of sticks 
is the winner. The game of spillikins is much the same as 
that of jerk-straws. The spillikins are a number of thin pieces 
of ivory or bone, cut into odd shapes — some like saws, some like 
spears, some like hooks, &o. Each spillikin is inscribed with a 
number, the lowest being 5 and the highest 40. They are 
thrown upon the table in a heap, and separated one from the 
other, just as in jerk-straws. At the end of the game each player 
adds up the numbers marked on the spillikins he has captured, 
and he who can show the highest number wins. 

Long ago we used to make several articles of paper, but our 
favourite manufacture was that of Paper Boxes. These we 
turned out in great numbers, and of all sizes : I have seen us 
make as ncny as twenty at a time, arranged so as to fit one inside 
the other. What we put inside them I really forget ; no doubt it 




Fig. 5. 

Fur. 8. 


was pieces of slate pencil, buttons, foreign coins, and such-like 
articles. T.o make them is very easy. Take a square piece of 
paper, the dimensions to be according to taste. Make folds in 
it where the dotted lines are in Pig. 4, but remember that the 
paper is not to remain folded, but is to be opened out after each 
fold. Now turn the corners A, b, c, d, into the centre ; then open 
out, when the folds •will be seen as in Fig. 5. Next fold A over 
to H, b to f, c to I, and D to G ; open out after each fold, and 
when this is done the folds will be seen as in Fig. 6. Fold A over 

to n, b to it, c to l, d to k ; then open out, and the folds will be 
seen as in Fig. 7. Take a penknife and make a cut wherever the 
dotted lines in Fig. 7 are superseded by black lines. Fold in 
the sides x and y of corners A and d — they will then look like 
Fig. 8— so that they may pass easily through the slits in the 
opposite corners, b and c. Last of all, pass the folded corner A 
through the slit in corner c, and open out the folds so as to make 
the fastening secure; and pass the folded corner d through the slit 
in corner b ; and after opening out the folds, the box is finished. 


By J. C. Leake. 


T is only of late that window gardening has received any 
considerable share of attention. It is true that for many 
years there might be seen in most windows a few rough, 
red garden pots, containing plants, ragged, badly cared-for and 

it should be, especially in the humbler walks of life, and this is 
doubtless due, in part at any rate, to the impression which still 
widely prevails that window gardening is a difficult and ex- 
pensive amusement. It will be our endeavour to disabuse the 

Fig. 1 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

tended, and apparently in the last stage of consumption, but 
of any systematic attempts at the floral decorations of windows 
there was a total absence. When, however, the very great 
beauty of the fern tribe of plants became generally known, a 
new impulse was given to this species of decoration, and it was 
soon observed that, beside ferns, there were many plants of great 
beauty which could be cultivated in the ordinary windows of a 
house. At the present time window gardening is an art ; prizes 
are frequently offered for the best specimens of plants thus grown, 
and an elegant collection of ferns or other plants may be as fre- 
quently observed in the window of the cottage of the humble 
mechanic or clerk as in the luxurious mansion of the nobleman. 
Even at present, however, this art is not so widely diffused as 

minds of our readers on this point, and to show not only what 
an elegant object a window may be made, as in our illustration 
(Fig. 6), but also how a really excellent system of window 
gardening may be conducted with but small labour and expense. 
Unquestionably the simplest forms of floral decoration for 
windows is that of the cultivation of flowers in pots, and it 
possesses these advantages that when a plant begins to lose its 
beauty it can be easily removed and replaced by one in good 
condition. But the appearanoe of the red porous pots in which 
the plants' are cultivated is unpleasant in the extreme. Many 
attempts to improve the aspects of these pots have been made 
with more or less of success ; but unquestionably the best method 
of overcoming the decorative difficulty is that of placing the 





plants, pot and all, in a decorated box or trough (Fig. 7). This 
system is equally applicable to in and out door window garden- 
ing, although some little modifications are necessary, which we 
shall presently describe. With our readers' permission we shall 
suppose them to be something of amateur mechanics by the aid 
of our papers on joinery, and capable of using the most common 
of the workman's tools, as we propose to explain how the most 
ordinary of the fittings of a window garden may be made by 
themselves, at but little cost of time and money. 

In the first instance we will suppose that it is desired to con" 
struct a window-box 
for holding pots con- 
taining plants outside 
an ordinary window. 
This is a very simple 
matter indeed. The 
first thing will be to 
determine the size of 
the pots. An ordi- 
nary garden pot is 
about seven inches in 
height and about six 
in diameter. As, how- 
ever, it is necessary 
to have a little space 
both above and be- 
low the pot, the box 
should not be less 
than ten inches deep 
internally and seven 
or eight wide, in order 
to allow of a little 
variation in the size 
of the pots. The first 
thing will be, then, 
to construct a box of 
this size, and of the 
requisite length to 
completely fill in the 
opening of the win- 
dow. This box should 
be made of yellow 
deal, as being the 
most durable, and 
should be well painted 
as soon as made. 

It is necessary to 
so arrange the bottom 
of this as to allow 
of perfect drainage of 
the pots placed there- 
in, and therefore holes should be bored through the bottom 
at frequent intervals, in order to allow of the free escape of 
water. This is best effected by means of a centre-bit of about 
half an inch diameter. Upon the bottom of the box should 
be secured two slips of wood about one inch square, upon 
which the pots may stand so as not to touch the bottom of 
the box, as shown in Fig. 1, in which AAA are the bottom and 
sides of the box, and B B the two slips of wood in question. 
Practically, this completes the box, which should stand upon 
blocks of wood about an inch deep, tapered as shown at c in 
the Figure, to allow of the bevel of the window-sill D. As, 
however, the front of the box will present a very bare and 
common appearance unless decorated, some provision must be 
made for this purpose. 

There are several methods which are, perhaps, equally effective; 


one of the best being that of covering the front with encaustic 
tiles. In order to do this, two slips of wood, grooved as 
shown at A in Fig. 2, must be screwed, one at the top and one 
at the bottom edge of the front of the box ; being, of course, 
regulated as to their distance apart by the size of the tiles 
themselves, which must be previously ascertained. 

Two shorter pieces of the same pattern must also be fixed 
at the ends, in order to secure these tiles in their places. Of 
course, the method of procelure here is obvious. The two slips 
having been screwed on, as well as one of the ends, the tiles 

are slipped in one 
at a time, until the 
whole space is occu- 
pied, when they are 
secured by screwing 
the retraining end to 
the front of the box, 
which will fix them 
in their places. 

A second plan of 
decoration, which is 
quite as effective, al- 
though perhaps it is 
not quite so durable, 
consists of fixing to 
the front of the box, 
in precisely the same 
manner as above de- 
scribed, a slip of the 
floor covering known 
as kamptulicon or 
linoleum. This ma- 
terial is manufactured 
in patterns closely 
resembling encaustic 
tiles, and it raay, of 
course, be selected to 
suit the taste. For in- 
door decoration this 
material is quite as 
durable as theencaus- 
tic tiles, and much 
cheaper, but when ex- 
posed out of doors, 
the tiles are to be 

A third, and per- 
haps much prettier 
style of decoration, 
and one which is suit- 
able aliko for out 
or in door purposes, is that of constructing a pattern of rustic 
weodwork upon the front of the box, as shown in Fig. 3. For 
this purpose the round branches of trees should be employed, 
and they should be selected of about one inch in diameter. 
They may be employed either with or without the bark, 
but perhaps it is better to strip them, as they may then be 
varnished. Having selected a sufficient quantity of branches, 
they must be cut to the requisite length, and sawn down, 
as shown at A in Fig. 4. If the style of decoration 
selected be that shown at A in Fig. 3, the branches should 
be tolerably straight. The ends should be allowed to stand 
Blightly above the top edge of the box, and may be cut 
to form a pattern. Each slip should be carefully bored with a 
bradawl, and secured with a copper brad top and bottom, as, 
if iron be used for this purpose, the oxidisation of the metal 



will stain the wood and quite spoil the effect when varnished. 
By far the prettiest plan is to form patterns upon the front of 
the box by means of curved branches or fir-cones, as shown at 
B in Fig. 3, and in Fig. 7. 

Before attempting this, 
the proposed figure should 
be roughly sketched out 
•upon a board, and the 
tranches selected ac- 
cording to their suit- 
ability of form. 

At first sight it may 
appear very difficult to 
form anything like a re- 
gular pattern from the 
irregular shapes of the 
branches, but it will be 
found practically quite 

Of course, each branch 
when cut will form two parts of the design, as shown at c and 
D in Fig. 4. It must, however, be left to the taste of the ope- 

rator to make the designs for himself, those offered being only 
suggestions as to the kind of thing required. When this sort 
of ornamentation is employed it is better to leave the front 

of the box unpainted, 
and instead to varnish 
with several coats of 
the best oak varnish, 
both the front of the 
box and its decorations. 
It will be found to be a 
great improvement if 
ladders are used, as in 
Fig. 8, and the tops of 
the pots are lightly 
covered with loose green 
moss, especially where 
they are below the level 
of the eye. 

In Fig. 5 we give a 
diagram for the construc- 
tion of boxes for bay windows, to which further reference will 
be made in our next article. 



By W. A. Lloyd. 



hot, it was decided not to cook and eat it, so I smuggled it to 
school to get the schoolmaster, Humphrey, the learned man of 
the place, to tell me all about it. He was a little thin old 
man, with a yellow shrunken face, yello'w teeth, and yellow 

finger-nails, was dressed in a black 
velvet coat, waistcoat, and knee- 
breeches, with black stockings and 
huge shoes. He knew no English ; 
and at intervals throughout the day 
smoked very coarse tobacco from a 
short black pipe in the school-room, 
which was the dissenting chapel of 
the place. There were no writing- 
desks or tables of any kind, but the 
scholars knelt on the rubble floor, 
and used as desks the deal forms 
on which the congregation sat on 
Sundays. Humphrey's scholastic 
fees were all paid in kind: some of 
the lads brought corn, or oatmeal, 
or flour, or wool, or bacon ; and I 
remember trying once to carry on 
my head my payment, a big square 
lump of coal ; but it was too heavy, 
and another boy kindly let me carry 
his payment of a lump of butter, 
and he, being stronger, conveyed my 
coal. Cheese was a luxury known 
only to the rich : money was seldom 
seen in the form of coin, and far- 
things never. I did not take my 
crab to school as a matter of pay- 
ment, nor yet for play or idle cu- 
riosity, but really and truly to learn 
something about it from the only 

"Ti~Y<4THEN a very small child I was, for the improvement 
QcfiNtJb of my health (and to get rid of me), sent by my 
r^c) parents from London to North Wales, where I lived 

at a farmhouse named Llwynlleia, in Merionethshire, close to 
three villages called Bettwsygwer- 
filgoch, Cerrigydruidion, and Llan- 
fihangel. I believe that the quick- 
ness with which I learnt these and 
all other outlandish Welsh words, 
and strung them together into sen- 
tences, and pronounced them volu- 
bly — though to strangers they must 
have Bounded like what musicians 
call "passages of enormous diffi- 
culty" — largely aided my speedy ac- 
quisition of the German language in 
after life ; and it may be mentioned 
in passing, that though I was, and 
sometimes still am, an inveterate 
stammerer in English, yet all my 
stuttering vanishes in the guttural 
Welsh and German tongues. 

In the year 1 834 there was brought 
to Llwynlleia a large dead crab. Such 
an animal, at such a place, and at 
such a date, was a rare thing to 
see, and I remember taking special 
notice of it. I was particularly 
curious in observing the complicated 
apparatus on its under side, or, as I 
should now term them, the " pedi- 
palps," and other appendages of the 
"buccal orifice" of the creature. 
The crab was beginning to get 
"high," and as the weather was 




person whom I thought could give me help, and his reply was, 
" Ah William, bach, only learned men in London can give 
information on such things !" and he smoked his pipe vigorously, 
and gave me permission to put the crab away during school- 
time in the chapel pulpit, to be out of reach of the other boys. 

After school, Humphrey and I had it down again, and again 
examined it, he with much smoking, the other boys, in the 
usual village-school fashion, having rushed out at the moment 
of dismissal. How powerful are odours in bringing back 
memories ! Thus, whenever I scent the particular character of 
tobacco smoke which issues from a stale pipe, this first and in- 
effaceable effort to gain natural history knowledge is brought 
before 'me — a big, high-smelling, limp-legged crab, a wise- 
looking spectacled old man in shabby black velvet, and a troop 
of ragged, barefooted, and uncombed urchins, standing wonder- 
ing around or scampering away. 

To me, then, a crab was a crab ; but remembering its dimen- 
sions and its form, which I shall never forget, the species is what 
I should now call "the Edible Crab," or " the Great Crab,"or 
in Latin, Cancer pagurus. The French naturalists, Latreille 
and Milne-Edwards, have proposed to name it Platy-carcinus 
■pagurus, and some German naturalists also wish the latter 
generic name to be introduced, and they do use it. But I hope 
it will never be employed in England, and so deprive us of our 
last " Cancer," our British very "last rose of summer," though 
this wish is based merely on a sentiment. Linnaeus on the Con- 
tinent, and Pennant in England, and other naturalists of the 
last century and the commencement of this one, called nearly 
all crabs, lobsters, crawfish, and crayfish, and even many 
of the shrimp-like and least crab-like of the crustaceans, 
by the then universal generic name "Cancer," the Latin for 
crab, and this crab, the crab of my childhood, has been 
known by its present scientific name, Cancel' pagurus, ever 
since systematic ^oology was invented ; and it is peculiarly 
appropriate for the animal, as jpayuni;; is Greek for crab ; 
and so in calling it "crab-crab," its typical position is happily 
fixed as the crab of all ages, the crab of crabs ; the one best 
known to man as being the largest in Northern Europe ; the 
most delicious to eat ; the second only in abundance in England 
(the most common of all being Carcinus, the shore crab) 
it is also the historical crab represented in Romano-British 
tesselated pavements, and in mediaeval illuminated manu- 

After this digression I return to the crab of my childhood in 
"Wales, in 1834. It was buried, and so were my remembrances 
of it, but they were destined to rise again in the fulness of time. 
Soon after, I met with a book on natural history, a duodecimo 
volume with rude woodcuts, bound in cloth, or rather in the 
coloured printed calico which Pickering had shortly before 
introduced as an improvement on the paper boards used before 
1830. It was a hawker's book, and was a much-abridged 
epitome of Buffon, or rather, Buffon's name was put on the 
title-page, and it was probably such a book as Charles Lamb 
would call one of the " books that are no books, but only things 
in books' clothing." I, however, desperately thirsted after its 
information, but it was in English, and I only knew Welsh, and 
So it was to me a sealed volume, in which I could not even find 
the crab — my crab. In 1835 I returned to London, and was 
soon after taken to the Zoological Gardens, Eegent's Park, and 
perfectly well remember that in passing through the tunnel 
(then the same as now) which divides the two parts of the 
garden, I thought how grand it would be if I could read 
English books (for none existed in Welsh) about the wonderful 
animals I saw. But I never expected to meet there with a 
crab, and I then should never have thought to call a crab an 
" animal," any more than very many people do now. However, 

I determined to learn English and read books about animals. 
But the very first book I bought with my very own money was 
Craik's "Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties," and while 
saving up my pence for it, I once had to purchase a red herring. 
" Will you have one with a hard or a soft roe ? " asked the 
shopkeeper, and I, thinking to hit the golden mean, replied 
"Middling, please sir." 

The man in the shop laughed very much, and brought forth 
his wife to enjoy the fun, but they never told me ivhy they 
made so merry over me, nor was I told at home, where my 
story was also much enjoyed. It was well for me, however, 
that I was left to find out the reason, for the inquiry led me to 
much information, and to the taste for acquiring it, which 
otherwise I might never have obtained. I picked up Craik's 
book, in the four parts (forming two volumes) in which it first 
appeared in 1830, in three second-hand book shops, and I had 
sevenpence over, with which I bought a copy of Todd's " Stu- 
dents' Manual" (an American book), and a Number (No. 204) 
of the Penny Magazine containing an account of the mode in 
which a poor student expended his weekly means in periodical 

This last Number I fastened in at the end of Todd, and 
it so remains till this day. At about the same period, I learnt 
from the Penny Magazine (my great source of miscellaneous 
knowledge in those days) the technical mode of correcting 
printers' proofs, and this in a portion of my after-life (beginning 
in June, 1851) was of much service to me. But no written or 
spoken words can express the extreme avidity with which I 
read Craik's book over and over again, or can tell the encourage- 
ment I gained from it. I carried it about with me constantly, 
and some part of every Sunday was spent in its company in a 
state of absolute entrancement. The great glory of it was in 
its record of men who acquired, not money wealth, but know- 
ledge, and that wherever money was also gained, that was but 
incidental to the learning which was within my reach, by my 
exercising the same amount of perseverance as that shown by 
the lives of men in this beloved book, my copy of which had a 
trick of opening at the portrait (by Sir Joshua Eeynolds) and 
memoir of John Hunter the great comparative anatomist and 
founder of the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. 

Thus by my reading I was constantly, as it were, brought 
into mental contact with him, and learnt how he kept at 
Erompton many living animals, in a small menagerie, ob- 
serving their habits and forms when alive, and dissecting them 
when dead, and doing so amidst many difficulties. Reaumur 
and Huber were two other naturalists in the book of whom I 
read with mentally hungering eyes. It was destined, however, 
that not then should I take up regularly with natural history 

But Thomas Simpson and James Ferguson, mathematicians, 
were the two men I most admired, and I soon got enamoured of 
the science of figures, and resolving to begin it at once (being 
even then impressed with Hannah More's axiom about a person 
really in earnest never delaying to begin anything), I purchased 
the late Professor Augustus De Morgan's " Elements of Arith- 
metic," a most valuable book, and of extreme worth to me just 
then, as teaching me in all things — not merely 'in arithmetic — 
never to take anything for granted, but to reason in a step- 
by-step deductive manner. 

I remember purchasing this last-mentioned volume late 
one Saturday night in November, 1839, running from Holborn 
to Taylor and Walton's in Gower Street in a very short time, 
lest the shop should be closed, and I be deprived of my next day 
chance of devouring the book, and when procured, I remarked 
how very different its philosophical plan was from that pur- 



sued in that wooden-headad compendium of schools, " Walkin- 
game's Tutor's Assistant." Soon afterwards I read Scoffern's 
" Chemistry No Mystery," and in it learnt that which was of 
much after use to me in my aquarium work, namely, that with 
but earnestness, costly apparatus is not essential in prosecuting 
experimental science. From Partington's "British Cyclopedia," 
too, I gathered much mechanical and physical knowledge, which, 
years later, I turned to great service in aquarium mechanism. 
I pursued these mathematical and chemical studies with extreme 
ardour till the end of 1842, without getting much assistance or 
encouragement from any one. I made a resolve never to go to 
bed on Saturday night, when I was always alone, but spend the 
whole of it in study, drew up a contract with myself to that 
effect in regular legal form (imitating the manner of my in- 
dentures of apprenticeship to a bookbinder) and when I failed 
from weariness to keep my vows, I wrote out, addressed to my- 
self, most abject confessions of wrong-doing, and promises of 

At this time my only recreative reading was Craik's book, 
which I so constantly perused, that even now, almost every 
page of it, recording indomitable perseverance in the sur- 
mounting of stupendous difficulties in the acquisition of learn- 
ing, is more or less familiar to me. In the spring of 1843, and 
in an evil hour for my figures, I read my first novel of Sir 
Walter Scott's — not " Ivanhoe," the general favourite of boys — 
but " The Talisman," and I went on then, from one production 
of Scott's to another, with my usual zeal, and was all the more 
eager to read them because novel-reading was strictly for- 
bidden to me at home, but I contrived to read Scott, however, 
smuggling the books into the woods near the present site 
of the Crystal Palace. I then grew inquisitive about Scott 
himself, and got to know much of him, I think from his life by 
Lockhart, and found that one of the earliest books he read was 
Bishop Percy's " Reliques of Ancient English Poetry," which 
I got at Waller's in Fleet Street, and perhaps I was more 
impressed by it than by any ©ther volume on similar matters 
I have ever possessed. But I did not stop with it. I laid my- 
self out for a regular course of early English literature and old 
books, and devoured Ritson, and Warfcon, and Payne Collier, 
and Frognali Dibdin. 

As a change, I soon after, with equal ardour, took up with 
ecclesiastical antiquities and symbolism, and read Rickman, 
Bloxam, the " Oxford Glossary of G-othic Architecture," Welby 
Pugin, Billings, Didron, and Ayliffe Poole. Then I had excursions 
into other branches of archaeology, Roman coins, Anglo-Saxon 
history and coins, Roman pottery, Anglo-Saxon glass, and ancient 
costume, arms and armour, with Sharon Turner, Roach Smith, 
Fairholt, Yonge Akerman, Beale Post, Planche, and others. 
At other times I would ha,ve a fit at reading the Elizabethan 
dramatists, Shakespeare, Marlowe, Peele, Webster, and others, 
with their annotators, Steevens and Malone, Johnson, Collier, 
Halliwell, Knight, and many more. 

Somewhat after this fashion I went on for eight years, from the 
spring of 1843 to the spring of 1851, digging as deeply as I could 
into these out-of-the-way mines of learning with the utmost zeal, 
and without the remotest intention or hope that I should be by 
them benefited in my means of earning a livelihood, and with no 
apparent chance of ever emerging from the poverty which 
seemed so natural to me, that I made up my mind, to eternal 
familiarity with it. All my studies showed the maddest possible 
contrariness at aiming at anything useful — or what the world 
thinks useful. Thus, by the aid of Elstob, Yernon, and Bosworth, 
I worked at getting a knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon language 
so as to be able to plod through the Saxon Chronicle without 
the aid of Ingram's translation, while by taking much less pains 
I might have learnt a modern language of service in trade. 

During all these eight years, however, natural history matters 
would intrude »themselves, in spite of my feverishly striving 
against them, and somehow, when I got a holiday I always 
turned my face Regent's Park-wards, to the Zoological Gardens. 
I was troubled by the occurrence of animals in archaeology — 
troubled lest they might tempt me to care too much for them 
scientifically. Thus, I was worried by the " Yesica piscis," an 
early Christian emblem in the form of a fish. Once I read 
in a, sort of guilty manner, a treatise on mediaeval zoology, 
written from a purely antiquarian point of view, lest- it 
should seduce me to regard the subject from a natural history 
point of view. Moule's "Heraldry of Fish" (read with 
other heraldrie books) was a real terror to me, as bringing 
me, from end to end of the volume, in contact with creatures 
I felt to be gradually taking an unlawful interest in. For 
instance, I felt to want to know why crabs were put among 
fish, in this volume, and the inquiry led to asking about classifi- 

Then from Moule I learnt with great interest what I deemed 
I ought not to care to know, namely, that the pike was a fish 
borne in the punning arms of Sir Thomas Lucy, referred to by 
Shakespeare in the "Merry Wives of Windsor," because "Luce " 
or " Lucie " was the old English name for Pike, and was thus 
a play on the word Lucy. Worst of all, I learnt that Lucius 
(from this word) was one of the Latin names of the fish, and I 
caught myself making pilgrimages to look at stuffed pike in the 
shops of fishing-tackle makers in Crooked Lane, City, and I was 
alarmed at the interest I took in the fact that these shops are 
about the only relic of times when fishermen went to fish near 
London Bridge, and bought tackle and bait on the road. 

I well remember again visiting the Zoological Gardens in 1847, 
the worst pecuniary year of their existence, and examined all with 
new eyes and with a greatly troubled mind lest I should go over 
to animals altogether, and then I made out another legal agree- 
ment with myself, binding myself by ' all sorts of penalties in 
case of non-fulfilment, that the only animals I would ever 
know should be the impossible animals of heraldry, and that 
I would always spell " lion " with a y, as suggested by Mark 
Antony Lower. 

Thus I struggled manfully, but vainly, against my coming 
tastes, and in spite of qualms of conscience I found myself 
eagerly visiting the Gardens in 1849 to see the new Reptile 
House, and in 1850 to behold the then great wonder, the 
Hippopotamus, the father of the infant that was born in 
November, 1872. Yet I could not make up my mind to go 
over entirely to natural history studies, though my interest in 
other reading weakened daily, and at last I found myself in the 
summer of 1851 hobbyless and miserable, and I took to desultory 
reading during an interregnum, and the heterogeneous food gave 
me mental dyspepsia, and I was wretched. I was, however, 
quite ripe for any worthy subject which might present itself as 
a hobby. I was like a very dry wooden house, full of inflam- 
mable material after a long and hot summer, and I felt that I 
was ready to be fired at any moment, and to blaze up fiercely 
with the smallest application of flame. On the morning of 
Wednesday the 15th of September, 1852, London learnt that, the 
Duke of Wellington had died the previous day. The instant I 
heard of it I told myself that I should have a whole holiday 
when he was buried. The remarkable fewness of my holidays 
is shown by that fact, and indeed my hours of work were from 
8 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

The well-remembered day of the funeral at last came, Thursday, 
November 18th, 1852, and my entire holiday came with it, and 
in the morning it was discussed whether it should be 'spent in 
standing in the London streets to se3 the funeral procession, or 
to go to the Zoological Gardens to "see the wild beasts " if 



they would be open, and an appeal to the Times showed that 
they would be. 

The Gardens and not the crowded streets were decided upon, 
and that decision eventually turned the current of all my re- 
maining Ufe. There was nothing but walking there from St. 
John's Square (No. 56, second floor) and back, as not only was 
the Gardens' admission money all that I could spare, but no 
vehicles were on that day allowed in the streets. 

On arriving there, I found near the side entrance a building I 
had never seen before, and which had risen since my last visit — a 
conservatory-looking 1 glass erection of not large dimensions, stand- 
ing on a low wall. The door was fastened, and I could see no 
one inside, and on my asking a passing attendant what the place 
was for, he said it was " a Fish House, though some people called it 
an aquarium," and that it was destined to contain fish and other 
such things, even sea-fishes and lobsters, and that it was 
intended to 
be opened in 
the following 
spring. He 
added his dis- 
belief in the 
success of it, 
and an expres- 
sion of his 
sense of the 
impropriety of 
its introduc- 
tion in a zoo- 
logical garden. 
He regarded 
it evidently 
as an innova- 
tion on the 
customary in- 
habitants of 
such a place, 
which he 
defined as 
" beasts, birde, 
and reptiles." 
I was im- 
pressed by the 
novelty of the 
idea, however, 
and wentaway 

(after again trying to get in) to see Mr. Gould's collection 
of stuffed humming-birds, shown in the other (northern) side 
of the Garden, in what is now the Parrot House. They were 
exhibited in multangular glass cases (octagonal or hexangular), 
and I was told that each side of each case represented a genus 
of the birds, and I was informed that a genus was a collective 
name for a group of species, or for one species, and that was 
a new bit of information gained in an interesting manner, and 
never forgotten. 

So after looking longingly at the Sixpenny Garden Guide Books 
on sale in the same room, and wishing I could afford to buy 
one, I went back to the Fish House, and passed round to its rear, 
and there to my great astonishment, I saw through the glass 
side of the building a glass tank containing perfectly clear water, 
with some aquatic plants growing in it (I have since learnt to call 
the plant ValUsneria), and, wonder of wonders, a living pike ! 

I wish I could write what I then felt; I wish I could now feel 
as I then felt, but such freshness of wonder comes to one not 
more than perhaps half a dozen times in a life. I could not get 
away from the place (it was at the extreme north-east corner of 


the building, and the tank has been years ago converted into 
a marine one), but I went to it again, and remained there till it 
began to grow dusk, and it was time to get home. 

In returning, I thought of all the odds and ends I had read of 
fish against my will, of the " Vesica piscis" of Moule, of Lucy, 
and of Crooked Lane, and on reaching St. John's Square I made 
a compound meal of dinner, tea, and supper in one, consisting 
of eggs and bacon and potatoes and tea. But it was not 
eggs and bacon and potatoes and tea — it was Pike and 
ValUsneria and water! I had seen an aquarium, and 
that was enough. I never felt unkindly towards the old 
archaeological pursuits, but here was something fresh, and 
green, and living, without any Dr. Dryasdust character about 
it; and I had seen amidst living vegetation a living pike, 
with his gorgeous livery of mottled green and gold. Ever 
since, I have picked up and treasured every morsel of pike-lore 

I could meet, 
and I bought 
Mr. Cholmon- 
" Book of the 
Pike " the mo-' 
ment it ap- 
peared. More 
than that, for 
the last 
eighteen years, 
in London 
Paris, and 
Hamburg, I 
have never 
been without 
a pet jack in 
an aquarium. 
I have one now 
at this mo- 
ment in a pri- 
vate tank in 
the work-room 
of the Crystal 
Palace Aqua- 
rium, and am 
never tired of 
setting forth 
how much 
more pleasure 

I get out of petting a pike than out of hooking a pike. With 
me pike-murder comes very near to man-murder. I am always 
telling some one about my pet pikes. 

But in this November of 1852 I was hot quite fairly bitten 
through and through with the aquarium mania. The opera- 
tion took more time than I can now imagine possible. 

In the illustrations, Fig. 3 is a Pike of one of the Lucy family, 
copied from an old stained glass window, and it is, as such a 
representation should be, conventionally, and not naturally 
treated, and there is a careful avoidance of shading and of per- 
spective, everything being expressed by hard black lines. 
Fig. 2 shows the interior of the Fish House of the Zoological 
Gardens, Eegent's Park, from a photograph taken in 1866, 
representing the place very nearly as it was in 1853. And 
Fig. 1 is my earliest existing marine aquarium, now in the 
Crystal Palace, set up in 1856, and photographed in 1872, 
with the original animal in it — a sea-anemone taken from the 
coast of North Wales in 1855. Afl the carpenter's rule intro- 
duced in the picture shows, this aquarium measures 4£ inches 
broad and 9 inches high. In later papers I shall have much to 



eay about this jar, which remains now (January, 1873) as it 

was seventeen year3 ago, as in it were carried out many of the 

experiments which have demonstrated the right application of 

principles so as to attain a 

good result in the simplest 

manner. The anemone is 

known scientifically as Sagas- 

tia viduata, and the persons 

who have the honour of the 

acquaintance of this venerable 

individual call it, by way of 

being familiarly affectionate, 

the " Old Vid," or, as it might 

be varied, the "Ancient Wid- 

ower," Mr. Gosse having given it the specific name viduata 
(widowed) because of the Hack and white vertical striping of 
the tentacles and bcdy. In my next and following articles I 

purpose treating of the Aqua- 
rium from the simplest and 
most inexpensive form up to 
the most costly, and giving the 
fullest and best instructions 
for keeping the occupants in 
health. The anemone just 
mentioned shows what can be 
done in this way — a success, 
though, not arrived at without 
many failures. 



By E. B. Woemau>. 

HE origin of whist, like that of play- 
ing cards, is involved in obscurity. 
It is quite certain, however, that a 
game of cards, played by two, three, 
or four persons, under the various 
titles of "Euff" and "Honours," 
"Slam," "Wisk" and "Whist," and 
"Swabbers," and bearing a certain 
amount of family resemblance to the 
whist of the present day, was com- 
monly in vogue in England upwards 
of two centuries ago. Of the whist 
of the days of the Stuarts, as might 
be expected, little is known ; but, judging from the technical 
phraseology of the game, there is every reason for believing 
that, unlike the majority of card games, for which we are indebted 
to France, it was of purely English origin. On this point, indeed, 
we have the explicit testimony of Richard Seymour, who in the 
fifth edition of the " Compleat Gamester/' published in 1734, 
"for the use of the Young Princesses," expressly tells us that 
" Whisk, vulgarly called whist, is a very ancient game amongst 
ns, and is said to be the foundation of all the English games 
upon the cards." The whist of our forefathers, however, 
Appears to have been a very primitive pastime. In the first 
edition of the work above referred to, which was written by 
Charles Cotton in 1674, we are told that " Euff and Honours 
(alias Slam) and Whist are games so commonly known in Eng- 
land, and all parts thereof, that every child of eight years old 
hath a competent knowledge of that recreation;" and the writer 
adds, " These games vary little from each other." 

In the comedy of the" Beaux Stratagem," produced 1707, Mrs. 
Sullen disdainfully refers to whist as one of the rustic accom- 
plishments of the beer-swilling, tobacco-smoking Corydons of 
the day. " Country pleasures — racks and torments ! Dost 
think, child, that my limbs were made for leaping of ditches 
and clambering over stiles — or that my parents, wisely for- 
seeing my future happiness in country pleasures, had early 
instructed me in the rural accomplishments of drinking fat 
ale, playing at whist, and smoking tobacco with my husband ? " 
In a similar spirit Pope, in one of his epistles, speaks of 
whist as being the favourite pastime of the squire of the period. 
While Swift expressly tells us that "whist and swabbers" 
was a popular game in his time with the clergy. In the 
drarqatic writers of the eighteenth century, allusions to whist 

are of frequent occurrence, and the fact that the modern 
vocabulary of the game still retains the old terms " honours," 
" slam," " ruff," would seem to show that the short whist of 
the present day, with all its scientific accessories and elabora- 
tion, is a lineal descendant of the old game with which our 
forefathers were wont to wile away the monotony of a country 
life two centuries ago. 

Of the original game, however, as we have remarked, we 
unfortunately know but little. If we read the " Compleat 
Gamester" aright, the game was "nine up;" three honours 
counted " eight by cards," that is, two tricks ; and four honours 
" sixteen by cards," or four tricks, as in the modern game; 
and Cotton further informs us that, " If either side are eight 
groats, he hath the benefit of calling ' Can ye ? ' If he hath 
two honours in his hand, or the other answers ' One,' the game 
is up " — a process, as our readers need scarcely be reminded, 
identical with the " call " at the score of eight in long whist. 

Of the other technical' terms which still survive in the 
modern game, " Honours "and " Slam " require no explanation. 
" Trumps," it is said, are an importation from the old game of 
" Triumph," and " Swabbers " have been explained as par- 
ticular cards, the possession of which, as in the fine old game 
of Quadrille — now, alas ! well nigh obsolete — entitled the holder 
to a certain share in the stakes or pool. Would the giants of 
the " Portland " or " Arlington " be surprised to hear that 
in this enlightened nineteenth century, the " swabber " still 
holds its place in rural whist, and that we ourselves have 
personally come across the anachronism ? The phenomenon 
occurred in this wise : — 

Some few years ago, in the course of a boating trip from 
Oxford to London, we were driven by stress of weather to take 
shelter one summer evening in a sequestered hostelry on the 
Berkshire bank of the Thames, and on entering the parlour we 
were agreeably surprised to find four local " Cavendishes " 
deeply immersed in the " game of silence," to the accompani- 
ment of long pipes. In the middle of the hand, one of the 
players with a grin that almost amounted to a chuckle, and a 
vast display of moistened thumb, spread out upon the table the 
ace of trumps, whereupon the other three deliberately laid 
down their hands, and forthwith severally handed over the 
sum of one penny to the fortunate holder of the card in 
question. On inquiry we were informed that the process was 
technically known as a " swap " (qy. "swab " or " swabber "), 
and was de rigueur in all properly constituted whist circles. 



Our efforts to elucidate the etymology of the term, proved 
unavailing ; but this is scarcely surprising, seeing that the 
true etymology of "whist" itself — though popularly asso- 
ciated with " silence " — is a very moot point, while the 
derivation of the word "ruff" or "to ruff" is a mystery 
that, to the best of our knowledge, no lexicographer has ever 
succeeded in unravelling. In the never-to-be-forgotten descrip- 
tion of the historical rubber played at Bath, wherein Mr. 
Pickwick, Miss Bolo, Mr. Bantam, M.C., and the Dowager Lady 
Snuffanuff figured, we find the word spelled " roughed," a bar- 
barism that induced a whist-playing friend to apply to the 
author of the " Pickwick Papers " for his authority for the 
orthography. The reply was characteristic, and worthy of 
reproduction. It ran as follows : — 

Adelphi Hotel, Liverpool, October 15, 1868. 
My Dear , — To the best of my remembrance I used the ortho- 
graphy in question in " Pickwick." With the daring of youtb. I rushed 
into the sanctuary of whist, and assumed that the word was derived from 
the "rough" nature of the process, and its exasperating effects on the 
feelings of the patient. Now that I have arrived at a more chastened 
period of life, and have become more cognisant of its many mysteries, 
I penitently perceive that I may have been wrong. I have no means 
of reference here ; but if I were wrong herein, I rather think it was 
in good company. I am much mistaken if the word were not so 
spelt by Garrick, in " Prologues and Epilogues," and by the elder 
Colman in plays. I think I could find a number of such instances 
with ease in the good dramatic literature of the last century. 

Very faithfully yours, 

Charles Dickens. 

Passing from the etymology to the history of the game, we 
have abundant testimony from contemporary writers that whist 
became a fashionable pastime in England about the latter half 
of the eighteenth century. Daines Barrington states, on the 
authority of a veteran whist player of the day, that about 1730 
" it was much studied by a party that frequented the Crown 
Coffee House, in Bedford Row," and it is well known that 
about this time, Hoyle, who has been termed the " Father of 
Whist," made a very considerable income by giving lessons in 
the game, at the rate of a guinea each. In the Rambler of 
May 8, 1750, a fair correspondent is made to say : " Papa 
made me drudge at whist till I was tired of it ; and Mr. Hoyle, 
when he had not given me above forty lessons, said I was one 
of his best scholars." 

Hoyle' s treatise, the original edition of which saw light in 
1743, was the first attempt to reduce the game to a system, and 
the value of the work is best evidenced by the numberless 
editions through which it has passed. Even now, with all the 
advantage of the light which modern experience and investiga- 
tion have thrown upon the science of whist, it is impossible to 
turn over the pages of Hoyle without being struck by the 
acuteness of perception and thorough mastery of the principles 
of the game displayed by the great master of the last century, 
and at the present day Hoyle is looked up to as the recognised 
authority by the few who still cling to long whist. 

The introduction of the short game dates from the end of the 
last century. According to the popular tradition, which there 
is no reason to impugn, the "happy thought" was originally 
broached in the small hours of a protracted whist seance, at 
which, among others, Mr. Hoare — who is still remembered in 
Bath as a famous piquet player— and Lord Peterborough were 
present. The latter had been a heavy loser throughout the 
sitting, and in order to give him a chance of " getting back his 
money," it was proposed to cut the game in half, and play the 
remaining rubbers "five up," instead of ten. The innovation 
speedily found favour with the gamblers ; and though strongly 
opposed by the conservative school of players, gradually worked 
its way into popularity, and ultimately, as we all know, drove 
"long whist" out of the field. The comparative claims of the 
long and short game have furnished a fertile theme for contro- 

versy. The great French player and whist author, Deschappelles, 
discussed the question, " Is short whist as difficult as long 
whist ? " at considerable length ; and finally summed up in favour 
of long whist as being the more difficult game of the two, " in 
the ratio of twenty to nineteen." 

The carefully given opinion of Deschappelles is, it is well 
known, shared by some of the very best whist players of our 
own day; and even "J. C," the father and founder of the 
modern school — to whom the very idea of long whist is an 
abomination — has more than once given a semi-reluctant 
assent to the proposition that long whist involves to a greater 
degree than short whist the exercise of those peculiar mental 
qualities which enter into the composition of a fine whist 

As usual, when there are two sides to a question, there is a 
good deal to be said on both. We will briefly place on record 
some of the arguments that may be advanced respectively in 
favour and against the claims of the long and short game. The 
most serious objections to short whist may be reduced to two : 
firstly, that the element of chance enters more largely into the 
game, in consequence of the undue preponderance of "honours " 
over tricks in the score ; and that, secondly, short whist affords 
less scope for profound and brilliant play, each single point 
being of such vital importance when the game is only five up, 
that the fear of losing a trick will not unfrequently deter a 
player from venturing upon a brilliant but uncertain coup ; 
whereas, when the game is ten up, the loss of a trick may 
be fairly risked for the chance of a great score. These are 
grave objections, far graver, we admit than any that can be 
urged against long whist. The more vulnerable point in the 
old game is the " call " at the score of eight — a quaint relic of 
barbarism willingly opposed to the first principles of whist, which 
we imagine the most inveterate laudator temporis acti would 
scarcely be prepared to defend. It might also be urged as an 
objection to long whist, that if the short game offers compara- 
tively scant scope for brilliant and dashing coups, the long game, 
from the greater opportunities it affords of retrieving a false step 
early in the game, is calculated to foster habits of careless and 
risky play. 

On social grounds, too, we think great exception may be very 
reasonably taken to long whist. In these days of high-pressure 
civilisation, when time is emphatically money, especially in the 
card-room, a rubber of three games of " ten up " is practically a 
monopoly of the " table," and an unfair trespass on the patience 
of the outsiders. Whist, or at any rate, modern whist, it should . 
be remembered, is played, not by four players, but by six. 
When, however, we come to reckon up the sum total of the 
■pros and cons, we think there can be no question to which side 
this balance will incline. Granted that long whist is open to 
fewer objections ; granted that it may afford greater scope for 
deep and daring combinations than the modern game, there is, 
nevertheless, much to be said on the other side. Short whist 
demands keener observation, or, at any rate, more unceasing 
watchfulness of the minutias of the game, more patience, more 
self-control, and generally more judgment at every stage of the 
game, and, above all, a closer attention to the state of the score. 
This last is the distinctive feature of the modern game, and may, 
indeed, be termed the cardinal principle of short whist. We 
shall recur to these points on a future occasion. 

On the next page is an example of an elementary hand which 
illustrates some of the simplest principles of whist play — viz., 
the lead, the return lead, attention to the turn- 
up card, and the importanceof playing to the score. 

A C are partners against B D, and they sit 
round the table in the order indicated. The 
card led to each trick is denoted Dy a double rim 



C's Hand. 
Diamond — Knave, 6, 4. 
Spade — King, Knave, 2. 
Heart— King, 8, 6, 5. 
Club — Knave, 5, 4. 




© CO 




«3 «3 £ 9 

Score, 4 all. 

D turns up the king 

of diamonds. 

n 5 h H' w 



aq ~a co i s 


■8 '9 'i— quia 

•g '6 'eoy — s^j/eajj 

"8 '6 '01 'ooy— epudg 

"S 'OX ' 90 Y — pnontBiQ; 

•aKYjj s,y 

4 * 

14 4 

* * 

* 4 


Trick 1. — "Won by C. Score, 
AC.lj BI>, e. 

A leads from his strongest suit. Having ace, 10, 9, and 3 of 
spades, he properly leads the lowest. 

Inferences from the fall of the cards: — 1. D has not the ace of 
spades. 2. The 2 of spades is in C's hand, because, if either B 
or D held it, they would have played it in preference to the 5 
and 4 ; and if A held it, he would have led it instead of the 3. 

Trick 2 


4 4 

4 * 
4 * 



Trick 2. — Won by A. 
AC,?; BD,0. 



4 f 

4 4, 

C returns his partner's lead. Having originally only three of 
the suit, he returns the next of the two remaining. D covers 
the knave with queen in order to prevent A passing the knave, 
but the play is open^to question. 

Inference : — C has but one spade — viz., the 2, left in his hand. 
See remarks on Trick 1. 


Trick 3.— Won by B. Score, 
AC, 2; BD, 1. 

A continues the suit of spades with the 10, which being the 
best, B trumps with his lowest trump. 

Inference : — A knows that the 8 of spades must be in D's 

Trick 4. 








Trick 4.— Won by A. Score, 
AC, .3; BD,i 

B opens his strongest suit with the lowest. See remarks on 
Trick 1. 

Inferences : — B knows that his partner cannot hold the king 
of hearts, otherwise he would not have finessed the knave, and 
it is obvious to all that the queen of hearts cannot be in A's 
hand, otherwise he would have won the knave with it. 

Trick 5. 

O O 













4 4 

4 4 


Trick 5.— Won by C. 
AC, 4; BD,1 


A leads the best spade, knowing that D has a spade left. B 
trumps with the 8 in preference to the 3, in the hope of draw- 
ing a high trump from C, who cannot have a spade. 

Inference: — C cannot hold either the 9 or 10 of trumps, other- 
wise he would not have won the trick with the knave. 

Trick 6. 



f ' 






Trick 6. — "Vi 


r onby 
4; BI 






This is what is termed a forced lead with C. Not being strong 
enough to lead trumps, and fearing to play the heart up to B, 
the original leader of the suit (see Trick 4), he has no alterna- 
tive but to open the clubs. Having only three, headed by the 
knave, he properly leads the knave, in the hope of strengthen- 
ing his partner. 

Inference : — B knows that the ace of clubs must be in his 
partner's hand, as C would not have led the knave from ace 
knave, while if A held it he would not have permitted the king 
to win the triek. 

Trick 7. 




Trick 7. — "Won by C. Score, 
< ? AC, 5; BD,2. 

D, on getting in, returns his partner's original lead. 

Trick 8. 

4* •> 

A 4, 

+ + 


4, 4. 
4. 4. 
4. 4. 



Trick 8.— Won by D. Score, 
AC, 5; BD, 3. 

C continues the club suit, and having only two, leads the 
higher card. 

Trick 9. 

4. 4. 

4, 4, 

4. 4> 



Trick 9.— "Won by B. Score, 
AC.5; BD.4. 

Trick 10. 

9 <? 

<? 2 


4. 4. 


Trick 10.— Won by B. 
5 all. 


Trick 11. 






Trick 11.— Won by B. Score, 
BD.6; AC, 5. 

This is a very instructive trick, and shows the importance of 
" playing to the score," and bearing in mind the turn-up card. 
Each side has made five tricks, and the score being " four all," 
the odd trick wins the game. B, the leader, is in a position to 
count the hands. AH the spades and clubs are exhausted ; 
eleven of the heart suit are out, and three trumps. He has 
himself the four of hearts, and the queen and three of trumps ; 
C's hand consists of the best heart, the 8 (see the fall of the 
cards in Trick 10), and two trumps, neither of which is the 
king, ten, or nine (see inference from Trick 5) ; D and A have 
consequently between them the six remaining trumps, of which 
the king (the turn-up card) is in his partner's (D's) hand. 
Under these circumstances, B takes the best chance of winning 
the odd trick, and with it the game, by leading the queen of 
trumps. He reasons thus : His partner has for certain the 
king and two other trumps, value unknown ; but if either of 
them should be the ace or 10, they must win the game, how- 
ever the remaining cards may He. In the event of D's holding 
neither ace nor ten, he will pass his partner's queen ; and if A 
win the trick with ace, supposing him to hold it, he will 
have to lead up to D's king guarded, which will equally 
win the game for B and D. A, however, also " plays to 
the score." To win the game he must make two of the 
three remaining tricks, and knowing the king uf trumps to 
be on his right, ht properly passes B's queen, and waits for B 
to lead up to his tenace (the ace and ten of trumps) with the 
absolu 1 3 certainty of winning the two remaining tricks. This is 
a very simple coup, of by no means unfrequent occurrence, but 
is apt to be overlooked by inexperienced players from want of 
a little attention to the turn-up, the fall of the cards, and the 
state r the score. 

Trick 12. 



O O 


Trick 12.— Won by A. 
, AC,6; BD,6. 


D would clearly gain nothing by finessing the nine of dia- 
monds, as both the ace and ten are against him, and it is an 
even chance whether the former is held by C or A. If C has it, 
then putting on the king wins the game for B and D. 

Trick 13. 

A leads the ten of trumps, and wins the odd trick and game. 




By A. G. Payne, B.A. 

*HE anecdote of Boberts and the farmers i3 well worth 
repeating, as a warning to players not to hold strangers 
too cheaply. 

Some few years ago, during a visit to Yorkshire, Eoberts had 
been to a small race meeting, and during the evening looked 
into the billiard-room attached to the hotel at which he was 
staying. Havingjust 

dined, his remarks 
on the play of two 
gentlemen farmers 
present were any- 
thing but compli- 
mentary to them. At 
last the observation, 
" Why, you can't 
play at all," ended 
in his being chal- 
lenged by the best 
of the two to play 
a game of 100 up, 
and we need not 
say who was the vic- 
tor; in the second 
game Roberts gave 
ten points, with the 
same result, upon 
which the farmer 
asked, " Who are 
you P " " My name 
is John Eoberts," 
was the prompt re- 
ply; but the dread 
of being possibly 
joked, or the feeling 
of not liking to 
confess that he had 
been overreached, 
was too strong for 
him, and Eoberts 
was informed in the 
plainest possible lan- 
guage that he was a 
perver ter of the truth . 

"I answered," said Eoberts, " 'And you are a gentleman,' 
and we played on until I had beaten him with sixty in one 
hundred up." The farmers were convinced at last, especially 
on the production of Eoberts's cue-case with " John Eoberts, 
Manchester," engraved on it ; who finishes his story by saying, 
"We supped together afterwards, for they were jolly good 

And now to resume where we left off in our last paper. 

A losing hazard is when the striker pockets his own ball 
after having with it struck another ball. A losing hazard off 
the red ball scores 3 ; and off the white ball, 2. 

A ivinning hazard is when the striker with his own ball 
pockets another ball. Should he pocket the red, he scores 3, 
and should he pocket the other white ball, he scores 2. Should 
he pocket both the red and his adversary's ball, the two win- 
ning hazards score 5. 


The origin of the terms "winning" and "losing" hazards is 
that, in the game as played many years ago, only winning 
hazards scored; and whenever the player poeketed his own 
ball it was scored against him, he losing thereby ; hence the 
expression " losing hazard." 

A cannon is when the player causes his own ball to strike 

both the other balls : 
this scores 2. 

The origin of the 
term cannon is evi- 
dently from the 
French game Caram- 
bole, in which win- 
ting hazards were 
called caramboles ; 
It was to this game 
that we referred 
when speaking of 
the terms winning 
and losing hazards. 
Side is a rotatory 
motion of the ball 
on an axis perpen- 
dicular to the table, 
causing it to rebound 
from the cushion at 
an angle different to 
that at which it 
would rebound had 
no rotatory motion 
existed. Side can 
be put on to a ball 
at will, by striking 
it on either side of 
the centre of the 
ball in a horizontal 
line with that cen- 

In speaking of 
striking a ball in 
certain points we 
suppose the face of 
the sphere presented to the eye to be flat ; of course, mathema- 
tically speaking, the centre of the ball is inside, coincident with 
its centre of gravity. 

Screw and drag is a rotatory motion of the ball on a horizon- 
tal axis in a direction contrary to that in which the ball is 
travelling, and is caused by striking the ball on a point below it3 
centre, in a line perpendicular to the table, that passes through 
that centre (See Fig. 1.) 

The difference between screw and drag is that the screw is 
intended to affect the motion of the ball after impact with the 
object ball, and that drag is intended to affect the motion of tho 
ball before impact. 

On strokes compounded of screw or drag with side, caused 
by hitting the ball in points other than in the horizontal or per- 
pendicular lines mentioned, we will speak another time ; but as a 
screw always has a peculiar interest to beginners, who look upon 




the stroke somewhat in. the light of a conjuring trick, a few 
words of explanation may not be out of place. 

First of all it must be borne in mind that a ball does not always 
roll, but rather slides along the surface of the table. Perhaps 
the best illustration, and at the same time explanation, of the 
phenomenon of a ball running up the table, striking another ball, 
and then running back again, would be the case of a railway 
engine at full speed when the driver, anticipating a collision, has 
reversed his engine. The action of the large wheel would be 
exactly similar to that of a billiard-ball under the influence of 
screw, viz., it would be travelling very fast in one direction, and 
revolving very fast in a contrary direction. The collision takes 
place, and directly the momentum of the engine or ball is 
checked, the engine or ball instantly commences to run back- 
wards. In cases of railway collisions where the engines have 
been reversed this is actually the case. Of course this rotatory 
motion has the effect of retarding the ball in its progress : 
this is very evident in the case of drag put on to a ball 
by a good player; the ball will be observed to go suddenly 
slower ; similarly the effect of reversing an engine is to stop 
the train. 

The reason, of course, why the ball moves backwards in 
consequence of its rotating after the momentum in the contrary 
direction is lost, is owing to the friction between the ball and 
the cloth ; but it must not be consequently imagined that it is 
easier to put on side or to screw on a rough cloth, owing 
to there being more friction, as such is not the case (we 
mention this as we have often heard it stated) ; but it must 
be borne in mind that friction between -two bodies is indepen- 
dent of the extent of surface in contact, and proportional to 
the pressure. Were the table and balls perfectly smooth, no 
side or screw could exist, any more than a man could raise 
himself on perfectly smooth ice. 

The bridge (Fig. 2) is another important part of position. It 
is evident that unless the bridge be steady the stroke cannot be 
depended upon, as any movement of the bridge after a player 
has taken his aim would cause him to strike his ball in some 
other than the point he intended. 

In order to form a good bridge, place the left hand upon the 
table with the fingers touching each other, raise the knuckles 
so as to form a hollow under the palm, raise the thumb so as 
to form a groove between it and the adjoining knuckle, in 
which the cue may rest. The pressure on the table must be 
only on the tips of the fingers, especially the forefinger, and 
that part of the wrist that might be called the root of the 

It will be found, after a week or two's practice, that a 
beginner will be able to raise his thumb higher than he did at 
first, thus forming a better groove. 

We have now sufficiently explained the different terms em- 
ployed in the game to commence to give beginners some prac- 
tical directions, by following which they may ultimately become 
good players. It is of the first importance that the table, 
balls, etc., should be in a perfect state, as no one can ever hope 
to become a good player by practising with elliptical balls and 
a crooked cue upon an uneven table, the cloth of which has 
been mended perhaps, as we once saw it, with a piece of green 

Of course in this case the word "perfect" must be taken in a 
limited sense. Sir John Herschel, in speaking of perhaps the 
most perfect of human productions, viz., astronomical instru- 
ments, says: "Human hands or machines never formed a circle, 
drew a straight line, or erected a perpendicular, nor ever placed 
an instrument in perfect adjustment, unless accidentally, 
and then only during an instant of time. This does not, how- 
ever, prevent that a great approximation to all these desiderata 

should be attained." When speaking in our ensuing papers of 
a billiard-table, etc., we will take for granted that a sufficient 
approximation to the desiderata of a level table, tolerably fast, 
and round balls, has been attained. And we will presume 
each beginner to be possessed of the equally important desi- 
derata of an ordinary amount of patience and temper, as with- 
out these it will be useless for him to attempt to learn the 

It is a very common fault of beginners, and also often of fairly 
good players, to move too quickly after striking ; the very 
instant they have delivered the cue they jerk their body, and 
the unconscious preparation for this jerk will often be the cause 
of their missing their stroke. 

It would be a good thing for them to acquire the habit of 
standing perfectly still after having made a stroke, not only 
long enough to see if they have scored, but also long enough to 
see if they have obtained position for the following stroke — e g., 
suppose an inexperienced player has, playing from baulk, 
made a losing hazard into one of the middle pockets, as a 
rule, the moment the ball drops into the pocket he runs 
round to get it out. A good player remains quiet, with his 
cue resting on the bridge, after the ball has been pocketed, 
and keeps his eye on the other ball, to see if he has obtained 
right strength to bring it down again over the middle 

In fact, generally, it may be considered a good maxim never to 
move either body or cue after making a stroke until the stroke 
is finished, bearing in mind that a stroke is never finished until 
not only the hazard or cannon has been made, but the balls left 
in that position intended by the striker. 

In taking aim great care should be taken to ultimately strike 
the ball in the spot aimed at. The distance between the bridge 
and the ball should be about six inches. It will often be noticed 
in bad players of long standing that although they apparently 
take aim very well, yet when they bring back the cue for the 
last time in order to strike, they bring it back in quite a 
different manner to what they have done whilst aiming, 
generally not nearly so far back, and consequently the stroke 
degenerates into a sort of awkward push. 

So much depends upon the way in which the ball is struck, 
that, at the risk of being wearisome, we must dwell for some 
time on the subject, and we would recommend any one desi- 
rous of becoming a g®od player, before he tries to play at 
all himself to go and see some first-rate hand, such as Cook, 
Roberts, Bennett, or Evans, and to observe carefully the way 
in which he hits his ball. 

A good judge of billiards might be blindfolded, and yet could 
distinguish between a good and a bad player by simply listening 
to the sound made by the cue striking the ball. 

The difference in striking between a good and a bad player 
is that the former brings back his cue from the ball quicker 
than the latter. 

It will be observed that any one playing for the first time 
pushes rather than strikes his ball ; after a time he learns to 
strike ; but there is as much difference between the stroke of 
a man like Cook and that of an ordinarily good player, as there 
is between the stroke of that good player and the push of a 
beginner. * 

In these papers we can point out many of the mistakes often 
made by beginners, and also many of the little minute points 
wherein professionals differ from themselves, which, possibly, 
their own observation would not have detected. 

For instance, in putting on drag, listen to the peculiar sharp 
sound made by Cook or Bennett in striking the ball. Let any 
beginner take the same cue and the same ball, and try and 
produce the same sound, and he will not succeed ; there will be 



as distinct a difference in the sound of his stroke and theirs as 
between the heavy thud of a navvy beating down the blocks 
of granite in the road and the sharp tap of a carpenter's 

We were in conversation once with the proprietor of a room, 
which, owing to its proximity to University College, has been 
the resort of generation after generation of bad players. The 
proprietor, who is a first-rate player and judge of the game, 
informed us that when in the shop, by simply listening to the 
sound made by striking the balls 
overhead in the billiard room, he 
could tell as a rule the style of 
game played within ten points. 

Another important point in 
striking and aiming is to keep 
the cue horizontal. We have some- 
times heard a bad player remark, 
"How these balls jump!" most 
probably quite ignorant of the 
fact that any good player can 

make the ball jump clean off the table every stroke he makes, if 
he likes, by raising the right hand and striking down pretty 

The direction of the eye in striking is another important 

consideration ; and on this point we are much more in- 
clined to agree with the veteran Kentfield than with tho 
author of a book on billiards recently published. Mr. Kent- 
field says — 

" Let the player first stand to his ball, and before he takes 
his position for striking, cast his eye to the object ball, that 
will enable him to accomplish it correctly ; then he must place 
his cue to that part of his own ball which it is his intention to 
strike, in doing which his eye will necessarily rest upon it; 

after which the . sight must be 
steadily directed to the object 
ball, and there must it rest until 
the stroke has been effected ; for 
when the eye is suffered to 
wander from one ball to the 
other, the vision becomes dis- 
tracted, and the power of carrectry 
directing the hand lost." 

This was written thirty -four 
years ago, and, we believe, holds 
as true now as it did then. In the act of striking, of course 
the eye should rest on the object ball, previous care having been 
taken whilst aiming to ensure hitting one's own ball in the 
point intended. 

Fig. 2. THE BRIDGE. 


By Eliza Cheadle. 


i?ELL, I have told you 
what to do and how 
to do it, but, never- 
theless, I fear if you 
make your first at- 
tempt on the screen 
itself that you will 
in all probability 
spoil it, and ruffle 
your feathers and 
your temper at the 
same time. 

I do not mean to 
inferthat your hands 
are naturally awk- 
ward, or your tem- 
per is impatient; but 
in no case is this 
art of representing 
birds an easy one, 
and when the specimens require to be of very minute size, the 
difficulty of a neat performance is necessarily the greater. 
Therefore wise people will practise first on a larger scale, and 
so advance gradually to iDerfection. 

Copy, then, some bird of middle size — say a thrush. Take 
either a piece of thin board and -cover it with paper, or a sheet 
of cardboard, and, having made all the preliminary prepara- 
tions as detailed before, place your model before you, and take 
the feathers off as you require them, for in this way only 
can you ensure their occupying the same position in your 

Nor will your labour be in anywise lost. A bird neatly and 
correctly formed in this manner is well worthy of a frame and 

i a place on the wall of your room ; it is certain to be highly 
appreciated by the nursery pets, if by no other members of the 

May be, even after this successful achievement, you will 
still lack the courage to attempt the formation of the oiseau- 
mouche on the screen; if so, form the " wee thing " on a thin 
card, afterwards cut it out and gum it on the place assigned 
for it on the screen. 

There are still several more feather screens waiting to be in- 
troduced to you, and which I think are quite worthy of that 
honour, for they are as ornamental in their several ways as 
those whose acquaintance you have already made ; and to-day 
I shall bring forward another variety, one which adds to it« 
other recommendations that of being particularly useful — the 
banner screen. 

These screens are made in two sizes. The larger ones measure 
about twenty-one inches in depth and seventeen in width ; they 
are suspended on poles of brass or wood, which are fixed either 
on to stands, or on to a jointed arm, and screwed on to the 
mantelpiece. They can thus be easily moved into any position, 
as a protection from the heat of the fire. 

The bannerets are about ten inches deep and eight wide ; 
they are mounted on to small rods and stands, and form a 
pleasant shade for the eyes, without the hands being troubled 
to hold them. The ordinary shapes of these screens will be 
seen by a glance at Pigs. 3 and 4. 

The groundwork for the particular banner screens which 

I am now about to describe is silk or satin, velvet or moire 

antique. No doubt you will find some of these materials amongst 

I your possessions — some piece returned by a considerate dress- 

! maker, or a remnant bought as a bargain, for which hitherto 

! no use has been found. 

Should the shade be too light, a dyer will soon turn it into a 


"rich, crimson or blue, scarlet, 
•green, or violet, which ever 
colour best agrees with that 
prevailing in your drawing- 

Prepare some peacocks' 
feathers, more especially 
'" eye " feathers ; and get 
Some gold spangles, such as 
are sold for masonic aprons, 
and some black velvet : with 
these materials, and a little 
taste and ingenuity com- 
bined, very many various 
and lovely devices may be 
executed. We will mention 
two or three. 

Take a piece of silk or 
satin, and form a Maltese 
cross in the centre of the 
screen, of the softest white 
feathers, then overlay (but 
not so as to hide them) with 
■"eye" feathers, all stitched 
on separately. 

For the centre of the 
cross, make a tuft of four 
white feathers, out of which 
should appear several of 
those glistening feathery 
barbs, such as you take from 
the shaft of an "eye" fea- 
ther—these turn back so 
that they fall over the tuft. 
Make a fringe of the white 
feathers, and lay on an 
" eye " feather at intervals ; 
border this with black velvet 

Then you can design a " star 
a star in the centro cf feathers 
plain surface of the 
ground with span- 
gles ; put a border of 
black velvet, one side 
of ''which, that next 
4he centre, Vandyke, 
and from each point 
let an "eye "feather 
come forth. Also 
span the velvet at in- 
tervals with a single 
shining fibre. 

Tet another pretty 
design might be that 
of some fairy rings of 
feathers, which show 
the groundwork with- 
in. Silk fringe the 
colour of the material 
gives a perfect finish 
to these screens ; and 
they require to bo 
lined with cashmere 
or soft silk. 

In this manner 




there is ample room and scope 
for the imagination; splen- 
did and exquisite screens 
may be thus fashioned, the 
gorgeous magnificence of 
which will be quite Eastern 
in its effect. 

I hope that you have not 
grown weary of feather 
screens, for, as I have said, 
there are several ways of 
making them which have 
yet to be enumerated ; so, on 
the acknowledged ground 
that " variety is pleasing," 
I shall venture to finish my 
somewhat lengthy catalogue 
before moving on to other 
feather recreations. Of 
course the size of the screen 
rules your ciioice of species 
to some degree ; a fire-screen 
would require a much larger 
specimen for its ornamenta- 
tion — a peacock, heron, or 
barn-owl, for instance — 
than would a screen destined 
for the mantelpiece. The 
making of this style of 
screen is one which perhaps 
is not so often undertaken 
by an amateur as by those 
whose avowed occupation it 
is to cure and stuff birds ; 
but there seems to be no 
reason why it should not be 
successfully attempted by 
to cover the shafts of the fea- any who are sufficiently docile to do as they are bidden. Here 

are more hints. 

Immediately after the bird is killed, sever from its body 
the different parts that are required, and proceed as before. 

In order to cure 
the head make an 
incision immediately, 
under or just beyond 
the beak, and take out 
all matter that is 
come-at-able ; leave 
the brains in ; put in 
some alum, and let it 
remain for a few days, 
and then add spirits 
of wine, for a night, 
which will dry up 
the brains and etce- 
teras. If the under- 
feathers should be 
damaged by this pro- 
cess, it is easy to in- 
sert one or two, or a 
bit of down, in their 

The back of the 
board can have a 
piece of thin worsted 

Fig. 3. — HAWK BANNERET. Fig. 2. — OYSTER-CATCHER HAND-SCREEN. material glued On to 


■spangled banner," by making 
of every hue, and studding the 



it, or be covered with cloth, which may be fastened on with 
ornamental nails. The screen is then fixed on to a pedestal, 
and is ready to act as fire-screen. 

When hand-screens are made in this style, millboard is used 
instead of the board, as being less cumbersome ; but, indeed, it 
is quite possible 
to manage to ar- • 
range them with- 
out any founda- 
tion. A needle 
and twine, if they 
perform theix 
work in a proper 
manner, will hold 
the parts together 
quite firmly, and 
leave nothing 
wanting except a 
rod or bow of 
ribbon at the back 
of the screen to 
hide the part 
where the head 
has been fastened 
on, and another 
like ornament to 
cover over the 
place where the 
handle is fixed. 
Gilt handles are 
the most effective 
for this class of 

I have now 
come to the last 
of this long array 
of hand-screens, 
with a few more 
hints on the best 
way of making 
them completely of feathers, with- 
out any foundation but the han- 
dle ; consequently they are very 
light, and they serve the double 
purpose of acting as screens in 
fans in summer. 

If you can induce a snow-white goose or 
gander to bequeath to you four- and- twenty 
feathers from their wings, you can then, I think, 
manage to make these screens. Now feathers 
have stubborn dispositions, especially strong 
feathers, such as those you will require ; but they 
can be trained in the way that they should go 
if you set about the business in the right way. 

winter and 


It is not the least use your picking up waifs and strays, and 
trying to bend them to your will, because they are quite incor- 
rigible, and will invariably prove themselves to be your masters. 
Your only chance is to secure them when they are fresh, or green, 
as it is termed — that is to say, when they are taken from the body 

of the bird directly 
it is killed. Tou 
will then find them 
to be pliable, and 
they should be at 
once pinned down- 
in the form you 
want them to re-^ 
tain. If this posi- 
tion is very con- 
trary to that to 
which they have- 
hitherto been ac-. 
customed, you 
must immediately 
press them with a 
warm iron, first 
putting paper be- 
tween it and the 
feathers. When 
they have re- 
mained a day or- 
two in captivity, 
on being released 
they will evince 
no disposition to 
assume their 
former shape. 

For the scr'eens- 
of which I now 
speak, twenty- 
four of the purest 
white quills are 
required. Ten of- 
these should be 
eight inches long, eight should be 
seven inches in length, and the 
remaining six should measure sis 
inches. This measurement does- 
nob include the bare part of the shaft, which in 
each case should be quite three inches long. 

All down must be taken away, and the- 
feathery fibres gummed, as in all other feather- 
work. The shape of this screen will be seen by 
a glance at the diagram. The six shortest 
feathers, placed in the middle, are straight, and 
also not quite such strong feathers as the 
others ; the eight which go on either side of them 
are curved, the ten long ones much.more bowed. 


ROUNDEBS (continued) — active fieldsmen- 

O far, I have shown how a rounder can be achieved ; but 
with even a moderate field, rounders are not very easy 
so that we shall have to consider the state of affairs 
under less favourable circumstances. Consider yourself for 
the time being, in the position of striker, that you have, at last, 


By G. W. Alcock. 



received a ball that suits you, and that you are speeding on. 
your way to the first base, having sent the ball well into the 
farthest limits of the field. If the fieldsmen are not active, or. 
they fumble the ball, it may be that you have a chance of reach- 
ing as far as the second, or even third, base ; but do not be rash,, 



I implore, and be careful how you give any of the out-side a 
chance of a shy, for they will " cork " (you will soon be able 
to translate the verb after the first lesson) you to a certainty, 
and the ball stings, you may rely on it. Should you be 
cautious, you will not imperil your safety, as well as endanger 
the welfare of your side, but remain, if there be the slightest 
risk, at the first base, and wait for the turn of the nest striker. 
There is just a chance that while the feeder is tossing to the 
striker you may be able to improve your position to the extent 
of another base towards the goal of home ; but here, too, you 
must look out for squalls, for it is one of the artifices of the 
feeder to feign a toss of the ball, in order to catch some of 
you unwary enough to hazard the danger of a throw by attempt- 
ing to reach the next base under the shadow of this artifice. 

Now that you have reached, as I have supposed, the first 
base on your road, you wait the movements of the striker next 
in order, and the same process is performed as in your case, 
each striking the ball or failing, as the ball suits or not. 
Taking it for granted that the 
first four of you on the list 
have only been able to reach 
one base in your transit, all 
the four bases will be filled, 
and the next striker, if suc- 
cessful, will enable the first of 
you to get home, to take his 
turn again with the bat, when 
all the original number of 
strikers has been exhausted. 

All this is on the assump- 
tion that none of you have 
failed in your allotted number 
of strokes with the bat, or 
that none of you have been 
hit on your road from base to 
base. If you have been un- 
lucky enough to meet with 
either of these misfortunes, 
you will have to stand on one 
side, until you have been 
redeemed by the achievement 
of a rounder on the part of 
one of your side, or you have 
th6 variation of retiring into 

the field, to enjoy the luxury of a throw in. I shall ask you now 
to look at the reverse side of the shield, and consider how the 











[ BASE; | 


game goes if the side to which you belong has been attended , marking the bases or the home than these stumps, as they 
by ill-luck instead of success. Ton have, possibly, been ex- 
posing yourselves to unwarrantable risks, and you have found 
that the feeder has either been too artful for you, or that the 
aim of the fieldsmen generally has been too true, and most 
of you have been hit. At all events, nearly all of you have had 
to succumb, and only one of you still remains to win or fail. It 
is now that you will have to depend entirely on your last hope, 
and much depends upon whether this last reserve of yours is a 
skilful or unskilful player. He now calls for a rounder, and it 
is on his success or failure in this feat that the revival or over- 
throw of his side depends. He calls for " three fair hits for a 
rounder," which means that he has three fair chances of com- 
pleting the circuit of the pentagon without being hit or caught, 
or if he reach home before the ball is grounded there. If 
he succeed once out cf these three times in making the 
rounder, he has the privilege of liberating all his fellows who 
have been previously put out, and another innings is com- 
menced on their account ; but if he fail, his side is placed out, 
and the innings is transferred to those who have been fielding. 

To accomplish this rounder, believe me, is no easy task, for 
the field is all on the alert, and you have not the protection of 
the bases, as in ordinary rounders. You must remember, too ; 
that, in the ordinary rounders, you cannot leave a base and 
return to it, unless you leave it before the ball is out of the 
feeder's hand ; and do not forget, too, that on your return you 
are exposing yourself to the dangers of a shy. 

I have told you what you have to do, and now I must caution 
you what you must avoid. When the ball has been grounded 
home by the feeder, and any of you are on your way from base 
to base, you will have to return to that which you last left, un- 
less you have reached more than midway before the ball has 
been grounded ; and even if you have passed this limit you are 
undergoing the risk of a shy. You should avoid, if possible, 
any loose article of clothing, such as a cricket- jacket ; for if the 
ball hits any part of your person or any portion of your clothes, 
you are equally out, and the outer embellishment is an additional 
source of risk to your side. In the case of an ordinary rounder, 

each base affords you a 
protection, and you cannot be 
put out by a throw while so 
protected ; nor is any fields- 
man allowed to obstruct or 
interfere with you in any way 
during your passage from 
base to base. 

I do not know a jollier 
game for an interval, nor do 
I know any that produces 
such exhilarating sport, or 
any amusement so easy of 
comprehension, by the ab- 
sence of technicalities that 
only render confusion worse 
confounded, or so devoid of 
expensive adjuncts. I am 
not sure whether a cricket - 
stump does not form the best 
instrument for striking, as 
any species of bat renders it 
almost impossible to miss the 
ball, while a stump not only 
encourages skill by increasing 
the difficulty of striking, but 
it is surprising the distance that a ball will travel from pro- 
pulsion by a stump. Nor can you have better materials for 

define clearly enough the boundaries, and are unmistakably 
superior to stones, or other such imperfect signs. 

You may consider that any number can participate in 
rounders, and that the more there are the merrier is the gam©. 
So it is, in each case, but you can over-do here as well as in 
most other things. You want a game that will not be tedious 
nor prolonged to the distraction of any ; and sooner than have 
an excess of numbers, I would, if practicable, separate the players 
into two games rather than overcrowd one, and displease or 
dissatisfy one or other. I would advocate not more than ten 
players on each side, as with this number in the field you will 
not realise many such feats as a rounder, and your chance of 
an innings will be sufficiently remote to render its contemplation 
a pleasing feature. You cannot have a better ball than those 
covered with white leather, and known as tennis-balls, for you 
want something heavy enough to fly far ; and you will find that 
it will be quite heavy enough to render the effect of a shy grati- 
fying rather to the thrower than to the recipient. 

I wish you all good luck and a capital game, whenever you 



venture on the pursuit of rounders. Only do not be vicious, 
I beg. If you throw, be sure of hitting, if you can ; but 
do not aim solely to hurt. In this great world of ours I fear 
some of us who aim at rounders would fare ill if we were 
exposed to a shy from our friends. 

prisoners' base. 

I should like to see or have an opportunity of examining the 
length and the breadth of the playground that does not know 
nor has ever known the exercise of prisoners' base, which I 
have placed second in the list of games that I am now en- 
deavouring specially to treat. 

Was there ever a playground that did not know it, one 
that has never rung with the merry shout of its fond dis- 
ciples ? 

I pause for a reply, though there can be but one answer, and 
that one certainly not of a negative character. I know that 
my first recollections of the vast sparsely gravelled square known 
to us as the playground, with its tall overhanging trees older than 
the school itself, and its long sombre line of dismal black 
palings that looked as if they mourned without ceasing for past 
troops of boys after our own fashion, are identified with the 
game ; and I am sure that my ideas on the subject are more 
precise than those of that irrepressible "claimant," whether he be 
Tichborne or not, when he described his playground at Stony- 
hurst in the vaguest and most mysterious manner as " at the 
back of the side of the church." 

Tou may have many sports more popular that will not afford 
you half as much gratification or enjoyment as you can squeeze 
out of an hour of prisoners' base, believe me. You want no 
materials, either, so that you can get to work at once ; nor do 
wind and weather have any effect in spoiling your amusement, 
as in the case with so many other kindred sports, so that 
whether it be fine or whether it rain or snow, you can play and 
keep on playing as long as you fear not the moist, nor turn 
craven under the risk of a wet jacket or of boots that have 
never gone through the process of waterproofing. 

Not that I am desirous of advocating the pursuit of any exercise 

under such discomforts, for if you want to enjoy yourself, you will 
evidently have a better chance if you have a bright sky overhead 
and ground that is dry under your feet. Only do not go away with 
the erroneous impression that there is no skill in an amusement 
apparently so simple, for there is here, as there is everywhere, 
a field for the display of talent ; and here too you will find that 
the player gifted with the most ingenuity and most fertile 
in expedient and resource, will as surely triumph over his less 
expert fellows as in exercises where the accessories are more 
elaborate and the regulations more severe. 

The first thing that you will have to do is to prepare your 
ground, and here fortunately you will not be opposed by any 
serious obstacles. Indeed, the selection will be more than easy, 
for any site will be suitable, whether it be the gravel of the 
playground or the green sward of the field. Tou can take the 
diagram given as a fair specimen of the kind of arrangement 
that will best suit your requirements. 

A playground will after all make the best theatre for your 
play, for the four corners of themselves will form bases and 
prisons without the need of other definition. You will un- 
derstand then, that the corners represent the four bases and 
prisons, and that the space in the centre forms the home for 
the most important perforrfcer in our little representation, who 
is technically known as " chivy." 

As in most games, two captains are selected, and according 
to usual custom each chooses a player until all are alike chosen 
and the sides are equal. 

The next movement is to toss for the choice of positions, 
though generally there is little to be gained in this respect 
except the dissatisfaction of finding that " heads " appear when 
" tails " are summoned. 

Now that you have all the preliminaries settled, you will 
have to arrange your plan ; and it is now that a captain gifted 
with strategic abilities will demonstrate his ability. First the 
captain of the reds, as we will call those who occupy the bases 
and prison so marked, sends out one of his own side into the 
centre of the play to act as chivy, and virtually serve as the 
signal for hostilities to commence. 


By the Secretary op the Eoyal Humane Society. 




F all the athletic exercises swim- 
ming is the most easily learned ; 
but in learning to swim instead 
of to float, we begin at the wrong 
end, and with the wrong notion 
that swimming (instead of our 
own natural buoyancy) floats us 
in the water. Taken in the right 
order they come naturally. Any 
person who is accustomed to the 
water knows that the greatest dif- 
ficulty he has to contend with 
is to dive or sinlc (i.e. to strive 
against the natural buoyancy of the body) and not to float. Let 
any of our readers try to pick up a bright object from the bottom 
in five or six feet of water, and the very strong resistance he meets 
with will convince him that it is far easier to remain at the top 
than to go to the bottom. When a horse, dog, pig, or bullock, gets 

out of its depth, it finds itself at once lifted up, and floating 
with its head above water, and, having no fear of sinking, its 
anxiety to reach the shore prompts it to make the natural 
motion with its four limbs. 

Man has not, like the quadruped, the advantage of guiding 
himself in the water in his ordinary position ; and his unin- 
structed reason becomes a worse guide than the unerring instinct 
of the brute. Fear prompts him to raise his arms out of the 
water, and then they tend to sink him, whilst the necessary 
position of the beast's four limbs keep them under water ; thus, 
the efforts of the timorous to save themselves are the very 
cause of their drowning. Tossing with the arms above water j 
screaming with the mouth wide open, they get out of breath, 
water supplies the place of air, and they are choked or stifled — 
that is, drowned. But the time that it takes to frustrate their 
natural buoyancy proves the very thing they ignorantly doubted; 
for, if not lighter in themselves than water, they would have 
sunk like a stone. Nature has benevolently given, us this 



buoyant principle of safety in common with the lower order of 
animals, and we perversely mar it by our ignorant terrors, 
and by absurdly fancying (according to the vulgar error) 
that the action of swimming, which is only moving through 
the water, keeps us on the surface, and not our own natural 

The mouth must be kept carefully closed until the arms arrive 
again at the third position, shown in the Figures in the last 
lesson, in Part I. ; then a full breath should be taken whilst the 
hands are returning to position number one. 

This drawing of the breath is most essential, as all learners 
are very apt to draw their breath just at the moment they 

Fig. 1. — FLOATING. 

strike out, and to a certainty get a mouthful of water, the 
effect of which, especially in the sea, is to make the tyro very 

These strokes in swimming should be taken slowly and steadily, 

Fig. 2. — BALANCING. 

not exceeding a speed of twenty per minute. Having got so far, 
now is the time when learners require some amount of assistance; 
and one learner can help another, by following a few simple 

Have a belt made at a saddler's of the webbing generally 
used for horses' girths, of such a size as will go round the body 
easily ; eyelet-holes must be punched into the ends instead of 
buckles, and about two yards of strong line the size of an 
ordinary little finger should be spliced at one end into one of 
the eyelet-holes, the other end being run through the other eye- 
let-hole at the other end of the belt. 

The teacher should then place the belt round the pupil's 
waist with the rope in front of the chest (Fig. 5), and, holding the 
other end in his hand, must direct him to enter the water to his 
middle, and then strike out ; the teacher walking backwards in 
his depth, or along the boards if in a bath, holding the end 
rather tight, so as to keep the learner in the most favourable 
position for swimming, and prevent his sinking. 

The pupil must keep his head well back on the shoulders, 
and the back hollowed, which tends to the inflation of the 
chest, and gives more buoyancy, and he must at the same time 
kick out his legs well. 

By repeating this exercise ccveral times, he will get more 
confidence in the sustaining power of the water. 

Sometimes the rope is passed over a pulley, at the end of a 


projecting beam, or crane, working on a centre, and giving 
way with the movements of the swimmer, or a strong wire 
is stretched across a large bath, and kept tight with screws ; 
on this a pulley runs, and to it is attached the wire belonging 
to the belt, buckled round the learner's waist, the cord in this 
case being attached at the back, as in Fig. 6. 

This contrivance (than which nothing can be more simple) 
will not only facilitate the acquirement of the art of swimming, 
but enable any one who may be a tolerably good swimmer, to 
instruct any number of pupils in the art, by imitating the 
actions of the frog. 


Now that swimming has become to be considered a necessary 
part of every boy's education in those public schools that 
have any water within reach, this simple apparatus will 
prove the more useful, as it supersedes the necessity of being 
taught in a large space of water, which may not always be 
at hand. 

Eepeat this practice several times, and on each occasion 
you will get more confidence in the great sustaining power 
of the water, but if you cannot get any assistance in the man- 
ner above described, let one of your feet occasionally touch 
the bottom. 

The manner of kicking out the legs should be precisely similar 
to that of the frog, i.e., as you draw your arms and hands into 
the first position you must at the same time draw up your 
feet and legs towards the body, and kick them out again, 
at the same time as you strike out with the arms and hands. 
There is not bo much importance attached to the stroke 
of the legs as to that of the arms, and for this reason, that 



as progress is made with the latter, the legs are sure to follow. 
A good swimmer very seldom swims on the breast since the 
side stroke in swimming has become so popular, although con- 

mode of supporting the body; indeed, when not able to 
swim, you can always learn to float in salt water in a single 
lesson, simply by placing yourself on your back, throwing 

-pig, 6. — ; swihm:ing with the cobd. 

fidenee is gained with the breast stroke upon attempting the your chest well out of the water, and the head well back 
other. After learning to swim a few strokes, you should (See Fig. 1). Aimm <u. +n ~ n t +T, Pm to 

thoroughly acquire the power of floating, that being the easiest With beginners, it 18 always very difficult to get them 



keep their heads back; they generally lift their heads up, 
principally on account of the water entering their ears, the 
result being that the body is thrown into a position that 
entirely prevents them from floating, because it brings the 
mouth under water. 

The arms can be placed in any position, but it is preferable 
for them to be stretched right out, the palm of the hand just 
under the water, by this position the learner has a better 
mode of balancing himself, otherwise he is very liable to turn 

After he has obtained sufficient confidence to be able to 
balance himself, he can place his arms in any position, either 
by the side, across the chest, or folded under the head — the 
latter position is best, as it throws the chest more forward, 
and naturally inflates the lungs. The lives of many persons 
have been saved by this simple plan ; whilst thousands could 
have been saved had they merely remained quiet, with their 
heads thrown well back, instead of struggling and throwing 
their arms out of the water, which naturally causes the head 
to sink. 

Of course it is much easier to accomplish this in the sea 
than in fresh water. If in the latter, it would be better to 
just paddle the hands at your side a little, which will prevent 
your feet from sinking. 

It i3 much easier for a woman to float than a man, from 
the formation of the body. 

One can swim some distance on the breast, by lifting the 
arms over the head, and taking a circular stroke towards the 
side. Many can swim more than a hundred yards in this way 
as fast as some of our best swimmers on the side. 

To acquire the power of floating well is to possess the key 
to all kinds of swimming on scientific principles ; it is also very 
useful in cases of that terrible bane of the swimmer, the mus- 
cular contraction called the cramp, whatever part of the body 
which is thus attacked being rendered temporarily powerless. 
All are affected alike, and perhaps more good swimmers have 
been drowned by cramp than by anything else. Strong men 
and good swimmers, when seized with the cramp, have been 
known to sink instantly, overcome with the sudden pain, and 
nothing but the very greatest presence of mind can save the 

The legs and arms are the parts of the body that are most 
frequently assailed, by which means the difficulty of getting 
ashore is much increased, but there is no real danger so long 
as the swimmer preserves his presence of mind. When accom- 
panied by presence of mind, cramp is comparatively harmless, 
but when accompanied with fear, it is almost certain to be 
followed by drowning. 

If both legs are disabled, try to paddle ashore with the 
arms ; if, on the other hand, the arms are seized, the sufferer 
should lie on his back, and get to land by the use of his legs, 
if unable to do either, he should throw himself on his back, 
and endeavour to float until succour reaches him. Under 
such circumstances, some people recommend the following 
method : — 

Turn on the back at once, kick out the leg in the air, without 
minding the pain, and rub the part attacked with one hand 
smartly, whilst the other is used in paddling towards the shore. 
It is very easy to give these directions, but they are most diffi- 
cult to follow. Cramp appears to deprive the person attacked 
of all reason for the time, and to render him quite powerless 
with mingled pain and terror. 

The causes of cramp are usually believed to be two : the 
first is from indigestion, for those in good health are seldom 
attacked by it ; the second is the over-exertion of muscles 
that have been but little used, and when a very strong stroke 

with the legs or arms is given, it usually comes on, therefore 
easy swimming is to be preferred to that with sudden strokes 
or jerks. 

Balancing or perpendicular floating (Fig. 2) in the water is 
done by allowing the legs to sink gradually, so that the body 
may assume an upright position ; the head must be thrown 
back, so that the chin may be on a level with the surface. The 
great requisite for the proper performance of perpendicular 
floating, is confidence ; caution is always necessary ; and the 
water should be quite still. 

Treading water is a mode" of supporting the body without 
making any progress through the water, but of supporting the 
head well above the surface. By it, if a man is drowning, 
he may very possibly be saved, if two people take him by the 
arms, and keep his head above water till assistance arrives ; 
but it must be borne in mind that it is a very dangerous 
experiment, unless the two salvors seize the drowning person 
with very great determination, so as to prevent his grappling 

The treading of the water can be done one leg at a time, or 
both together, but the latter is the best way, as a greater 
weight can be supported, when both legs raise the body at the 
same time. 

If one wishes to seize anything above the water level, such 
as the gunwale of a boat, or a rope, the body is raised by this 
plan of treading water with great vigour, also it is sometimes 
done with the hands alone, or with both hands and feet to- 

Upright swimming, or the Italian method, is given by 
Bernardi, as follows : — 

The pupil is supported in the upright posture in deep water, 
by means of a hand under the arms, which are stretched out 
horizontally under water. The head should never be allowed 
to sink, but the body may be left unsupported for a short 
time, if the pupil can be persuaded to remain quite quiet, 
which he will do if he has full confidence in his master. 

If the legs are inclined to come forward or backward, or 
to rise on either side, a movement of the head in the same 
direction corrects the tendency ; and this is instilled into the 
pupil and practised accordingly. 

When he can manage to maintain the perpendicular position 
by this mode of balancing, the most difficult part of the process 
is accomplished. The next thing is to teach him to advance 
one leg, keeping the other back, and, with the arms still hori- 
zontal ; this is easily done, and the legs may be taught to be 
used as in walking. After this, the arms are practised in the 
manner peculiar to the plan which is first attempted, while the 
body is stationary, and is exactly the reverse of the 'use of 
the arms in the old style, each hand being thrust out nearly 
sideways, and then brought one after the other, round in front 
of the chest, embracing, as it were, a body of water within its 

When wishing to retreat, the body is inclined backwards, 
the arms are reversed, and the water is pushed from the 
body. The utmost rate of swimming in this way is about 
three miles an hour in still water, which is not much more 
than half the ordinary speed. 

Dog-like swimming (Fig. 3) is simply following the same 
motions as the limbs of the do£ make when progressing through 
the water. It is in all respects less useful than the usual 
mode, being so much slower, but as it affords rest through a 
different action of the muscles, it may be turned to very- 
good account when the swimmer is much exhausted by a long 

The swimmer should lie on his chest, and movers hands and 
legs alternately, the right hand with the left foot, and the left 



hand with the right foot, one hand being thrust gently for- 
ward, with the palm 'flat and fingers close together ; it is then 
brought back to the level of the breast, and the other used in 
the same way. 

During the time that each hand is being so used, the foot 
and leg of the other side is drawn up, and then thrust back- 
wards, outwards, and downwards with a good kick, but the 
learner must bear in mind the necessity cf working the arms 
and legs in perfect unison. 

The hand-over-hand mode of swimming is a very rapid one, 
and is frequently used when short distances have to be traversed, 
such as reaching a friend in the water who may be in danger, 
but it is too fatiguing to be used for any length of time, and 
is most adopted for the sake of the rest obtained by the 
change of muscular action. 

It seems to be the dog-like method carried to an extreme ; 
each hand is successively drawn out of the water and thrown 
forward, with the arm and shoulder to its full extent, with an 
action like a circular sweep, the last joints of the fingers 
should be a little bent, so as to make a small cavity, and 
enable the swimmer to hold the water as he draws his hands 
downwards towards the hips ; the action of the legs is the same 
as in dog-like swimming ; whilst these motions have been gone 
through, the shoulder has become so far advanced as to throw 
the body on its side, just as the hand on that side reaches the 
water, and the opposite, by having come into position, is 
strongly thrust backwards. 

The arms, as it were, revolve in an oval, but each hand must 
pause a moment at the hip, whilst the other is being thrust 
forward, and the stroke of the opposite leg is to be made at 
the same moment. 

Swimming on the back, much the same as floating (Pig. 1), 
is at once the easiest, pleasantest, and most useful method 
of swimming ; indeed, some learners can make very good 
progress in this way, even before they can swim on the 

By acting in the following manner, the pupil will soon be- 
come a proficient in this style of advancing through the 

Turn on the back, by forcing the leg and arm of one side 
against the water, next place the hand on the side of the 
body, just inside the hips, by the groin, take care to keep the 
head thrown well back and immersed, all except the actual 
face, hollow the back a little, and at the same time expand 
the chest as much as possible; the elbows and knees are to 
be turned out, so as to be kept under the surface of the 
water, and the head and whole body in a perfectly composed 

The legs are next to be drawn up and thrust back as in 
ordinary swimming, but the knees must not come out of the 
water ; if the legs are not to be used, possibly owing to cramp, 
they must be kept in a horizontal position, with the toes and 
heels together. This method permits a great rate of speed 
being attained. 

If a bather will only keep his lips tightly closed, and the 
body still, he will find that when he inflates the lungs by a 
deep inspiration, his face will rise almost entirely out of the 
water, and at each expiration, his face will sink as far as 
the eyebrows and lower lip, but not any lower, his nostrils 
being always free for the passage of the air required by the 

If any one will give this plan a fair trial he will learn more 
in an hour than in many days by other methods. Here he 
finds the immensely powerful buoyancy of the water, which 
would certainly prevent any one from drowning, whether 
he can swim or not, if he could only lie in the position of 

swimming on his back without moving his body or limbs, as 
Tie will be unable to sink, if he tries. 

Every one should practise this simple plan of floating, until 
he has gained such confidence as to remain for a considerable 
time in this position, and even before being an accomplished 
swimmer, he need not fear being drowned. 

Another way of obtaining a position of total rest, is to 
stretch out the arms as far as possible above the head, their 
weight acting as a counterpoise to that of the legs, the effect 
being that the toes are forced above the surface. 

As before said, in the sea this plan of floating is very .much 
easier than in fresh water, the face during expiration hardly ever 
sinking lower than the chin, whilst a good full inspiration will 
raise the whole face out of the water. 

Swimming on the side (Fig. 4), which was not thought much 
of till within the last few years, is now considered the most 
powerful method known, and is almost universally adopted by 
competitors in races. 

In our opinion there are few modern swimmers who can excel 
either in power or grace of movement in the water Mr. F. Cavill, 
the well-known teacher of swimming at Brighton, one who not 
only has taught an immense number of ladies and gentlemen 
this graceful and useful accomplishment, but who has also saved 
many lives when in danger of drowning, simply from having such 
power and confidence in the water under any circumstances ; 
and as a result he now wears the silver and bronze medals and 
a clasp granted him by the Boyal Humane Society for his 
courageous acts of rescue, and is the only celebrated teacher of 
swimming that we have ever seen so decorated ; and we trust 
that the tepid baths he proposes to found in London, for the 
purpose of teaching in the same way as at Brighton, may prove 
such a success as he deserves. 

As an example of the confidence given a man by being an 
accomplished swimmer, we cite the following act of rescue for 
which the Albert medal and the silver medal of the Boyal 
Humane Society were very properly awarded. 

On Sunday, January 6th, 1867, during a heavy gale of wind, 
the French lugger Courrier de Dieppe, drove ashore at Dym church, 
Kent, the crew consisting of four persons ; attempts made to 
reach her with the mortar and rocket apparatus were unsuc- 
cessful, and the master, a cabin-boy, and a seaman, were washed 
overboard and drowned. 

Soon the ship parted, and the portion upon which the 
mate, the only survivor of the crew, had taken refuge, was 
driven near the shore. 

John Batist, a boatman of the Coast Guard Station at Dym- 
church, clad in a cork jacket, and having a line attached to 
him, attempted to reach the vessel, but failed, and was dragged 

At this moment the Bev. Charles Cobb, the Sector of 
Dymchurch, came up, on his way to perform divine service 
at the neighbouring church, when he halted to perform a 
mission of mercy that was quite in keeping with his character 
as a clergyman. He immediately rushed into the water, and 
made for the vessel, and after one or two ineffectual efforts, 
by strong and determined swimming, at last reached the 
wreck, got on board, mounted the rigging, and rescued the 
only survivor. 

Batist then succeeded in getting to the wreck, and, with 
a line he took with him, the poor French sailor was dragged 
ashore, - supported on either side by Mr. Ccbb and Batist. 

Mr. Cobb made this brave attempt to save life in spite of 
the remonstrances of the people on the spot, and declined 
their assistance, by refusing to take any line with him, feeling 
so much confidence in his powers of swimming, learnt when 




By Charles E. Innss. 



1HEEE is a story told of three daring individuals, whilst 
the exercise was still a novelty, who, to their wives' 
astonishment and dismay, uttered their firm resolve to 
travel from London to Brighton by dandy-horse between sunrise 
and sunset. Great were the 
preparations, and fervent the 
marital blessings on their 
departure ; but, alas for the 
vanity of human wishes ! 
their homes were scarcely 
out of sight when the steer- 
ing apparatus of one of their 
machines became slightly 
disarranged, and horse and 
rider went flying into a 
ditch, whilst the two remain- 
ing " dandies," turning sud- 
denly to witness the catas- 
trophe, ran violently into 
one another, to the great 
detriment of their limbs and 
garments . History is on this 
occasion silent as to whether 
there were any small boys 
present to enjoy the fun; let 

us hope, out of pity for the actors in the scene, that there were 
not. Some of these excursions ended, however, in more serious 
mishaps ; and one rather curious accident occurred, which leads 
one to fear that the unlucky traveller had (perhaps owing to the 
heavy state of the road) endangered the lives of his Majesty's 

tors wished to shine, and it is interesting to see how each 
considered his machine superior to any other; there was always 
some want supplied that no other machine possessed ; and as 
this was sometimes really the case, little by little perfection 

was arrived at. The advo- 
cates for the tricycle argued 
that on three wheels the rider 
was safer and more comfort- 
able than on two — a very 
natural supposition, but one 
that is not borne out by 
actual experience ; and it is 
not at all unlikely that in 
many instances the admirers 
of the three-wheeler had 
never mastered the bicycle. 

A good specimen of the 
second class of machine, as 
improved from the original 
patterns, is that in which 
the driving-wheel is rarely 
more than forty inches in 
diameter, and the hind wheel 
some six inches less; while 
for the better description of 
it, we will divide it under the same four heads — viz., backbone, 
spring, wheels, and steering apparatus (Fig. 1). 

1. The backbone is made of the best rivet iron, and is 1^ 
inches thick in its strongest part, lessening at either extremity 
to about | inch, and it extends from about a foot in front of 

_ ■ -sj'Tr' 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

subjects, by taking to the footpath, for it is recorded that 
"whilst proceeding at a great speed down hill, he passed close 
to a certain house, the domestic whereof suddenly, from the 
interior, threw back the shutters, which, opening outwards, did 
hit him a violent blow to his most serious injury and detriment." 
All the injuries sustained by the riders of these obsolete dandy- 
horses are entirely obviated by the present mode of propulsion, 
as will be seen at a glance. To go through the list of applica- 
tions for patents and the various suggestions for the improve- 
ment of the velocipede since 1867 would be far too tedious; 
for in the year 1869 alone there were more than a hundred 
patents taken out bearing directly or indirectly on this subject ; 
most of them were complicated and practically useless, and, 
like many inventions, looked very well on paper, but failed 
when put to the test. Some advocated four-wheeled machines 
to be worked by one sitter, and others by two ; but it was more 
especially in designs for the tricycle and bicycle that inven- 

the guiding-rod to the axle of the hind wheel, having at the 
same time a vertical socket in which the spindle of the fork of 
the driving-wheel works. The after end of it finishes in a fork, 
between which the hind wheel revolves, and its front end ter- 
minates in a scroll. The socket for the driving-wheel spindle 
is grooved, having a little hole near the upper end, into which 
the oil may be poured to ensure its complete lubrication. The 
scroll in front is useful to those bicyclists who rig up what has 
been called an accumulator (Fig. 2) which consists of a strong 
india-rubber ring, b (similar to those used for horses' legs) 
hooked into the scroll, with two straps or chains, A A — the former 
for choice — attached to it, one of which is fastened to each of 
the handles, or rather at the junction of the handles and the 
guiding-rod. By this method, if the india-rubber ring is 
strong and the accumulator made taut, the front wheel will not 
easily turn out of the straight line, whilst the elasticity of the 
ring allows sufficient play to admit of the machine being per- 



f ectly steered ; and in this way to beginners it is a great help, 
though it will be well for them to practise also without it as 
soon as possible, so that they may not depend on it for their 
true driving. Its great use, however, when this class of 
machine is used, is to form a bed for luggage, which may be 
oarried here with the least inconvenience to the rider. 

2. The spring, which is slightly arched, is made of steel, and 
follows a generally horizontal line till it is above the centre of 
the hind wheel, where it is hinged to two other slightly curved 
springs falling nearly at right angles to it, the lower ends of 
which are fixed one on either side of the hind wheel. The saddle 
is placed a few inches behind the spindle of the driving-wheel 
fork, and may be shifted forwards or backwards according 
to the will of the rider ; but as the spring rises very rapidly at 
this end, and falls much more gradually to the rear, the rider is 
placed on the strongest part of it. 

3. The wheels of this machine 
are wooden ones, and consequently 
appear to the eye very often 
heavier than they really are. The 
front or driving-wheel is, as before 
stated, rarely made more than 
forty or forty-two inches in dia- 
meter, while the hind wheel is aa 
much as thirty-four or thirty-five 
inches. The felloe is slightly hol- 
lowed all round, and then a curved 
iron tire fitting into the hollow is 
shrunk on, thus strengthening the 
wheel, and forming an almost semi- 
circular bed for the reception of 
the india-rubber, which is fitted on 
most ingeniously. When on the 
old machines the iron tires were 
first discarded, various methods 
were resorted to for substituting 
gutta-percha whilst still retaining 
the same wheels; but this was a 
matter of some difficulty, as, the 
surface of the felloe being flat, 
there was no bed for the gutta- 
percha to lie in. Some of them, 
however, answered fairly well; but 
they were at the best but make- 
shifts, as the gutta-percha was con- 
stantly coming off, and if it did not actually come off, the 
stones cut it up so much that it required incessant patching ; 
this latter being due partly to the hardness of the material, 
and partly to the fact of its being in tension instead of com- 
pression, so that a cut once made was sure to open more and 

These disadvantages have been overcome entirely by the com- 
pressed tire. The india-rubber is about an inch and a quarter 

(From a Photograph.) 

The bush of the hind wheel has a box of hard steel, slightly 
longer than the thickness of the hub, let through its centre, with 
a steel washer at either end just clear of the wheel, and then a 
bolt is driven through it as well as through the hind fork, and 
the whole is nipped together, so that however much the bolt 
may be tightened the wheel can never get jammed. The boxes 
of the front wheel are slightly cupped, thus reducing the" friction, 
and furnishing a chamber for the oil. 

4. The steering apparatus is similar to that used on the old 
machines, and consists of a vertical fork, supporting at its lower 
end the driving-wheel with the treadles attached, and finish- 
ing at its upper end in a spindle, which, passing through the 
socket of the backbone, projects about two inches above it, 
having a screw at its extremity. The handles (generally made 
of wood) are fixed to a steel rod resting on a bow of iron 

having a socket midway, which is 
dropped over the projecting piece 
of the aforesaid spindle, and then 
secured by a nut and washer. The 
leg rests come forward in front, in 
a somewhat similar manner to the 
old Coventry ones, but are stronger 
in construction ; they are formed 
of two bars of iron on either side 
of the front wheel but parallel to 
it, fixed at right angles to the fork 
and joined in front, but quite clear 
of the wheel, with a steel stiffen- 
ing rod. The steel rests for the 
feet are covered with india-rubber, 
and fitted on to the horizontal bars 
in such a manner that they will 
slide backwards and forwards, so 
that they can be shifted to suit 
the length of the rider's legs ; 
when, however, the required posi- 
tion is found, they can be tightened 
with a nut to prevent their slip- 

Whichever class of bicycle may 
be finally decided upon, it will 
always be advisable to learn on 
a small machine, with plain iron 
tires to its wheels, as a be- 
ginner would be sure to damage 
india-rubber ones, and the latter are expensive ; but as soon as 
ever you are able to. drive tolerably straight, the iron tires may 
be discarded ; and the difference of sensation between the two 
materials may be compared to that experienced in getting out 
of a jolting cart into an easy carriage. 

In the light of present experience it would appear almost 
incredible, but it is none the less a fact, that when india- 
rubber tire3 were first introduced they had many opponents, 

in diameter, hollow in the centre, and the length of it consider- who argued that although there might be a greater degree 
ably more than the circumference of the wheel ; a twisted wire j of comfort to the rider from using them, yet the extra labour 
core, equal in length to the circumference of the wheel, is then involved, owing to the soft nature of the material, would more 
pushed through the india-rubber till about the same quantity of 
the latter is overlapping each end of the wire core. The india- 
rubber is then forcibly drawn back, and thus compressed till 
there is sufficient wire visible to allow of its being spliced, which 
being done, the two ends of the india-rubber are released and 
allowed to fly together, thus making the circle complete. In this 
way a beautifully elastic tire is made, which, if damaged at all, 
haB a tendency to close instead of to open, as it would do if in 

than counterbalance the slight advantage gained. It is need- 
less to say that this theory soon melted away in the test of 
practical experience, as many other theories have before when 
tried by that ordeal. 

The use of the break will be easily acquired, as it simply con- 
sists in turning the handles round till it is felt to bo on ; but it 
should be applied gently, as, if you are running fast down hill, 
and skid too suddenly, a spill may be the consequence. 

When descending a long winding hill, it is more prudent not 



to let the machine run at its full pace, as you may at one of 
, the bends in the road come on a flock of sheep, or some other 
unforeseen obstacle that will necessitate a sharp pull up. 

It will be convenient to carry a little leathern or tin box 
behind the saddle, to carry a few tools in, without which you 
ought never to leave home ; these should consist of an oil-can, 
a spanner, a pair of pliers, a piece of wash-leather and rag, a 
few spare leather washers, and perhaps a little string or wire. 

As far as regards dress, each rider must suit himself, but what- 
ever it is it should be tolerably light, as bicycling at the best 
of times will be found warm work. A thin jersey, and a light 
tweed suit with knickerbockers, will be as good as anything. • 

Luggage is generally carried on the old-pattern bicycles in a 

knapsack which rests on the accumulator, and is strapped to 
the guiding-rod, but it is well to have a leather shield cut out, 
about 12 in. by 8 in., and to place it between the knapsack and 
the accumulator, as it will save the former much wear and tear. 
Bicyclists using the large machines with a 46 to 50-inch front 
wheel, and a small hind wheel, generally hang it within the curve 
of the spring behind the saddle. Another way that is feasible 
with the old-pattern machines is to have a light tray (b b, 'Fig. 3) 
fitted over the guiding-rod (a) in such a way that it is removable, 
into which a small portmanteau (c, Fig. 4) may be made to fit. If 
this i3 small and light, with a- rounded top, it- will look very neat, 
and also be found capable of carrying sufficient for a three days' 
run. In Fig. 5 we give a representation ©f the Surbiton Bicycle. 


By John Wisker, the English Champion. 


BARLT in the game, of course, it 
is difficult, if not impossible, for 
the pawn to penetrate through the 
serried ranks of his opponents. 
Barely, and only in remarkable 
positions, does a pawn advance 
very far whilst the board is full 
of pieoes ; but at the end of the 
game he is frequently pushed 
forward to the extreme limit of 
the board, where he enters upon 
a new career of usefulness. He 
cannot retreat, he cannot re- 
main a pawn, and he is therefore 
transformed. A player who advances a pawn to the eighth 
square must of necessity exchange it for some superior piece, 
excepting the king. He may claim a queen, rook, knight, or 
bishop for his promoted pawn. As a rule, the fortunate 
possessor of the pawn at its eighth square chooses a queen, 
she being the most powerful piece ; but positions do occur, 
strange to say, wherein the selection of a rook, knight, or 
bishop, would save or win the game. I may give an example 
of these eccentricities at a future day ; they are not needed 
now. Nevertheless, the choice of a queen is so frequent that 
the advance of a pawn to the eighth square goes by the tech- 
nical term of " queening a pawn." 

The pawn's method of capturing is peculiar. Unlike all the 
other pieces, he cannot capture on his line of march, but diagonally 
from it. He marches like a rook, but takes like a bishop. 

In the diagram (Fig. 1) the hostile pawns on the left have 
each moved two squares, and confront each other. They can- 
not capture, because they are on the same file, and the pawn 
cannot take on its line of march. The case is one of dead lock ; 
neither pawn can advance or recede. On the right of the 
diagram the two pawns are on different files, and they meet 
each other diagonally. Whichever has the move can capture 
the other — viz., by removing him and planting himself on the 
desolated square. It follows that whenever a pawn takes 
another pawn or a superior piece, the capturing pawn is trans- 
ferred to another file. Thus you may have two or even three 
pawns upon one file — the original pawn that was on that file, 
and one or two others that may have passed on to it through 
the slaughter of their adversaries. 

There is another mode of capture by the pawn which is 
exceedingly peculiar. It is called taking en passant. The 

beginner must carefully appreciate the mode of performing this 
operation, for in none of the elements of chess does the tyro 
so frequently err. Examine the diagram (Fig. 2). 

On the left is a well-advanced black pawn, and a white 
pawn that has moved but one square. They meet diagonally, 
and, according to rule, the blaok pawn, if he had the move, 
could capture the white one, and occupy his square. On the 
right is a black pawn similarly advanced, and a white pawn 
that has never been moved. Suppose the player of the white 
men now advances this pawn two squares, as he can do on the 
first move, the player of the black men would have the oppor- 
tunity of taking it off the board and of planting his pawn 
just as if it had moved one square ; that is, the capturing 
black pawn would not instal itself in the place the white 
pawn occupied after moving two squares, but in the place 
it would occupy if it had moved one square. This is the 
process of taking en passant. 

The king is the last piece with which we have to deal ; 
his movement is very simple. He can be played one square in 
any direction, backwards, forwards, or diagonally. Place him 
anywhere in the centre of the board, and he can command any 
of the eight squares around him. Other specialities of the 
king are more complicated, but these I must postpone for the 

Having said so much for the beginner, it is time to urge a 
little on behalf of those who have some knowledge of the game. 
I propose to present a series of critical situations in which 
the game has been or might have been won by remarkable 
strokes of play. These positions will for the most part, but 
not always, be selected from actual contests between players of 
distinction. I must presume on the part of a moderate player 
a knowledge of chess notation, which must be explained to the 
tyro in a future Number. To begin with a comparatively simple 
instance selected from a fine game played many years ago be- 
tween Dr. Bledow and Herr von Bilguer, two Berlin players. 

The game was a King's Bishop's opening, i.e. ' 

1. r to K. 4 

2. K B to Q B 4, and at the twenty-fifth move the situation stood 

as in Fig. 3. 

In this position black appears to have a tolerably comfortable 

situation, and the forces are equal. Half a dozen moves serve 

to show how unsafe it is to judge by appearances. 

White. Black. 

26. KEtoI sq. 26. B to Q 2. 

27. P to Q Kt -1th. 2/7. Kt to K 5 (check). 

28. R takes Kt. 



The object of this fine move is to bring the king's bishop to 
bear upon the adverse king. 

"White. Black. 

20. B to Q Kt 3 (check). 28. P takes B. 

30. B to Q 6 (check). 29. K to B sq. 

White sees his way to the end with admirable clearness, whilst 
Black seems unconscious of his danger. 

30. BtoK2. 

31. KttoK5. 31. PtoKKt4. 

Black had at this point the opportunity of taking a bishop 
gratuitously; but by doing so he would have been mated at 
once by the check of the knight at K Kt 6. He accordingly 
plays the knight's pawn to avoid the mate, 

32. P to K B 6, 

the final stroke. Black has no resource left. If he take 
the bishop, White mates with the knight as before. He ob- 


but he could not resist the temptation of capturing the queen 
for nothing, threatening, as he now does, immediate mate. 
But the other side had also an eye to mate : — 


2. Kt to K 6 (check). 

3. B to K 3 (check). 


2. K to Kt 3 (he must). 

3. K to B 4. 

Interposing the pawn or rook would evidently have been of 
no use. 

4. B to QB6-(dis. check). 4. KtoKt5. 

5. B to Q B 5. Checkmate. 

The old German magazine from whieh it is taken remarks 
that it is useless to begin well unless your care and attention 
are kept up to the end. 

I have said that the move of the king is the simplest of all. 
Subject to certain conditions, on which I am about to enlarge, 

Bt.ack — Von Bit.«ttt\ 

Pig. 2. 


viously cannot take the pawn. Lastly, if he move away his 
king's rook, the bishop takes the bishop, check, and then the 
other bishop mates at K B 7. The young player may be told 
that the onward move of the KBP is far more, effectual than 
the capture of the black Q B with the knight. Herr von 
Bilguer resigned at this point. 

The problem Fig. 4 is equally old. 

In this situation the Black seems to have decidedly the best 
of it, and undoubtedly he has overpowered his foe. His pre- 
ponderance of force is enormous, and his position good. The 
game ended thus : — 

"White. Black. 

1. Q to K Kt 3. . 1. Q takes Q. 

The Black might here have won the game in several ways ; 

Fig. 3. "White — Dk. Bledow. 

Fig. 4. 


he can be played to any of the squares next to him — backwards, 
forwards, or sideways, indifferently. His range is limited to 
one square at £. time. 

There is, however, much more to be learned respecting the 
king. He is the soul of the fight, the object for which the 
battle is waged. It is for the purpose, immediate or future, 
of assaulting the adverse king, that each player conducts his 
operations. All other considerations may be sacrificed to this 
end. The player who first succeeds in driving the adverse 
king into a certain position, wins the game. To begin. Unlike 
all the other pieces, the king cannot be taken off the board. 
He may be attacked but not captured. If any of the adverse 
pieces bring him within the line of their movement, they put his 
majesty in " check.' ' To give check to the king is to attack him. 



In the diagram (Fig. 5), it will be seen that the black king is 
within range of the white rook, which moves in a straight line 
parallel with the sides of the board. The rook could capture 

Jb'lg. O. WHITE. 

any other black piece, but being the king, the rook only gives 
"check." As, however, the king cannot betaken, so he cannot 
remain in check. He must forthwith free himself from the 
assault of an adverse piece. This he can do in three ways ; by 
moving out of the range of the piece, by interposing one of his 
own pieces, so that the king may be covered from the attack, 
or, thirdly, by capturing the man giving check. In the 
position given above, the king may simply step on to either 
of the adjoining files, and he is at once freed from check. Or 
the black bishop may be retreated to the black square imme- 
diately in front of the king, thus covering his majesty from the 
check of the rook. As the king must always be immediately 
relieved from check, it follows that he cannot move into check. 
He cannot be moved within the range of any hostile piece. 
Hence, also, as the range of the kings themselves extends one 
square in every direction, they cannot approach each other. 
At least a square must always separate them. Another obser- 
vation respecting check is of importance. It is the peculiar 
feature of the knight that he can leap over the heads of his 
friends or foes, therefore, no piece can be interposed between 
him and the king. There are but two ways of escaping from 
the check of the knight ; he must be taken, or the king be moved. 
So much for the obligation the king is under of escaping from 

i. ig. o. 

check. But suppose he cannot fulfil this obligation ; suppose 
that he can neither interpose a piece, nor capture the attack- 
ing man, nor remove to another square without exposing him- 

self to the check of some other opponent. His majesty cannot 
remain in check, and if he cannot get out, he is technically 
" checkmated," and the game is lost. Checkmate, therefore, 


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ill 111 

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IP pip g 

Ww WW W/ 

iff ||§f§ H 

m m\ 

jJJ fjjf 

|p flip 

WW, Wm l§ 

iff WW-, 

■ jp 

11 H 

wm mm w 

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Fig. 7. WHITE. 

is the fundamental principle of the game. The contest, strictly 
speaking, can be ended only by thus placing the chief piece in 
a situation from which he cannot escape. If either player sees 
that his position is hopeless, or that he is in great inferiority of 
force, he may terminate the game by simply resigning, and in 
the majority of cases this is the practical result. But carried 
to a complete issue, every game should end in checkmate. 

This element of the game is so important, that it may be 
desirable to give some illustrations respecting it. 

Fig. 6 is the simplest form of checkmate. 

In this situation the black king is attacked on the lower 
file by the white rook. His majesty evidently cannot move to 
either of the squares to the right or left of him, for in that case 
he would still remain in the check of the rook ; nor can he play 
to any of the squares in front of him, for in that case he would 
be violating the rule which forbids the two kings to approach 
each other. He therefore cannot escape, and is checkmated. 

Fig. 7 is a more complicated specimen 

Here the king is assailed by the knight. He cannot move to 
the square to the right, for it is commanded by the bishop ; and 
he cannot move to the squares in front, for they are within 
range of the rook. 

In Fig. 8 the white queen attacks the king. The queen 


rig. 8. 


cannot be taken, though on the square nearest to the king, for 
she is supported by the white pawn ; and the only square to 
which the king could fly is already occupied by his own rook. 





By a Professional. 

XtSRHEEE are many people who 
<s£ look upon conjuring as a mere 
amusement, and who would be 
glad to see their children turn 
their attention to something 
useful rather than waste their 
time over that which cannot 
possibly, as they think, be of 
any service to them. We would, 
however, remind these people, 
who savour somewhat of the 
Gradgrind school, of that ad- 
mirable book of Charles Dic- 
kens, " Hard Times," and that 
T?e car.noi expeot children to be always hard at work over 

some study. How often do we hear the remark made, " The 
boy has plenty of brains if he would only use them." 

The great art of educating the young is to know how to make 
them use their brains ; and we would remind these eminently 
practical people of the old picture of the two donkeys — the one 
being beaten and the other galloping after a bunch of carrots 
tied to the end of a stick — and that persuasion is better than 

There is nothing that we know of more likely to make a boy 
think than a good conjuring trick ; and we will describe one that 
many years ago caused us many hours of deep thought (would 
have given us many sleepless nights, had it not been for 
the custom we had at that time of going to sleep about half a 
minute after getting into bed), racked our brains at intervals for 
some years, and eventually gave us confidence for life, for, one 




happy day our mind triumphed over matter, and we found it 

The following is a description of the trick, which, though now 
sold in all conjuring shops, was at the time we speak of a 

Well we recollect being the youngest child present, sitting on 
our nurse's lap, watching with eager eyes among many other 
young eyes a grey-haired old gentleman, sitting at the top of a 
long dining-room table, and placing on it a mysterious-looking 
little round blue box, made of pasteboard, about four inches 
long and the same width as an old-fashioned halfpenny, eight 
ordinary halfpence, and a small die. 

We recollect too that he always had a dinner napkin on 
his lap when he performed the trick; and "after years" 
experience has taught us that he ought to have concealed 
this part of the performance more than he did. 

He first sent round the box, halfpence, and the die, to be 
examined. The two latter had honesty stamped on their coun- 
tenances, but not so the box, which every one scrutinised 
with the natural suspicion which conjurors' implements always 
excite. Of course it was nothing but what it appeared to be ; 
and the very fact of its being sent round for inspection ought 
have been enough to have convinced people that there was 
nothing about it that might not be seen. 

The halfpence were first piled up exactly the one over the 
other, so that the edges were smooth, and placed on the table, 
which, being an ordinary dining-room one, precluded the possi- 
bility of there being a trap-door in it. 

The little round box, which was just large enough in diameter, 
was then placed over them ; and the performer, placing his left 
hand under the table, after much scratching and rattling, pro- 
duced the eight halfpence, and taking up the now empty box 
in his right hand, threw it to be examined by his young 

Again, the small die was placed on the table, and carefully 
covered by the little blue box (we say carefully, for we always 
noticed, long before we discovered how the trick was done, that 
it seemed to be necessary to place the die exactly in the 
middle), and the halfpence that were lying on the table were 
gathered up and placed under the table, when, lo and behold ! 
the left hand emerged with the die, and on carefully and slowly 
lifting the blue box underneath it, where before was the die 
were now piled up the halfpence. 

Again the halfpence were covered, and the die taken below ; 
again the scratching and rattling was heard, and the halfpence 
produced from under the table, and on lifting the box the half- 
pence were found to have vanished, and in their stead appeared 
the die, the pasteboard box being again thrown to the audience 
to be examined. 

This simple but very good trick — which caused us more real 
thought during the first nine years of our life than all our 
studies — is performed as follows : — ■ 

Fig. 1 represents a pile of ordinary halfpence. Fig. 2, which 
is drawn " transparent," represents what Fig. 1 really is — viz., 
the halfpence stuck fast and securely together with a large 
round piece cut out of the middle of each one, except the top. 
Fig. 3 is the round pasteboard box, just large enough to cover 

When the performer took up the pile of halfpence in his hands 
previous to putting them on the table, he, on pretence of getting 
them all exactly even, slips them into his lap, and takes from 
his lap the halfpence all stuck together (Fig. 1), which, when 
placed on the table, of course do not differ in appearance from 
ordinary halfpence piled up. 

This block is covered by the box ; the halfpence in the lap 
are first scraped against the table, then rattled, and then pro- 

duced from underneath and thrown on to the table. By 
slightly pinching the box near the bottom with the finger 
and thumb of the right hand, of course the block is lifted with 
the box, and by instantly relinquishing the pressure, the block 
slips into the right hand, and the empty box can be thrown 
forward ; all eyes follow the box, and the block can then be 
dropped quietly into the lap, where the dinner-napkin or cloth 
is laid. 

The second part of the trick is done as follows : — 

While the die is being examined, the block is slipped quietly 
into the box, and when the die is put on the table, it is covered 
over, care of course being taken to pinch the box sufficiently 
hard so as not to allow the block to slip out. 

The performer has a second die, which he produces on the 
table, and by lifting the box carefully, without pinching it, the 
block, with the die underneath it, appears under the box 
instead of the die, or, in other words, the audience find the 
die changed into the halfpence. 

Fig. 2 represents the apparent pile of halfpence with the 
die inside. On recovering the block and placing the die 
underneath the table, by taking up the real halfpence in the lap, 
and scraping and rattling them against the table before throw- 
ing them on to it, the trick is rendered more effective ; and, of 
course, on again lifting up the box it must be pinched in order 
to retain the block, the die again appears under the box, which 
can be thrown for inspection as before, the block being retained 
in the hand. 

We would, in explaining all tricks," warn our young readers 
against the feeling of disappointment they will naturally feel 
at the extreme simplicity of the methods by which they are 
accomplished. There are many people who, after puzzling 
themselves for months over a trick, on being told how it is 
done, instantly exclaim, "Why, anybody could guess that! " for- 
getful of the fact that they did not. As a rule, it is the very 
best tricks that have the simplest explanations. 

Our woodcut (p. 81) represents a trick performed many years 
back by Professor Anderson, called the "portfolio trick," one of 
the most showy but at the same time simple that we have ever 
seen ; but before describing it and explaining how it was done, 
we will revert to some of the exceptional uses to which conjuring 
may be occasionally put. ■■ ""';■ '•'• ; 

Perhaps the most remarkable case on record was that of M. 
Houdin, who was absolutely employed by the French Govern- 
ment to counteract the influence held over the Arabs by their 
native conjurors, who professed to be sorcerers. This he most 
effectually did, beating them with their own weapons. 

It is reported in his memoirs that on one occasion, after per- 
forming the extinguisher trick — which consists in covering over 
a man on a table without a cloth on it, and beneath which it is 
possible to see, and making him disappear— having first extin- 
guished one of his assistants, he asked his audience whether 
any one of them would consent to be covered. 

A young Arab chief stepped forward on to the table ; he was 
covered with the large cone-shaped extinguisher, a pistol was 
fired as usual, the cone fell off, and, to the consternation of the 
assembly, their chief was gone. 

The Arabs, usually so mindful of their dignity, paused but 
for one moment, rose en masse, and rushed to the door, where, 
so says the memoirs, they found their chief awaiting them out- 
side. It has been reported, on the other hand, that the man 
was never seen again, and that perhaps some of the French 
secret state papers might solve the mystery. 

We will on a future occasion again refer to the exploits of 
M. Houdin among the Arabs in reference to the pistol trick, 
one of Frikell'sbest, wherein on one occasion he varied the usual 
method of performing in order to cause a large splash of blood 



to appear upon a white wall, which, previous to firing, was 
perfectly clean. 

We mentioned in our first paper a letter that appeared in the 
Times, signed by Mr. Clark, upon the subject of spiritualism ; 
and we fully agree with Mr. Clark in his opinion that any ene 
unable to fathom the mystery of a conjuring trick is not a fit 
person to attempt to unravel the mysteries of spiritualism; but 
it by no means follows that men of science would be the best 
pioneers of the investigation. We have the greatest respect 
for scientific men as a body, including the scientific gentleman 
mentioned in " Pickwick," who was electrified by Sam Weller's 
fist ; but in any investigation where trickery was suspected, 
we would prefer for our ally a thimble-rigger from Epsom 
race-course to the president of the most learned society in 
the world. 

Were we called upon for an opinion on the subject, we would 
choose for our help-meets three such men as M. Houdin, Pro- 
fessor Anderson, and Frikell, should the "mediums " consent 
to our scrutiny, which is probably rather doubtful, when we 
confessed that we could hot do what they did, or if in our 
endeavours to imitate, we did not go beyond their best efforts, 
then and not till then is the subject worthy of really scientific 
investigation. Our 
own personal ex- 
perience on the 
subject we give 
in a letter re- 
cently written to a 
friend. Conjuring 
has occasionally 
its uses, as will be 

About twelve 
years ago we at- 
tended a so-called 
siance, at the 
house or lodgings 
— I don't know 
which — of a Mrs. 

and her 

two daughters, one of them being said to be what is called a me- 
dium. My companion and introducer was a boy of about fourteen 
or fifteen years of age, whom I had known for some years, 
and who, I believe, was some distant connection, and the 
account he gave me of a previous interview he had had with 
them excited my curiosity. I can add, too, that I had every 
confidence in the boy's veracity, which nothing subsequent 
has ever shaken, and that, as far as I know, neither he nor the* 
lady were aware that I had any knowledge of the art of leger- 
demain. On our first visit we were alone — i.e., the only people 

present were Mrs. , who wore a very large crinoline and 

did not move her seat the whole evening, her two daughters, 
the boy, and myself. We sat round a small table, which had a 
leg in the centre terminating in a tripod. 

We all placed our hands en the table, and on Mrs. 

asking, "Are there any spirits present?" I instantly heard 
several loud raps under the table. How these and all the sub- 
sequent raps were produced I did not at the time see, nor do 
I to this day know. That they might have been produced 
in a variety of ways was at the time evident ; but as they 
might have been caused by the medium or her friends simply 
kicking the table with the foot, I attached no importance to 
this part of the phenomena. 

I was requested then to throw my handkerchief under the 
table. I did so ; and on taking it up after a few minutes, I 
found that a knot had been tied in it. 

Fiar. 1. 


Again, I was requested to place a slate and pencil on the floor, 
having previously seen that there was no writing on the slate ; 
on taking the slate up, I found some rather rough writing on it! 
An alphabet was placed on the table, and on a pencil being 
moved along the letter, the table by rapping when the pencil 
rested on a certain letter spelt out different words. 

We were then told to get up and take our hands off the 

table. We all stood up, Mrs. included— though she did 

not move away from her chair — and all placed our hands 
about two feet above the table, with the exception of one of 

Mrs. 's daughters, who kept her hands on the table, from 

which I presume she must have been the supposed medium on 
the night in question. The table rose in the air till it reached 
our hands, and fell again with a crash. 

I honestly confess that at the time I was puzzled, and perhaps 
a little frightened, or rather a little nervous. I made them a 
present of a small sum of money, and left, to think it over. 
On our second interview — the boy again accompanying me — 
the same feats were repeated, with the addition that on a violin 
being held under the table, it was played, i.e. , it sounded as 
if a bow was drawn across the strings, but there was no tune. 
On the alphabet being placed upon the table, the boy was 

asked to think of 
a word ; and never 
shall I forget his 
look of astonish- 
ment on the table 
rapping the cor- 
rect one ! I also 
was asked to 
think of a word, 
but the table was 
in my case unsuc- 

It was on this 
occasion that my 
skill in conjuring 
proved ®f service, 
for on placing the 
pencil and slate 
on the floor, by what Artemus Ward would call an " adriot 
movement," I flipped the former up my sleeve, and awaited 
with some anxiety the result. Soon, however, I heard the 
pencil move across the slate, although with my left hand, 
which I moved from the table under the pretence of scratching 
my right arm, I felt it safely in my sleeve. 

On taking up the slate, of course, I let the pencil fall into 
my hand and replaced it, and read what was written (some 
rubbish) with a grave face. 

We were then asked if we should like the spirits to touch 
us ; and before we had time to answer, the boy jumped up, and 
with horror depicted in his countenance, which no actor in the 
world could have put on, rushed with a scream to the end of 
the room. 

Almost at the same instant I felt what imagination might 
easily have conceived to have been a bony finger and thumb 
clasp my ankle. 

On our third and last interview, the only novelty was that I 
previously wrote down a word on a piece of paper which I placed 
in my pocket, and on being again asked to think of a word, I 
told them that I had one written down. I now tried to alter the 
expression of my face, as if I was highly excited at certain 
letters on which the pencil rested. It is a fact that the table 
rapped at those letters and spelt, not the word I had written 
down, but the word I tried to make it rap. 

On being asked if. I was convinced, I plainly answered, "No;" 




.--sxnd for the simple reason that nothing had taken place which 
amy ordinary conjuror could not do. I do not say that it was 
-done by trickery ; but I maintain that it is our plain duty to 
Relieve in natural before supernatural causes, when we have the 
.©faoice of the two. Any one, by placing the toe under the leg 
■of a tripod table, can, by raising the foot, and at the same 

■ Sme -pressing the edge with their 
&ands, cause the table to rise in 

A. small piece of sl»te-pencil 
SsEsStened to the end of the foot, is 
-%s«&e a more reasonable explana- 
"isccKi of the writing on the slate, 

"feban that spirits with slate-pencil 
; Sa. *£heir pockets were present. 

Two people, with their feet, can, 
'^rritk practice, tie a loose knot in a 

■poeket-handkerchief (I have seen 

-3S done), or -a little girl concealed 

"«iader the medium's capacious crino- 

5kk would be a still easier explana- 
tion of most of the phenomena. 
Such was our opinion of so-called 

■spiritualism twelve years ago, and 

aio&urag we have since seen has in- 

• cteced xis to alter it. That some 
Sadden force -independent of the 

* medium, and -at present unknown, 
tastay be in- existence, is possible, as 

-otherwise one 'is utterly at a loss 

"^©■aosount for some of the stories 
- given by those who are above 
■ .suspicion. But that an immense 

amount of trickery and deception is mixed with it we are ; 

'cwrfcsin, and it is the conjuror's rather than the scientific ! 

•5SKEE*e business to sift the chaff from the wheat. The great \ 

3»orlfolio trick, as performed many years ago by Professor 

Fig. 3. 

Anderson exemplified, as we have said, how much conjuring 
depends upon simple means. 

The so-called portfolio was about six feet long by rather more 
than three feet wide, as far as we can recollect and guess at 
its length from the front of the large theatre where it was ex- 
hibited. When closed it was not more than three or four inches 

in thickness, yet though placed on 
a small stand beneath which it was 
possible to look and impossible to 
hide anything, he brought out his 
son and daughter, aged eight and 
six years respectively, live ducks 
and geese, besides many other 
things, after which he shut hia 
portfolio again quite close, re- 
opened it, and brought out a six- 
teen-wire birdcage some two or 
three feet in thickness, and a large 
wooden box about three feet long 
by two" feet wide and two feet 

The cage is represented in our 
woodcut in the performer's right 
hand and the box on the left. We 
will inform our readers of the way 
in which this trick was done in 
our next article, as well as explain 
the following very simple one, which 
we leave them to guess at in the 

Take three shillings, and place 
them in a hat. Ask any one of the 
company to take one out and mark 
it so that he will know it again, and replace it in the hat, 
covering the hat over with a handkerchief. Tou are then to 
pick out the shilling that has been marked without lookisg 
into the hat. 


By C. Black, Champion: 

BROAD definition may perhaps 
sketch out the order of our 
treatment. Croquet, then, is 
generally understood as a game 
played with wooden balls and 
mallets, and iron hoops, the ob- 
ject of the game being to drive 
the balls by means of the mal- 
lets through the hoops, the rota- 
tion of the hoops being deter- 
mined by the rules, which also 
control the movements of the 
balls when they are not being 

actually driven through hoops. 

The first matter to discuss 

T&31 "be the instruments of game; but in describing their 

sees it will be necessary to use many of the technical terms 

"iafeicii were spoken of in our last. An enumeration then of 

' '&& terms and their meaning is a necessary preliminary : — 

Making a point, is passing through a hoop or hitting the sticks 
-ivTuch are placed at either end of the lawn. 

A turn, is playing a ball in its proper sequence, and it may 
consist of a single stroke or of a 

Break, which is a number of points made in succession. 

Roquet, is hitting another ball in your turn, or after making a 

Croquet, is an advantage given to the player who hits another 
ball, he is allowed to place his own ball by the side of the ball 
which has been struck, hit his own ball to any place within the 
boundaries, and then take another turn, provided that he has 
shaken the other ball, when hitting his own. He is also allowed 
to make use of the other ball by certain strokes, which are 
hereafter explained. This is the great substitute in scientific 
croquet for the old license of banging away at an adversary's 
ball as far as you like. The act of hitting your own ball is called 
"talcing croquet," and is one of the main features of the game. 
Beginners must be careful to observe how the meaning of this 
term has changed. At the first introduction of croquet it had 
the signification which roquet had afterwards, then it meant the 
act of knocking away the ball after it had been struck, and now 
the process which has been substituted for this. A gentleman, 
who, many years ago played croquet in Ireland, whence the game 




-«# f 

was derived, has told me that one feature of the game as played 
there, was the calling out " croquet " as soon as your own ball 
hit another. If the striker forgot to make this claim at the 
moment of impact, he could take no advantage from the hit. 
This clearly shows the reader how the earlier meaning arose. 

A ball is said to be vn, 
hand,, after a roquet has 
been made and until croquet 
has been taken. 

A ball is said to be a rover, 
when it has made all the ne- 
cessary points but one, i.e., 

after it has passed through all the hoops, and hit one stick ; if 
it hits the other stick, it is dead, and can take no more part 
in the game. 

Finesse, is strategic management of your ball, by which you 
apparently waste a turn or two in order to hamper your adver- 
sary's play, and secure some 
future advantage. 

Position, is the best place 
suited for enabling you to 
pass through a hoop in the 
right direction. 

The following terms refer 
solely to the use of the 
mallet, and are applied to 
strokes the elegant execu- 
tion of which, it is acknow- 
ledged, constitutes one of the chief beauties of croquet : — 

The Rush, is hitting a ball very hard, so as to drive it forward 
to a place from which croquet may be most advantageously taken. 
For instance, in Fig. 1, if A had to pass through hoop 3 in the 
direction indicated by the arrow, it would be best to "rush" 
B, if so placed, to point 2, from which croquet might easily 
be taken into position. The 
term " drive " has been suggested 
as better and more expressive 
than "rush," and though there 
is some truth in this, the new 
term would have the disadvan- 
tages of being common to cricket 
and croquet in somewhat different 

The Cut, is really the rush 
made under very difficult condi- 
tions. It has exactly the same 

meaning as in billiards, viz., hitting a ball very fine in order to 
make it travel to the side instead of forwards. For instance, if 
A wanted to pass through hoop 4 in the direction indicated by 
the arrow, it would be best to cut b to position. (See Fig. 2.) 
. The Split, is a stroke used when you desire in taking croquet 

Fig. 1. — THE BUSH 

Fig. 2. — THE CUT. 

Fig. 4. THE PASS. 


Fig. 5. THE STOP 

as in the diagram ; if a be then struck with a mallet pointing 
towards c, the balls will divide and travel equal distances ;. hsh 
the more you move A towards 6, the further B will go thanr A jr. 
the more you move it towards a, the further a will go thaa Bi 
The truth of this will be best seen by a practical experiment 

The terms "thick" am^ 1 
"thin" are applied p@bek- 
liarly to this stroke. If yoat 
move A towards b, yora sure:' 
said to be laying the bal& 
very thick, if towards a^ 
very thin. (See Fig. S.) 
These three strokes are those which occur most frequently 
in the game, and are the easiest of execution. Any one wlte 
desires to understand the beauties of the game must obtaac st> 
good mastery of these strokes. 

The Boll is a stroke used to propel both balls about the same 

distance. It is not used foi 
getting into position for a 
hoop, but for bringing spa. 
ball into a place where Sb 
>>- , lin e will be useful for your par- 

tner or for yourself m y««sr 
next 'turn. I have heassS 
this kind of stroke caiCfecL 
by the extraordinary nasax? 
of " bumble," the only es^ 
planation of which is thai 
the two balls rolling and knocking together suggested the i&sat 
of a big bumble bee skimming over the lawn, and scattering, thss- 
petticoats as a skilful roll does a nest of hostile balls. 

The Pass, is a very difficult application of the roll. It is assii^ 
to roll your own ball much further than that from which y®4' 
are taking croquet. For instance, if a (Fig. 4)* wishes to taHc> 

croquet so as to arrive at a, azc£ 
at the same time leave B resting: 
at position b, the pass strafe 
would have to be used. The/uses; 
of this stroke will be brotsghV 
out in treating of the mallet aacl? 
of tactics in general, and it wiSl 
be seen to be at once a moat-: 
useful and most malicious stroke,: 
far surpassing the antiqua&ii' 
sledge-hammer stroke in ifty 
power of paying out an ene5ay«- 
It illustrates how wires may be used for other purposes thas 
to pass through. 

The Stop, is a stroke resembling as far as is possible in croqsxeSs 
the billiard screw. It is impossible to attain in croquet to tJsafo 
tremendous power of screw which is exemplified, in the story o£i 

Fig. 3. — THE SPLIT. 





to move both balls some distance : the position of your own ball 
determines whether they shall both go equally far, or whether 
one shall go further than the other. 

For instance, A and B are going to be driven in direction C, A 
must be placed behind b, covering it to the extent of half a ball, 

a celebrated billiard player going into a country billiard roossz. 
in France and declaring that the balls were bewitched, becaass- 
whenever he hit them they ran backwards instead of forwasd*.. 
The head of the mallet is not pointed enough to get under ibfr: 
ball, and there is too much swing in the stroke of a mpHefc-to 



admit of any adequate drawback. Yet for all this, it is in the 
power of an experienced player to effect a stroke which savours 
of a screw. For instance, if A wished to send b a long distance 
down the lawn and yet not accompany him to his salubrious 
exile, A would have to be hit as low as possible and full in the 
centre, with a kind of check of the mallet handle at the moment 
that it strikes the ball ; A must also cover B before the stroke, 
to the extent of at least three-quaters of a ball, or there will be 
little stop effected. To illustrate the diagram (Fig. 5), a wants 
to stop at 1, and send b to 2. 

It is to be hoped that the ground has now been cleared of 
one of the main difficulties which prevents the game being 
understood by those who are not perfectly au fait at it. Its 
various actions cannot be briefly recounted if it is necessary 
to append a paraphrase to a technical term every time it is 

If readers who are desirous of appreciating croquet play 
will add to a perusal ef the above explanations a study of 
the use of the mallet, it is not perhaps too much to hope that 
they will feel more at home in the description of the intricacies 
of the game itself. 

To return to the balls and mallets, the reason for treating 
them first is this : that it is well for any young player, and even 
for those who are climbing the ladder of success, to appreciate 
that a great deal is to be done towards attaining to good play 
with the mallet and' balls alone, even if there be not a single 
hoop within a thousand miles. It must be remembered that 
though the main object of the game is to pass through hoops, 
position cannot be gained to pass through a number of these 
hoops consecutively, or even through one alone, without careful 
management of the balls. Now this is impossible without an 
accurate knowledge of the force you are applying with the 
mallet ; the relative speed of the ball over the grass when it is 
dry or wet, short or long ; and the various angles at which the 
balls divide. 

It must be remembered that croquet is essentially a game 
of positions, and that no consecutive number of hoops can be 
passed without gaining these positions by careful management 
of the balls. Now, as in billiards, this manipulation is impos- 
sible without an accurate knowledge of three things — the force 
you are applying with the mallet, the relative speed of the ball 
over the grass when it is dry or wet long or short, and the 
different angles at which the balls divide. All • this may be 
adequately learnt by the croquet player while knocking about 
two balls on any decent piece of level grass. Besides, this 
practice is such an excellent digestive for breakfast or lunch, 

that a weak-stomached poet like Horace would have immor- 
talised it in his satires had it been known in his day. The 
words of Lauthier with regard to practising for pall-mall are 
singularly applicable here : — " The benefit we should derive 
from it would be, that we should breathe the open air in a 
moderate exercise, without much fatigue, and should gradually 
render ourselves certain in our aim in striking the ball neatly ; 
an art that can only be acquired by accustoming ourselves to 
play it well with short strokes, from which we learn in the 
sequel to make long ones." 

The mallet demands great attention in any discussion of 
croquet, for in its proper use lies one of the chief beauties of 
the game ; and the other excellency, that of arranging com- 
binations, is useless without a skilful handling of the mallet. 

The connection of croquet with other games is chiefly illus- 
trated by the mallet. In the present day the implements of 
golf and hockey are very like the croquet mallet ; and the 
illustration we give of that used for pall-mall discloses an 
ancestor easily recognised. 

It will be seen (Fig. 6) that this mallet is slightly curved 
upwards at either end, while the croquet mallet is quite straight. 
The handle, too, was longer for pall-mall, in order to admit of 
more swing ; and the face of the mallet was sloped away from 
the ground, so as to let the lower part of the mallet-head get 
well underneath the ball, while in Croquet, the mallet's face is 
flat, although one or two players have sliced away their mallet 
heads & la pall-mall. 

To acquire the exactness necessary for the game, one should 
always use a mallet of the same weight and height, which 
should be proportioned according to the strength and stature 
of the player. If the mallet is too long or too heavy, it catches 
the ground, or drives the balls too hard in delicate strokes ; . if 
it is too short, or too light, it is apt to hit the ball on the top 
and make it hop, or it does not give sufficient force.. 

The truth of this axiom is abundantly illustrated by the 
variety of mallets which have been seen on croquet lawns since 
the game was first introduced into England. Private judg- 
ment never asserted itself more strongly than in respect of 
croquet mallets, for almost every player has "his own peculiar." 
It seems difficult now to realise how the game was ever interest- 
ing, as we know it was, when played with the toy mallet and 
diminutive balls which the manufacturers sent out in the 
earlier sets. It was, however, providential, for we had to get 
over the days of mallets being hurled in frenzy across the lawn ; 
and it is appalling to think of the consequences of a lady's 
hitting her foot with a 31b. mallet. 


By J. C. Wilcocks. 




IprVOR boats of a moderate size, a quarter-inch plate of 
iron will be found strong enough for the purpose named 
already, and as a slit of half an inch width will allow 
it to work freely, little strength will thus require to be taken 
out of the keel. The dotted lines in the engraving (p. 32) 
represent its position and dimensions, and that which runs 
forward to nearly under the mast is a fore-arm of iron also, 
an inch and a quarter wide by half an inch thick, which, 
being firmly fastened to the plate, is pivoted in the keel near 

the mast step, and allows the front end to come down more 
out of the case than if the plate were merely pivoted at the 
lower angle. 

The plate is to be raised and lowered by a folding handle, 
placed just in front of the after seat, so as not to interfere with 
pulling when required. When raised, the plate is retained by 
an iron peg, and if a couple of holes be made at equal distances 
through the handle, it can be lowered to either depth at 



Without a centre plate the boat delineated is a good and 
useful crafif for general purposes, but the addition of the 
plate gives such an increase of sailing power, that I strongly 
recommend it to those who may be ordering new boats, and the 
following directions are given for those who may think right 
to add it to boats they have already purchased. 

If the keel be two inches thick it will answer by putting two 
strengthening pieces of elm or oak, one on each side of the slit 
in the keel, and running a foot beyond it ; if less than two 
inches thick a new keel and strakes on each side will be 
required. The expense, of course, is materially lessened by 
adhering to the old keel and strakes. 

The planks on each side of the keel are known as garboards. 
The keel will be much strengthened and defended from 
abrasion at the same time, if a plate of iron, or keel band, be 
added to it running from end to end, with an opening in it 
corresponding with the slit in the keel. This should be 
fastened with galvanised screws, the keel band being also 
galvanised, and if the holes for the screws be made alternately 
in the main keel and side pieces, the keel, although consisting 
of three pieces of timber, will be almost as strong as if consis- 
ting of one — some persons would consider it stronger. 

During a fresh breeze blowing over any considerable sheet of 
water, the surface is of course much disturbed, and it not 
unfrequently happens that small boats drawing but little water 
will not come about when desired, but will fall back again. 

This failure in turning is termed missing stays, and arises 
from the following causes. As the head of the boat is brought 
up by putting the helm down, into the direction of the wind, the 
sails shake and lose their power to propel the boat ahead, and 
offering, together with the mast, resistance to the wind in the 
line of the keel, a backward impulse is communicated to the 
boat. A second backward impulse is given by the wind 
meeting the boat on the bow, and a third by the waves striking 
the bow at and above the line of flotation. 

The combined effect of the threefold impulse is to overcome 
the momentum which the boat has acquired by the power of 
the sails, the rudder loses its power to turn the boat's head in 
the required direction, the boat at first staggers, as it were, 
then falls off from the wind and drives astern, until the sails 
again fill, and by moving the boat ahead, restore controlling 
power to the rudder. 

Boats built entirely for sailing are constructed deep in form, 
so that quite as much, and in many cases more, of their bodies 
are below the line of flotation than above it ; such boats 
therefore in the first place offer but little resistance to the 
action of the wind, and what little they do offer is overcome 
by their momentum, which continues longer, because the 
ballast they carry is more in amount in proportion. 

There is, however, in the second place, another reason for 
the longer continuance of the momentum than in the shallower 
type of boat. It is this, that the ballast, or a portion of it, is 
carried at a much lower level. If, therefore, a portion of the 
ballast of a shallow boat can be placed at a lower level than 
ordinary, a portion of the qualities of the deeper boat will 
be obtained. 

This is accomplished by a weighted centre board or an iron 
plate, the advantages of which are constantly to be proved, by 
running the boat against the wind, with the plate first raised, 
and afterwards lowered. If the weight in the present instance 
in the shape of the plate be about eighty pounds, it will when 
lowered carry the boat several yards against the wind and 
wash of the water with the sails shaking ; when, however, the 
plate is raised, this eighty pounds is at a much higher level, 
and the result is that the boat stops almost immediately after 
the' sails have begun to shake. The plate, when lowered, 

has also what may be termed a cleavage power, by which it 
obtains a hold upon the water in passing through it, and 
thus unites with the weight in maintaining the momentum 
which is first given by the power of the sails. 


All boats or vessels require a certain amount of weight to be 
placed on board, to enable them to withstand the pressure of 
the wind on the sails, or they would upset. This varies in 
quantity with the size and form of the boat, and requires much 
caution in its selection, and in placing and securing it in it3 
proper position. 

Several kinds of ballast are in use, namely, iron, lead, stone, 
or water in barrels or tanks. The most effective and useful is 
•undoubtedly lead, as it occupies less space for the same weight 
than any other, but being very valuable, and therefore a great 
temptation to dishonesty, it is only occasionally met with as the 
ballast of an open boat. In the larger class of sailing boats, 
which are deep enough to allow of a platform being laid over 
it, and in yachts, it very often forms a portion, and in some 
cases of racing yachts, the whole of the ballast consists of 

Bag3 of shingle from the beach are often met with, but can- 
not be recommended, as they soon decay from exposure to the 
wet, although generally tarred or painted, and as soon as they 
become weak they burst, and are useless. 

"Water ballast in elliptic barrels, known as " breakers," is in 
use in boats of the navy and coast-guard services, and is un- 
doubtedly the safest kind which can be carried, but it is very 
rarely used, on account of the considerable space it inevitably 
occupies in a small pleasure boat, for the whole of the middle 
part of the boat must be given up to it if no other is used. 
This in a small boat is manifestly a great inconvenience, but in 
a man-of-war or coast-guard boat does not apply, owing to the 
greater length of the boats, and also to the fact that they are 
manned by a numerous crew, the weight of whom alone con- 
stitutes a large amount of ballast, instantly disposable in any 
required position in the beat. 

Tanks of wood are sometimes used instead of breakers for 

water ballast, and are made of a form to fit the bottom of the 

I boat, but there is one very great evil in them, namely, that they 

can scarcely be kept from leaking, as they cannot be drawn 

together in the manner of a barrel with hoops. 

Iron weights of fifty- six pounds each, are on the whole the 
cheapest and most effective ballast, as they are not too heavy 
to lift conveniently, and consequently can be readily moved as 
required to bring the boat into good trim. I have sometimes 
seen them galvanised, which both gives them a neat appearance 
and prevents rust. If not galvanised they should be painted 
lead colour, or with red lead. They do not readily move, even 
when the boat pitches ; but as it is important they should 
have no opportunity of doing so, ledges of wood an inch and 
a half high should be screwed down to the bottom boards 
on each side of them, by which means they will be kept 
perfectly secure. The position of the ballast adapted to 
make the boat sail in its best form, must be ascertained by 
actual experiment, and to make -tyrial of her, place the chief 
part of the weight a little behind the middle, and adjust it 
afterwards as may be required. 


The process of starting a sailing boat or vessel is termed 
" getting under weigh," and has its origin, doubtless, in the weigh- 
ing of the anchor, although anchors are not always weighed when 
a boat or vessel moves from one position to another. They 
are often kept at fixed moorings consisting ©f very heavy 
chains attached to ponderous stones or anchors, which only 



require to be raised for occasional examination and repair. A 
portion of this chain, somewhat longer than is required to reach 
the surface, is termed the bridle, which is carefully made fast 
on board the boat or vessel when not in use, and a rope 
sufficiently long to reach the bottom at high water being made 
fast to this portion of the chain, the chain is slipped when the 
boat or vessel leaves the moorings, and recovered on returning 
by aid of a buoy attached to the upper end of the rope. Before 
giving directions for hoisting the sails and starting from a 
given position, it is necessary that a few terms which come into 
constant use in sailing should be explained. 

The terms "windward" and "leeward," "weather" and " lee," 
" starboard " and "port," are amongst those of most frequent oc- 

etc, according as the wind may have been at that time, when 
we were exactly abreast of this headland. 

The two most important terms used in sailing are " luff " and 
" keep away," the first signifies the bringing of the boat's head 
towards tlje direction from which the wind proceeds, the second 
that of making the boat's head fall off from this direction. As 
the helmsman in a boat should always sit to windward, or with 
his back to the wind, he will cause the boat to luff by pushing 
the tiller from him, and to keep away by pulling it towards 

No beginner in boat-sailing should ever sit to leeward of the 
helm, for he will not be able to command the tiller in such a 
position, and when a flaw of wind strikes the boat, he is quite 


currence, and should therefore be thoroughly understood. Thus 
we speak of an object to windward or leeward, and when opposite 
any particular part of the boat or vessel we are in, we say the 
object is on the weather or lee bow, the weather or lee beam, etc. 
Windward signifies towards the wind, and leeward the opposite 
direction, or away from it. 

Starboard and port signify right and left, and apply when a 
person stands with the back towards the stern of the boat or 
vessel, that to the right being the starboard side, and that to 
the left the port side. 

The terms were originally starboard and larboard, but as the 
ends of these words are the same, confusion and accidents were 
the result, and larboard was therefore changed to port. 

On the beam, or abeam, signifies abreast the middle of the 
vessel, thus in passing a point of land we say, such-and-such a 
point is on our weather ©r lee beam, for instance, the Bill of 
Portland was right on our weather-beam or lee-beam at noon, 

as likely to push the tiller from him as to pull it towards him, 
in which case the boat, instead of coming up into the wind and 
relieving herself by shaking the sails, will be kept away and 
feel the whole strength of the flaw. In this manner many boats 
have been upset. 

When a boat or vessel has the wind on the right side to a 
person looking forwards, she is on the starboard tack, as it is 
called, and has the right of way over another vessel or boat, 
which has the wind blowing on her left side and is approaching 
her on the port tack. The vessel on the port tack is by law 
compelled to give place to the other by going to leeward, and 
if she does not bear up and avoid a collision, she is condemned 
for any damages that may result. 

Having now drawn attention to and explained the chief terms 
which come into constant use in sailing, the reader and writer 
cannot do better than embark in the boat with two working Jug 
sails, shown in the illustration, on their first cruise. 




By Wat Bkadwood. 




f^\ EARINGr REINS ruin more mouths than anything ; but 
fashion enslaves the majority of owners to continue the 
mischief. Horses' heads are borne up far beyond the ele- 
vation of Nature, their powers of draught with their weight is 
crippled, and the strain transferred to leverage from the legs, to 
the detriment of the latter ; the continual pull on the mouth 

cab-horses are driven mostly on the ring-snaffle, not ornamental, 
but powerful, a necessity in crowded streets, where sudden turns 
and stoppages are frequently required. Harness curb-bits vary 
in their severity, apart from the leverage, according to the pitch 
of the up " port," or the bend in the bit itself, which presses 
against the palate of the horse, causing pain when the rein is 


deadens it to the necessary injunctions of the rein ; and further, 
the head and neck, which a stumbling horse would use to preserve 
his gravity as a tottering skater swings his arms, are hindered 
from their natural use. Yet ignorant grooms, to whom most 
owners, from indolence or greater ignorance on their own part, are 
slaves, insist on the use. Having no " hands " themselves, they 
tug at their horses, who tug back at them, and therefore they 
find the bearing-rein useful in taking some of the strain off 
their arms, to the sacrifice of mouth and powers of draught. 
Ignorant of the anatomy of a horse, they believe that a perpen- 
dicular neck looks nobler than one at a natural elevation. A 
horse accustomed to hang his head on a bearing-rein, will per- 
haps drop it below proper level when the support is removed, 
but if always worked in a natural posture he will in most cases 
carry a natural head. 

The ordinary curb-bit is the best for ordinary uses; the lever- 
age can be altered by shifting the rein from bar to bar. London 

j pulled heavily. This is fashion, but it is folly. The first 
j impulse of a horse is to pull against painful restraint, like a pig, 
I cat, or dog, when held by the tail ; pain will stop him in time, 
i coupled with sufficient force ; but a bit that always presses his 
lips, without pain or pinching, has more power than »ne that 
tortures. The reason why a pulling horse opens his mouth is to 
shift the pressure of the bit from the corner of his mouth on to 
his teeth, which have no delicacy of toueh. If a second pair of 
rings are run through the rings to which the rein is attached, 
and joined to a nose-band, on the principle of a Newmarket 
snaffle, the upper jaw must follow the lower, the mouth cannot 
open, the bit always holds the corner of the mouth, the sensitive 
part, and there is immediate control. A curb thus fitted, and 
driven from the " cheek," has more power than one from the 
lower bar, and yet is painless. A horse's mouth is half his 
" manners," and the latter half his value for domestic use ; let 
any owner who groans over a puller try this system, and he will 



find his horse's manners, his own convenience, and his safety- 
improve thirty per cent. 

Though most tyros begin their essay with a horse in single 
harness, yet in a general way it is easier and safer to drive a pair 
than one. If the single horse is perfect in manners, all that 
has to be learned is to keep him straight, and to direct him 
without collisions. But if a horse has faults he is safer with a 
companion ; though if the two have coincident faults, or could 
confabulate mischief together, they would be more dangerous 
than a single animal, yet it is in practice long chances against 
the two both doing wrong simultaneously. Each is a check 
on his fellow : the one may not want to bolt when the other 
does, or if one falls the other will probably keep his legs. 

The tyro should take his seat uprightly and squarely, plant 
his feet well in front of him, grasp his reins firmly, and let his 
left arm play lightly from the shoulder (not the elbow), his elbows 
both well squared. Nothing looks so slovenly, or entails such 
waste of necessary power, as a slouching back, and hands sunk 
in the lap. 

The whip should not be always used because it is handy ; it 
is wanted to make a horse take hold of his collar if he shirks, 
and to feel his bit if he hangs back when there is difficulty in 
navigation. Unless he runs up to his bit there is little or no 
communication between him and his driver. The whip should 
be used from the wrist, not from the arm ; a lash delivered from 
the shoulder is far less effective and much more ugly than a 
stroke from the wrist. A good fly-fisher never makes a bad whip 
in this respect. 

But the ne plus ultra of driving ia the four-in-hand ; and 
wofully has the art deteriorated since the railroads left their 
mark in network over England. " Teams " still flourish in the 
" park," and from certain country houses, but the workmanship 
of them is mostly a burlesque upon that of half a century ago. 
It is one thing to handle a " made " team, of which each animal 
is worth over three figures, and all boast good manners, and to 
potter along with a oouple of cat-like grooms behind to jump 
down and run to the leaders' heads if the reins entangle or 
obstacles are in the path, when pace can be moderated if re- 
quired to overcome difficulties or soothe nerves>; but it is a dif- 
ferent task to handle one "scratch" team after another from 
stage to stage — teams in which manners are not ready made, but 
depend upon the hands of the coachman, "three blind ones and 
a bolter," all thorough-bred — -and to keep time into the bargain. 

Without making invidious mention, we may safely say that 
England cannot boast six first-class amateur whips in and out of 
the Four-in-Hand Club, i.e., men who could have driven to "time" 
in the old days with the teams placed at their disposal. With 
high-priced made teams a few more might have done so, but 
with such a proviso they would not have been worth their 
wages, and would have ruined proprietors. 

Those were palmy days of coaching — the very last of the 
series,, just before the iron horse had began to supersede the 
road — when- Tedder, only so lately numbered with the dead, 
handled the " Quicksilver " coach, when the distance between 
London and Plymouth (227 miles), was covered in twenty- two 
hours, and when the "Comet," the "Begulator," and other crack 
conveyances, were as thorough household words as the modern 
" Flying Dutchman" on the Great Western, or the " Wild 
Irishman" that nightly tears to Holyhead. In those days 
"London to Edinburgh " had been reduced to forty-four hours, 
and even less ; London to York was twenty, and to Exeter 
seventeen hours; but the "Quicksilver" was a mile an hour 
faster than anything. 

Horsing a coach was then a science in itself. To such 
perfection had the whole system arrived, that, as the coachman 
putted up at the yard door of the hostelry, eight helpers, each 

pair with a change horse in charge, stood ready for their task, 
and by the time that you had looked over your shoulder 
to count the number of passengers on the rival coach, just 
entering the town, the whole team was changed, and the 
coachman, with fresh ribbons in his hand, was starting once 
more on his way. 

" Have I time for breakfast ?" a passenger might ask. " Cer- 
tainly, sir, if you can bolt it in forty seconds," would have been 
the reply. And rivalry ran as high between coaches as now 
between railway companies ; nor did they waste sympathy on the 
mishaps of each other. The Birmingham "Aurora" came to 
grief one day racing against a rival, and over it went, with a 
crash, at full gallop. Did the opposition stop to lend a hand to 
pick up the pieces, as passengers and parcels rolled helter- 
skelter in the mud ? Not they. Quoth the triumphant whip, 
" What, Jehu ! all your bees swarming again this beautiful 

That was the school for an amateur to learn the science. 
Masters good and true abounded, and taught practically as well 
as theoretically ; a douceur would always obtain leave for an 
aspirant to take the box seat, so long as there was a margin 
of time in hand. Thorough-breds and short stages (eight miles 
average) were the order of the day. Half-breds could not go 
the pace on the crack roads, and a little vice or waywardness 
was of minor account where the talent of "whips" abounded 
to overcome such resistance, and yet to be true to time. 
Punctuality was more attended to then on the road than now 
on the rail. 

The aspirant of modern days may think himself more than 
fortunate if he can get one practical lesson in the year from a 
first-class "whip," so few and far between are suoh commodities. 
The artificial resuscitation of summer coaching from London to 
Brighton, Dorking, Reigate, and Tunbridge Wells, does a little to 
improve the school ; but there can never be an artificial supply 
equal to that of former days in the absenoe of natural demand. 

To be able to handle one's own well-broken and well-appointed 
team at one's own pace round the park or for a country air- 
ing is within the reach of many well-to-do men. And besides 
the fraternity of the Four-in-hand Club, there are scores of 
aspiring " money-o-crats " who parade their teams from country 
houses, flatter themselves that they have never been upset at a 
corner, and fondly look forward to the Utopian day when their 
merits shall no longer be hidden under a bushel, and they shall 
be solicited to join the above-named reunion. 

But it is not to such as these that the aspirant must go for 
a lesson in his art. If he really would be a master hand in 
time, he must study his duty not only from the box, but from 
the harness-room and coach-house, and must understand the 
tools that he is working with. He must look to his harness 
himself; half the manners of his team depend upon the har- 
ness they carry. He should see that his pads are well stuffed, 
and free from gall; that each horse is suited with his collar, 
and, above all, with his bit, or he will have no delicacy of 
mouth, and it will then be impossible to keep the team evenly 
to their work. Sheer whip-cord will never effect this. 

The shorter the persh of his coach the more easily she will 
follow ; but an extreme in this respect will make her unsafe on 
her legs. The box should stand well over the wheelers, not only 
to keep them in hand, but to bring them within proper range of 

Driving four or driving a pair, he should not travel without 
his tool box, wrenches, shackles, bolts, nuts, and spare chains 
and straps; and if by any chance he should get "hung up" 
by anything giving way, he should know himself how to set 
about repairs, and not be dependent upon the resources of 
gxooraB, whose neplus ultra As the ourrycombs 



He must study the mouths of his horses ; no two •will pro- 
bably be alike. If money is no object, he may buy his 
"manners" ready made, but a little practical experience will 
enable him to make most of his manners for himself. Bearing- 
reins (not beyond natural elevation), may be of utility in such a 
case, and with judicious use of them, and alteration of coupling: 
reins, till he has hit the right " feel," he will get his team to his 
hand. Once on the box he must take up his reins to suit the 
mouths of each of his team, and when he has once got the 
proper feel he should never part with it. If his horses are 
overdoing it, and require a stronger pull, he must not pull all 
the reins through his hands at once. If he does, ten to one he 
will lose the feel he has taken so much trouble to acquire. Let 
him take the reins into the parted fingers of his right hand 
firmly, an inch or two in front of his left, and then pass his 
hand in front and grip once more. Thus he retains his feel, 
with a stronger pull than he had before. 

In selecting his horses for their places, he should, of course, 
choose strong animals for wheelers ; at the same time his 
leaders should always be fast trotters, and should be such that, 
with the lighter work they have to do, they will never tire 
before the wheelers. A tired wheeler may be dragged home by 
the rest of the team, but a tired leader blocks 
the whole concern. And if his leaders break 
from the trot, the bars are no longer still ^.nd 
parallel ; half the power of draught is at once 
lost in the varied angles they describe. 
Though it looks less well to see a wheeler 
canter, less draught is lost thus than when 
a leader breaks. 

In regulating his speed, or increasing his 
pace, he should first bring his wheelers up to 
his leaders ; and the latter will soon get 
away in their turn, but he should never 
begin by forcing the leaders away from the 

The handling of his whip will be a special 
study in itself, and he must devote some 
patient hours, standing on a chair, to acquiring the proper 
play of the wrist before he can be a workman in this respect. 
His lash, when not in use to hit a leader, should be caught at 
the point in the fingers of his right hand, as it returns from 
the stroke, and with a turn of the wrist should instantly be 
twisted, from the point upwards, round the crop of his whip, 
so that the surplus lash, from the top of the crop to the 
end of the twist, hangs in a close double thong from the top 
of the stock, ready for application to the leaders. Nothing 
looks so slovenly as to see a lash hanging as open as a letter U 
from the t©p and centre of the crop; added to which it is 
almost useless for punishment in suoh a position. The play of 
the wrist, to catch the point and instantly to knit up the lash, 
must be a special study of itself. Always hit a leader below 
the bar, else it takes a dozen strokes to land one effectual 
punishment. Also hit the freest leader on the near side, where 
he will be more under control. 

True action (not "park" action) is an all-important item 
in selection of a horse, for though all horses draw by their 
weight, yet a true-actioned horse will draw, and feel his collar 
well when a "disher" or prancer will be able to do no more 
than carry his own weight. A "daisy cutter" should be 
avoided, lest he should kneel down on the road, which is out 
of place. 

But aphorisms such as these might be multiplied ad Mb. far 
beyond the limits of our space. Let a tyro pay "heed to such 
salient points as have been enumerated, and seek simul- 
taneously practical education, whioh will teach mors speedily 


and effectually than tons of theory and book-work. What 
we have said of four-in-hand driving applies equally to the 
less common but even more difficult practice of a tandem. 

Just as a pair of horses are safer than one, for each checks 
the vagaries of the other, so similarly a four-in-hand is an easier 
task than a tandem. A tandem leader, more than any animal 
requires a good mouth, and a tight hand upon it ; otherwise the 
whip may suddenly find him turning round and staring him full 
in the face, with a horse-laugh, which would be shared, at the 
driver's expense, by all lookers-on. At the same time, since 
there are plenty of well-broken tandem leaders and steady 
wheelers to be found in livery stables and private houses, where 
a four-in-hand is not procurable, a tandem is a good and acces- 
sible school for an aspirant to commence upon, if, having mas- 
tered single and double harness, he seeks to soar higher. 

Apart from the injunctions here given to those who essay the 
higher branches of the art, a few standard maxims to all who 
essay to take a rein in their hands, or to sit by those who do, 
will not be out of place. Imprimis, come what may, short 
of horses bolting straight to a precipice, never jump from a 
carriage. If horses bolt, stick to the seat, like a sailor to his 
ship ; hold tight. If a collision or upset is to ensue, the car- 
riage must strike the ground or the obsta- 
cle before its occupants; till it is reached, 
nothing can strike them. Thus, care must 
be taken to hold tight, lest the concussion 
should fling them out and they fall in the 
road. Aneodotes exemplifying this might 
be related till doomsday. Only last autumn, 
in Cumberland, of two ladies in a runaway 
carriage, one — a bride — jumped, and was 
killed on the spot. The other, her sister, 
kept her seat, eventually gained the reins, 
and guided the runaway pair into a fence, 
which stopped them. Not long ago, in 
Worcestershire, a tradesman alighted and 
walked up a hill to ease the horse in his 
chaise ; at the summit the old nag began 
to trot, believing it to be his duty. The tradesman was a few 
yards behind. His wife, alone in the chaise, screamed, jumped 
out, and fractured her skull. The horse trotted on at his own 
pace, and was found next morning stuck, chaise and all, in a 
miry bye-lane in the " Eandan " woods (neutral covers between 
the Worcestershire and Albrighton hunts), seven miles from 
the scene of disaster, the chaise still on its legs, not so much 
as a wrap fallen from it. For one accident that occurs to 
persons sitting in overthrown carriages, ten happen from leaps 
from the same while in motion. A road conveyance has never 
the momentum of a railway train. Its inmates need never fear 
that any force of collision will so shatter it as to crush them 
also. The horses act as buffers to the shock. Broken glass 
is almost the only danger ; therefore, in a runaway brougham 
instantly lower the windows, and then sit tight. 

Last of all (though it is futile to preach this to many constitu- 
tions), keep cool; never lose presence of mind, and be chary of 
trusting to a charioteer who is wanting in this respect. Seek to 
emulate the coolness of Dick, who drove the Exeter coach. 

When in a fog (on Salisbury plain, we think), Dick had lost 
his bearings ; suddenly the leaders disappeared, and though 
Dick pulled up his wheelers with the strength of a giant, the 
coach toppled on to destruction in a yawning pit before them. 

" Where have you got to now, Dick ? " quoth an irritable pas- 
senger, who plumed himself on coolness equal to that of Dick. 

" Can't say, sir," said the latter, sitting still and impassive 
as they rolled to ruin, not even removing the cigar from hia 
lips ; " never was here before m my life ! " 




By J. C. Leake. 



FTER our somewhat irksome j 
preparations, it is with no 
small satisfaction that we 
observe the morning break- 
ing with every promise of a 
fine day; a most important 
affair in photographic mat- 
ters, as without this it will 
be impossible to produce any 
good pictures. A bright 
blue sky with only a few 
white floating clouds, but 
little wind, and a perfect ab- 
sence of fog — here we have 
indeed the very ideal of good 
photographic weather, and every reason to hope for success in 
our first operations with the camera. 

Our first care will be, therefore, to make our preparations in 
the dark room, by placing all the 
requisite solutions so as to be found 
handily and readily, even in the 
semi-darkness of the laboratory. 

The bottle containing the collo- 
dion is first examined, and if any 
dust or fragments of dried collodion 
are found to be adherent to its 
neck, these are carefully removed. 

The developing solution of sul- 
phate of iron is placed upon the 
operating table, as well as the 
glass measure. The fixing solu- 
tion is ready upon a shelf close by, 
and, failing tap and sink, a pail of 
clean water, a spouted jug, and a 

large basin to catch the waste solutions and the water used for 
washing the plate, are provided, the latter being placed upon 
the operating table close to the window. 

The nitrate of silver bath is next brought out in the bottle 
and examined by the light, in order to ascertain that it is 
perfectly clear and free from floating particles of dust. 

Should this examination prove satisfactory, the porcelain 
trough is carefully rinsed with distilled water, as well as the 
dipper, drained, and the solution poured into it to within about 
half an inch of the top. 

This vessel should at once be covered with a piece of dark 
cloth or velvet — which has been well brushed to remove any 
loose particles of fibre — in order to exclude any dust which 
may be floating about the room. 

The plates should now receive a final examination, in order 
to ascertain their perfect cleanliness. The best way to deter- 
mine this point is to breathe upon them. If the moisture is 
condensed in a perfectly even sheet over the entire surface, it 
may be concluded that the cleaning is perfect, but if any lines, 
smears, or stains appear, the surface must be re-polished with 
the soft leather. 

A good number of plates should be cleaned before work is 
commenced, both on account of the saving of time, as well as 
because it is difficult to clean a plate while the hands are damp, 
and possibly stained with chemicals. 

The edges of the glass should be as carefully cleaned as the 
surfaces, inasmuch as they may retain some impurities which 
would cause defects in the pictures and possibly spoil the 

The next proceeding will be to arrange the background and 
camera; and as the important operation of focussing has not 
yet been attempted, it will be well to make a few preliminary 
experiments therein, before we proceed to take a portrait. 

The camera, with the lens properly screwed into it, should be 
placed upon a firm stand or table, and pointed towards the 
sitter. The cap being removed from the front of the lens, and 
the head of the operator, as well as the back of the camera, 
being enveloped in a large dark cloth, it will be observed 
that upon the ground glass there is projected an image of 
the sitter. It will also be seen that this image is indistinct, 
none of the lines being what is technically known as " sharp." 
As, of course, it would not do to take a picture bike this, the 
required definition must be obtained by adjusting the camera, 

partly by means of the sliding body, 
from the back, and partly by the 
rack and pinion adjustment which 
is fitted to the lens. 

The sliding back of the camera 
must be pushed forward, or back 
ward, until some approach to defi 
nition is obtained upon the ground 
glass, when the final adjustment 
can be made with the greatest 
accuracy by means of the rack- 
work of the lens. 

The best method of ensuring 

correct definition is to fix upon 

some small point of light in the 

object to be copied, and to turn 

the lens backward or forward until this appears with perfect 

sharpness upon the glass of the camera. 

In a portrait, the small white spot of light in the eye of the 
sitter is the best for this purpose, and if the model be .well 
arranged (and we shall have to speak of this shortly), the whole 
of the figure will be well defined, or, as we shall hereafter term 
it, "in focus." 

Having once seen the image upon the ground glass focussing 
screen of the camera, the whole secret of the art of photography 
seems to disclose itself. The lens projects upon any surface, 
such, for instance, as the ground gla,ss in question, an image of 
any object properly placed before it. 

Now if for this ground glass we can substitute any other 
substance capable of retaining this image, we shall be able to 
make pictures. This was the dream of the early experimen- 
talists : and even men of science could be found to laugh at the 

It is said of Daguerre that when he told his wife of his 
attempts to fix the images produced in the camera obscura, she 
at once consulted a friend as to the possibility of such a thing 
being done, the said friend being a doctor. 

" What ! trying to fix the image produced by a lens upon a 
screen ! ' ' 

" Yes," said madame, " he insists that it is possible, and has 
been working at it for months. What do you think ?" 



"He's mad!" replied the man of science. "Keep a good 
look-out after him; and if he does not give it up, let me know." 

How both the good doctor and madame must have been 
astonished when, in January, 1839, Daguerre laid his beautiful 
pictures, together with the process by which they had been 
produced, before the scientific world of Paris, and when, in the 
July following, a Bill was passed, securing to him a pension for 
life of 6,000 francs, with one-half 
in reversion to his widow in case 
of his decease.* 

But we are keeping our sitter 
waiting, and must now return to 
our dark room, and prepare our 
first plate. Happily, all the details 
of the photographic processes have 
been determined for us, and we are 
in no danger either of being con- 
sidered insane, or of receiving a 
pension from our Government. 

In order to prepare a plate ca- 
pable of receiving an impression in 
the camera, two processes are re- 
quired — namely, that of coating 
the glass with collodion (which is 
of itself insensitive to the action of 
light), and that of rendering this 
coating sensitive by immersing it 
in a solution of nitrate of silver. 

The collodion consists of a so- 
lution of gun-cotton, or more 

properly pyroxyline, in pure alcohol and ether, and is of itself 
quite inert in photography, being merely the vehicle in which 
certain salts are contained necessary to the production of a 
film which shall be capable of 
receiving an impression in the 
camera. These salts are the 
iodides of potassium or ammo- 
nium, together with a certain 
quantity of a -bromide which 
has been found to conduce to 
the greater perfection of the 
picture as well as to a higher 
degree of sensitiveness in the 

These matters have been 
duly considered for us by the 
collodion maker, and we need 
only notice them because wa 
wish to understand the rationale 
of the process with which we 
are to work. As we before ob- 
served, the iodised collodion is 

insensitive to the action of light ; but if, after having coated 
the plate with this substance, we immerse it in a solution of nitrate 
of silver — which we call the bath — the iodides and bromides 
contained in the film enter into chemical combination with the 
nitrate of silver in solution, and we then have a film of bromo- 
iodide of silver — a compound which is not only capable of 
receiving an impression by the action of light, but which is the 
most sensitive to that action of any yet discovered. 

Bearing these facts in mind, we now proceed to prepare our 
plate by coating it with the iodised collodion. This operation re- 
quires some practice and skill. The coating must be perfectly 
even, as any irregularity will be shown in the finished picture. 

The plate should be taken between the first finger and thumb 
* Hunt's " Researches on Light," p. 34. 

of the left hand, holding it by the corner, as shown in Fig. 1. 
It should then be dusted by means of the soft brush, and every 
particle of dust removed from the surface. The bottle con- 
taining the collodion should then be taken in the right hand, 
and, the plate being held perfectly level, a pool of collodion 
should be poured upon the centre of the plate, as shown in 
the illustration, until about half the surface is covered. 

The plate must now be gently 
tilted towards the farthest left- 
hand corner, so that the fluid 
may run to the extreme edge, then 
to the opposite one, then back so 
as nearly to touch the thumb, and 
finally off at the right-hand corner, 
so as to cover the entire plate ; 
pouring the superfluous fluid back 
into the bottle, resting the corner 
of the plate upon the neck of the 

The plate should now be raised 
from its nearly level position to 
an angle of about 45°, so as to 
allow all the collodion that will 
to drain off, imparting at the same 
time a slight rocking motion to 
the plate, to facilitate the per- 
fectly even setting of the film, 
and prevent the formation of lines. 
This part of the work may be 
executed in daylight if necessary, 
and it should be performed coolly and steadily. 

Try to avoid spilling any of the collodion, and, while re- 
membering that some speed is necessary, on account of the 

highly volatile nature of the 
alcohol and ether used as sol- 
vents, do not on any account 
hurry the operation. A per- 
fectly even film of collodion is 
an essential of success ; and 
should you observe any defect 
in the coated plate, do not 
proceed to the next process, 
that of sensitising, but set the 
plate up for future use, after 
cleaning, and coat another. 

It will be observed that the 
film of collodion hardens or 
1 "sets" very rapidly, and it 
is important that it should be 
immersed in the nitrate bath 
at the right moment. This 
may be ascertained by lightly 
touching the film with the finger, at that part at which the 
collodion was poured off. When the film will just allow of 
being touched without coming off, the plate will be ready for 
immersion in the silver solution. 

If the coating operation has been well performed, the film 
will be perfectly smooth and bright, quite colourless and trans- 
parent, so much so as to almost raise a doubt as to there being 
anything upon the glass at all. This is as it should be ; and so 
far we have been successful. 

As soon as the film is set it should be immersed in the nitrate 
of silver bath without loss of time, as, if the collodion be 
allowed to harden, insensitive patches will be formed, and of 
course the plate will be spoiled. 

In order to sensitise the plate, it must be placed so as to rest 



upon the ledge of glass upon the bottom of the dipper, of course 
with the collodion side uppermost, and lowered gently and 
evenly into the nitrate of silver solution, in the manner shown 
in Fig. 2. 

This operation must be performed with the utmost care. 
The plate must be immersed without the slightest hesitation or 
break, or a sharp line will be formed upon the film, which will 
appear in the finished picture like a crack in the glass. 

After having rested a few minutes — not more than two or 
three — the plate should be gently raised and lowered by means 
of the dipper, so as to facilitate the evaporation of the ether 
and alcohol contained in the collodion. It will be observed that 
the surface of the film presents a somewhat greasy appearance 
as the plate is thus treated, and this forms a capital test of the 
progress of the sensitising process, inasmuch as the moment 
this oiliness disappears, and the silver solution flows smoothly 
over its surface, the plate is ready for the camera. 

By this process the appearance of the plate has been much 
changed. Instead of being nearly transparent, as it was before 
sensitising, it will be covered with a creamy-coloured film of 
a semi-opaque character, formed, as we before explained, by the 
combination of the iodides and bromides in the collodion with 
the silver in the bath. The film produced by positive collodion 
is generally much thinner than that prepared for negatives, 
but this matter, though important, we must consider hereafter. 

In order to get our plate to the camera without exposure to 
light — for we must remember that it is now so exceedingly 
sensitive that a moment's exposure to daylight would spoil it — 
we must place it in the dark slide or case which has been pro- 
vided with the camera. As W9 noticed before, this slide has 
one shutter which can be drawn up from the top, and a second 
at the back, which is hinged to the top and secured in its place 
with buttons. For use, the slide should be set up as shown in 
Fig. 3, resting at the top against a box or other support. The 
draw-shutter should be closed and the door open, as shown in 
the illustration. It will be found that at the corners there are 
inserted silver wires, upon whiih the plate is to rest. 

After removal from the bath, the plate should be lifted from 
the dipper (which should be replaced in the bath), and well 
drained, as long as any solution will drop from it, into the 
trough. After this it should be rested upon one corner upon 
a pad of clean blotting-paper, and the back wiped dry with a 
second pad of the same material. 

It should then be taken by one corner, and the bottom end 
placed upon the wires in the lower part of the slide, as shown 
in the diagram ; and being laid with great care, so as to rest 
in the place prepared for it, the door should be closed and 

It need hardly be mentioned that the prepared side of the 
plate must be placed inwards, or next to the draw-shutter. 


By Eliza Cheadle. 

FEEL certain that the amateur is 
full of impatience to commence 
some great work, and accomplish 
without further delay the con- 
struction of a glorious rose, an 
intricate carnation, or some 
achievement of art equally diffi- 
cult. Gently, dear novice ! If 
our flower is to resemble the 
model we have set before us, we 
must exercise our patience in try- 
ing to imitate it closely in all 
its points. Those details which 
are too often regarded as minor 
ones and insignificant, in reality 
do greatly add to or detract from the beauty of the whole. 
For example, if the peduncle is not neatly finished off, be the 
flower it bears as exquisite as possible, the effect will resemble 
that of some lady who wears a smart cap on her head with her 
shoes down at heel! Nature is not slovenly in her way of 
doing things, neither should Art be so. 

The shape of the calyx, when spread out flat, resembles that 
of a star-fish, only that its extremities are not pointed. Cut 
it out in muslin tissue or soft green paper, make a hole in the 
centre, then touch the edges of its outline with cement, and join 
the sides together, it will then assume a cup-like form. 

The covering of the peduncle is a matter for practice ; and 
the following is the plan to be adopted : — 

Take four inches of wire the thickness you require, and hold- 
ing it between the thumb and forefinger of your left hand, at the 
same time passing it between the third and fourth finger of the 
hand for support ; take a strip of tissue paper, about a quarter 

of an inch in width, in your right hand, place one end of it on 
the wire, hold it in a slanting direction, and the while let your 
left-hand thumb turn round the wire towards the right hand, 
until the whole stem is covered. When a thicker peduncle is 
required, the wire must first be covered with cotton wo®l, in 
the same manner as with the paper, the wire ^eing previously 
dipped in gum. The making of these thick stems is a matter of 
much greater difficulty to do neatly. When the smaller peduncles 
of buds or leaf-stalks have to be attached to larger ones, the 
mode of proceeding, after covering the separate stems, is to 
unroll a portion of the paper on the parent stem, and work the 
small one into its proper position, then to make it firm by means 
of fine wire or thread, and then to re-cover the whole. While 
speaking of peduncles it will be as well to advise that those on 
which flowers having a delicate calyx are mounted, should be 
covered previous to the fixing of the stamens, petals, etc. ; 
whilst those belonging to flowers having a hard calyx, should be 
covered after the completion of the flower. For stems which 
are of a reddish hue, green paper is used, and then a little 
powdered carmine paint is rubbed on, which gives it the natural 

As a general rule it will be found better to buy all the foliage 
required. The French leaves are inexpensive, and are sold by 
the dozen at from fourpence to a shilling. The stamens of 
many flowers are also troublesome to make, and hardly repay 
the labour and time necessarily bestowed on them by the 
amateur. The same may also be said of many of the calices, 
especially those belonging to flowers which require hard ones. 

All the several parts of the flower should be complete before 

they are put together ; they should be handled as little as 

possible ; indeed, the petals should never be touched by the 

., fingers after they are moulded, but be taken up and placed by 



the pincers. Very little remains to be done now to complete 
our primula. Take hold of the corolla with the pincers, put a 
drop of cement inside the tube, take the stem, and holding it 
downwards, let the corolla slip gently down to the stamen, and 
when the corolla is slightly beyond the anther, that is to say, 
when the anther can be seen by peeping down the tube of the 
corolla, give the tube a tender squeeze; then put a drop of 
cement in the bottom of the calyx, put it on the peduncle in 
the same way, and when its outer edges rest on the corolla, 
gently press its base. The leave s of the plant are made to wear 
the natural dusty look by brushing them over with gum, and 
then lightly dredging them with a kind of white fluff, which is 
sold in bottles for the purpose. 

It is very easy thus to form a whole plant of primulas which 
will look perfectly natural, more especially if the flowers are 
made of various sizes. 

Hitherto we have been 
chiefly occupied in dis- 
cussing the requisite 
materials and tools, and 
in giving general direc- 
tions as to their use, so 
that we had time to de- 
scribe the construction 
of but one flower only, 
and that a very simple 
one ; but be it remem- 
bered that the primula 
may serve as a useful 
model for many other 
flowers which are its 
kith and kin, amongst 
which may be reckoned 
the auricula, the prim- 
rose, and the polyan- 

To-day we enter on 
more difficult ground, 
nevertheless we do not 
intend to give you the 
full benefit of all our 
explorations and re- 
searches ; we will act 
as guide until you are a 
little further advanced 
on the path of paper 
flower making, and then we 

Personal trials and adventures add infinite zest to the 
amusement ; the road would be comparatively but dull and 
uninteresting, if every step the whole length of the way was 
to be minutely described beforehand. 

Our aim then is not to be too prolix, but at the same time 
to give directions just sufficient to afford effectual counsel and 
help to those who enter on this extensive field of never-ending 
interest and amusement, so that, enlightened by our instruc- 
tions, adventurous spirits may pursue their way with ease and 
pleasure to themselves. 

It is true that flowers of every form and hue can be repre- 
sented in paper, but the reproduction of some kinds is much 
more successful than that of others. But take a rose or a 
convolvulus, an azalea, poppy, aster, rhododendron, carnation, 
chrysanthemum, and you will find that the imitation of these 
and of many others, from hothouse, hedgerow, and garden, will 
repay any time and trouble spent upon them. 

The flowers which are the most difficult to construct are 


will wish you good-speed and 

invariably those whose petals are quite distinct one from, 
another, and in consequence have to be separately placed on 
the peduncle. Much more care and precision is then necessary, 
for any deviation from the regular formality with which Nature 
clothes her perfect works w®uld be fatal to the success of her 
would-be imitators. 

There is a certain class of flowers — the picotee, for in- 
stance, is one of the group — which have their separate petals 
placed at regular distances round the stamen; and in order 
the better to ensure this regularity, the best plan is to cut 
out the petal in rounds or circles, which in flower-making 
parlance are called " patterns " — each pattern comprising 
the number of petals required for placing once round the 
And here let it be noted that each of these succeeding rounds 

of petals should be 
placed so that no petal 
gets behind another but 
just half way between, 
in fact the petals of 
one round must fall 
over the opening be- 
tween those of the pre- 
ceding one. 

And now shall we try 
and make a picotee ? 
only one pattern is re- 
quired, a specimen of 
which is given. True, 
it is rather a trouble- 
some shape to copy ; but 
if you are intent on 
making the flower, there 
is no real reason why 
this little difficulty 
should be shirked. Of 
course the first step is 
to draw the outline of 
the pattern on tracing 
paper (Pig. 1). 

And here we must 
apologise for having 
omitted to make men- 
tion of this help-meet, 
when speaking of ne- 
cessarymaterials. Trac- 
ing paper is a highly transparent and at the same time a very 
strong paper, which is made to possess these valuable qualities 
by preparing it with oil in some particular way. Thus, any 
object placed under this paper can be copied quickly and 

Having traced the picotee corolla, cut it out, copy it in thin 

cardboard, and lastly in the paper selected for the flower itself. 

This is of some delicate tint, the faintest of pink or creamiest 

of white. Then the petals have to be tipped with powder 

paint of rich crimson or deep purple, if not both. 

Now gimp the edges in an irregular fashion — this being done, 
fold the pattern in half, and now in quarter, and yet again, 
until all the petals shall be one on the other. 

In this position crumple them between your first finger and 

This mode of squeezing the petals gives the effect seen in 
carnations and many other full petaled flowers— namely, that 
of having burst from a calyx which has been too small for their 
comfortable accommodation — hence the crumpled appearance o£ 
such flowers. 



Open out the round, and with the ball tool mould its centre 
into something of a cup shape. 

Six of these corollase must be prepared in this manner in 
order to form one picotee or carnation. 

The stamens, if not bought, can be made of the fibres of a 
quill pen. Those extremities which are visible to the oiitside 
world must curl, and this they will readily do if you draw the 
filaments between your thumb and a blunt knife. 

The stamens are fastened to the peduncle with fine wire, and 
then the rounds of petals are severally settled in their places, 
the innermost ones being somewhat compressed. Once more let 
it be repeated that the petals must not be touched with the 
hand while they are being mounted, and also remember that the 
cement must always be put on those already attached to the 
stem, never on those which are about to be placed thereon. 

For the calyx I should advise yon to go to the shop, the 
natural one, as you will perceive, being of such a hard 
thick nature, that I do not think you can 
well imitate it. 

The picotee has two near relations, 
the carnation and the clove, both of 
which differ very little from it ; the 
former only with respect to its colour- 
ing, and the latter, a dark crimson 
flower, has the edges of its petals crimped 
instead of gimped. 

A smiling contented countenance hath 
the aster. Can we produce one alike 
exprsssive of good-will and serenity ? 
Suppose you forthwith make the experi- 
ment. Take Nature herself for the de- 
sign, which copy as accurately as pos- 

Three different sized patterns, and 
three rounds of each size constitute the 
necessary petals for one head. The best 
plan is to cut them out in white paper 
and colour them according to the natural 

In this way a great variety may be 
made, for some asters are self-coloured, 
and some are striped, and some are 
tipped ; there are asters pink and asters 
Ted, asters light and asters dark ; in fact you can hardly go 
wrong in colour or size. The next proceeding is to mark a Une 
down each petal, that is to rib it, or indent it, as this process is 
sometimes termed : this is done with the fine end of the pincers. 

The calyx is very similar in form to that of the corolla ; 
indeed, the only difference is that its extremities are gimped 
instead of being pointed. It is made of green glazed paper. 
And then there is the stamen, that also you can manufacture, 
but I do not suppose that you would ever guess how to do it 
by simply looking at the natural one. 

The idea, of course, came into somebody's head, but that 
somebody must have possessed a rare faculty of invention, I 
feel quite sure. 

Take a piece of wax and mould it into the shape of a button, 
and then fix it on to the peduncle. After this is done, make 
the wax very soft by warming it at the fire, and then take a 
square inch of fine Brussels net, stretch it firmly over the wax 
button and tie it tightly underneath. Instantaneously little 
round yellow heads will pop up through every hole, quite a 
regiment of them, all in regular file, a perfect imitation of 

You complete the flower by putting the nine circlets of petals 
round the stamen, and finally by affixing the calyx. I do not 


know whether you are aware of the fact, but you have now 
added to your store of knowledge that of making asters of 
every size and hue, chrysanthemums of every shade, and daisies 
big and little. 

The next flower shall be of quite a different class — we will 
speak of the tall pyramidal campanula, which the French call 
La Cloche. And we will consider how its bell-like pendants are 

There is generally quite a family group of campanulas at- 
tached to one stem — father, mother, with five or six children, the 
latter in all stages of development. This being the case, all 
the buds and blossoms should be prepared previous to any of 
them being mounted. For the elder members of the campanula 
family, cut the corolla like the opened blossom — cut on one 
side and laid flat — mould it, and then indent each petal from 
the lowest part of the Vandyke to the base, that which will 
in the future be the centre of the flower. 

These creases must be inside the co- 
rolla, the petal outside must look as if 

Next cement the edge of the side, fold 
the other over it, and then screw up 
one end to form the bell. But, see, 
the bell collapses, and looks altogether 
dilapidated. That can soon be remedied. 
Take a tiny cork, make one end of it 
round, and push it up, round end first, 
to the extremity of the flower, whose 
petticoat will now stand out in proper 

The stamen, or rather pistil, is made of 
fine wire, one end of which is twisted 
round itself to form a little knob, and 
then the whole is covered with green 

This piece of wire should be between 
two and three inches in length, as it is 
destined also to attach the flowers to the 
parent stem. The buds are formed by 
making the corolla of different sizes, 
forming the bells in the manner above 
described, and then cementing the in- 
dented edges of the petals, then fitting 
one Vandyke into the other, and thus closing the flower. No 
pistil is therefore required, but each bud must be mounted on a 
piece of covered wire, varying in length according to the size of 
the bud. For the main stem take a piece of the thickest wire, 
and cover it with green paper, and then arrange the buds and 
blossoms in regular gradation down it, interspersing a leaf or 
two here and there. Tou begin at the top, with the baby buds, 
and place them according to their sizes, the largest flowers 
being at the base. 

The manner of mounting is to attach each peduncle to the 
parent stem with fine wire, at the same time hiding the 

Take a long narrow strip of green paper, and as each 
peduncle is fixed into its position, wind the paper round until you 
come to another halting place, then fix another flower, then 
resume your covering process, and so on until the whole family 
are on. Then slightly bend all their necks so as to give them 
their proper drooping effect. 

The result should be a charming group, worthy of a promi- 
nent position in any drawing-room. Should, however, the 
completed flower not prove a success, patience will overcome 
in the end, and every attempt give deftness to the fingers, and 
finish to the handiwork of the young artist. 




By Geeville Feknell. 



HILIi upon the subject of casting to long dis- 
tances — so admirably followed by the Trent fisher- 
men — and thus conveying the bait amongst swarms 
of timid fi6h, which no allurement would tempt nearer the 

we possess, and which is our occasional companion as a support 
on land and a pleasure-seeker afloat. This rod is of five joints 
each of three feet in length. Each joint, of course, is hollow, 
including the top, which is entirely of thin bamboo, tapered 


angler, more particularly in bright and shallow waters, we 
ought to mention that even this acquirement meets with 
great drawbacks in wet, damp, or moist weather, when 
the line gets saturated and soddened, its additional weight 
causing it to bag between the rings, and cling with some 
tenacity to the rod, rendering it a matter of no little difficulty to 
get out the line. Many attempts have been made to remedy 
this hindrance, but We know of none more effectual than is 
shown in a walking-stick rod of an old-fashioned make which 

down to almost a point. The butt, or outer joint, has a hole 
made with a red-hot skewer, in a lateral direction. Through 
this, when the rod is put together and the line is to be 
. arranged, a piece of lead piping fastened thereto is passed, and 
then a slight inclination of the rod with the point downward 
permits the weight to travel, carrying the line wfth it, until it 
passes out at the end of the top joint, made slightly trumpet- 
shaped to allow of the line working freely around it. The reason 
why the perforation both in the side of the butt and at the 




extreme end of the top joint is made with a red-hot iron is worthy 
of mention. A hole thus, charred does not chafe or fret the 
line, which even the smoothest hole made by any other means is 
liable to do. It may be urged that the line is likely, when wet, 
to adhere to the inside as it was to the outside of the rod; and, 
doubtless, this it does, but it is equally clear that it does so in 
a straight- line, without the weight of the festoons or the friction 
of the rings ; and practice proves this to be the case, for we can 
throw to ar distance by its means so as to astonish the Midland 
fishermen. We find it no less useful in the lighter phases of 
spinning, more particularly for trout in shallow waters, in 
which a long throw is of primary importance ; and for the pro- 
tection of the line from catching in stubble or bushes, so annoying 
to the angler in our best English burns and streams. Of course 
a reel has to be fitted on to the butt, and this is best effected 
with a couple of extra strong elastic bands. 

If your rod is ringed, the rings should either be the solid 
upright brass ones or the old-fashioned sort tied on with a 
tongue of metal (see Fig. 1), to lie flat, but not on any account 
fastened so as to stand out at right angles with the rod. The 
solid ones have the objection of extra weight, otherwise they 
are all that can be desired ; but the others are an unmiti- 
gated nuisance, as they are for ever claiming too great an 
attachment to the loose threads of the rod bag; "the line, 
especially if a light one, is ever getting looped or twisted round 
them, defying their release with the fingers, particularly in cold 
weather, and reducing the perplexed angler to the verge of 
despair at some critical moment ; they are perpetually getting 
broken and knocked off, and are, in fact, a constant source of 
trouble, -and too often, we fear, execration." But there is even 
here an alleviation, if not a thorough remedy, and as stand-up 
rings have their advantages where rods made in one piece are 
used, to keep either in tho punt or fishing-house, and the first 
or bottom ring is generally the delinquent that creates the 
annoyance, this ring should be guarded with two wire sides, 
which will defy the catch of the line, even when thrown by the 
merest tyro. 

Mr. Francis Francis, one of the best authorities on the 
subject, tells us, in " A Book on Angling," that " it is always 
advisable for the angler to use as long a rod as he can con- 
veniently manage, as it gives him not only a longer swim, but 
more power over it ;" and while agreeing with us as to the 
choice of bamboo in preference to solid and heavy woods, adds : 
" The best rod to stand work I ever had was a single stick 
of bamboo, without joint or ferrule of any kind, with merely a 
spliced top lashed to it, of some eighteen inches or two feet in 
length. I have used this rod for twenty years, and it is as 
straight as ever it was." It is obvious, however, that such a 
rod }s not adapted to town residents, or if so 'it must be left at 
the fishing station, and this would entail a similar piece of 
tackle at each of the places frequented. 

These rods are to be purchased at the wholesale cane and 
umbrella makers', and many of the cheaper fishing tackle manu- 
facturers keep them, their prices varying from eighteenpence 
to half-a-crown each. Bings can readily be whipped upon them 
if necessary, and winch fittings added. 

"The Book of the Boach" has a few quotable words upon 
the rod adapted to roach, dace, gudgeon, smelt, and other light 
and fine fishing. " It-varies in its length according to the acces- 
sibility of the place fished, ranging from nine to seventeen feet, 
while many professional roach fishers often use one of eighteen 
to :< ineteen feet. Baddeley, indeed, says that ' in some of the 
best swims in the Lea a rod twenty or twenty-four feet long is 
requisite, made of the lightest materials, so that it is straight 
and strikes true.' 

" As there are several distinct schools of reach fishers, and 

as these agree in few particulars, we will briefly state the- 
principal points of difference in the rods used. The Lea school 
generally prefer rods from fifteen to twenty feet long, made of a 
white sort of bamboo cane, reported to be found in perfection 
in South Carolina. These rods taper very evenly from tip to butt 
when they are of large size. There is little spring in them, 
except in a few feet at the top, and they are used sometimes 
with running lines, but generally without. The Nottingham 
rod is from ten to twelve feet in length, and generally made in 
four pieces, the two lower of choice tough white deal; the two- 
upper of lance-wood. It is light and springy, has small upright 
steel rings, and carries a wooden reel with very light silk run- 
ning line. The rod generally used for Thames punt fishing is 
about nine or ten feet long, made of hickory or bamboo ; but 
we prefer a light Nottingham rod for the purpose. That for 
Thames bank fishing may be from eleven to fourteen feet long, 
but of the same materials as the punt rod. "We rarely see on 
the Thames any very long rods, except now and then in the 
hands of solitary disciples of the Lea school. A running line is 
almost invariably used on Thames and Trent. The rods used 
for punt fishing are generally similar to those used on the Lea ; 
a running line is often imperative, particularly when there are 
large carp or bream in the pond." 

It will, therefore, be seen that a long Lea rod may, by the 
removal of a lower joint or two, be rendered available for most 
descriptions of roach fishing, and other light angling, excepting 
with the fly ; and as one of the charms of angling is to over- 
come difficulties, and produce successful results by the simplest 
means, the would-be fisher need not envy his brother the most 
expensive paraphernalia while he himself possesses all sufficient 
for the end desired, be his rod a mere sapling cut from a 
neighbouring hazel copse, or the most elaborately fitted rod, 
with all its shine of varnish and brass blandishment, that ever 
astonished and frighted the natives of the waters out of the 
best of appetites. 

The Japanese have of late years obtained the introduction of 
their extremely ingenious rods into this country. They are 
remarkably strong for their exceeding lightness ; and as they are 
not hampered with ferrules of metal, but their sockets and joints 
are secured by a peculiarly hard ceufent, they are thus far rid of 
the objection which is made to our own manufacture. Some of 
these Japanese rods go up into a singularly small and compact 
compass, while the joints of others, fashioned like our walking- 
stick rods, are sent forth to their full length by a puff of the 
breath impelled at one end, and are thus made fast in their 
respective places, somewhat after the principle of the telescope. 
Those we have tried have been fully up to the requirements 
for which we have used them ; but then- fragile appearance 
certainly impresses one with the idea that under any extra- 
ordinary strain they would not be equal to the rods of British 

We have treated upon the rods best a'dapted to the or- 
dinary requirements of the angler. We may, however, have 
occasion to refer to rods again when we arrive at the objects 
of their capture, as certain little peculiarities of construction 
may then have their value. 

Bods should be varnished at least once a year, and this may 
be done at the conclusion of the season, that they may be dry 
and get hard for use when required. Take, therefore, the best 
coachmakers' varnish, and well, but thinly, cover each joint over 
whipping, ferrules, &c. One coat will be sufficient for most rods, 
but if two be required, the first must be well set before the 
second is applied. 

Fishing lines used to be made of various materials, but they 
are now principally confined to the gut of the silkworm, horse- 
hair, silk, and cotton. Lines for the most part are bought as 



cheaply as they can be made, and locality has its influence upon 
the value of the supply. 

For instance, barbel or roach lines can scarcely be procured 
out of London, and it would be vain to seek for them at all in 
Edinburgh or Dublin ; while the North of England is famous for 
symmetrically taper fly lines ; the latter description of line re- 
quiring, more judgment in the selection of the several pieces of 
gut, etc., than most possess, and more patience than most will 
bestow, and yet without these requisites no good line can be 

Our custom is to purchase our fly lines of some experienced 
local fisherman, and, if possible, to secure those, together with 
similar flies, to what he is using. 

For roach fishing we confess to a strong predilection for 
single hair-lines, and always use them ourselves. For moderate 
waters, the hook, or bottom length of about a foot, should be of 
fine round hair, of a sorrel or cinnamon colour, the nest length 
of the best and strongest hair to be obtained, of the same 
colour, and the upper part of two hairs twisted together. 

To make a reliable lpop, first wet the hair, then tie a common 
knot within a quarter of an inch 
of the end, or singe it in the 
flame of a candle ; after taper- 
ing it, lay the end back, and whip 
it down to the other part of the 
line with fine silk and shoemaker's 
wax, whipping over the knot to 
prevent the short end slipping 
out. The split shots to balance or 
" cock " the float are generally 
placed near the lower end of the 
single hair length, and to prevent 
cutting or chafing the hair, the end 
is turned back and whipped over 
one or two inches, instead of half 

an inch, which is usually ample. The shots are thus pinched 
on to a part where the hair is double, and protected by silk 
whipping. Should more than three or four shots be necessary, 
the remainder ought to be placed on the next length above in 
the same manner. 

Thereare few subjectsupon which anglers differ so widely, either 
in theory or practice, as in the shotting of lines for float fishing. 
Of course, it matters little in worm fishing how far from the 
shots the hook may be, provided there is length enough left to 

is used as the lure, in which case it is possible for a whole shoal 
of roach, one after another, to take in their mouths the pellet of 
paste, and refuse it upon finding it attached to the line, without 
the slightest indication being visible upon the float, at least only 
to those of extreme practice and experience ; even then, if there 
is the merest ripple on the water, it frequently happens that 
the act of expulsion is indicated by the float, and not that of 
seizure, consequently the most rapid action of the rod is behind 
the occasion. 

Now, how are we to remedy this ? It will be seen if we 
place our shots too far off the hoc: \tz permit of a wide pen- 
dulous movement between the lowest shot and the bait, which 
movement, extensive as it is laterally, does not act upon the 
float, although it affords range enough for the operations of the 
fish, and time sufficient for it to taste and get rid of the bait 
after detecting its suspicious nature. If, on the other hand, 
we place our shots too close, we are. presumed to scare the fish 
by the presence of the foreign body threateningly suspended, 
over their heads. 

There is no doubt that in thick or partially turbid waters 

the shots may be placed pretty 
closely to the lure with impunity 
and advantage; but in perfectly 
clear waters it is out of the 

To get rid altogether of the 
objectionable appearance of the 
shots, or to anticipate the objec- 
tion of their attachment far above 
the hook, we have tried with partial 
success the following plan : — We 
take a perforated shot, and hold ft 
on a needle, beat rt roughly into a 
somewhat elongated or pear shape, 
this we pass over the gut of our 
hook, and let it fall down over the shank and its whipping, and 
over this, shot, hook and all, we put our pellet of paste. 

It is obvious, therefore, that a .fish cannot meddle very well 
with this loaded lure without the float telling tales ; and so we 
have found it, but, unfortunately, a few bites are missed, the 
lead serving as a guard occasionally in preventing the hook 
taking effect, and even when the barb has done so, assisting 
the fish in its struggles to get free. Still our takes in rough 
water have averaged far more than they would otherwise 


arrange the float to the depth of the water fished, inasmuch as . have done. The lead should be painted white or flesh colour, 
all fish will make their presence known by moving away with or kept bright by scraping, that no great contrast should be 
the bait under such circumstances. Not so, however, when paste ; presented between it and the paste. 


By C. W. Alcock. 



SHAJJL not make any apology this time for diving at 
once vn medias res. 
For fear that you may not understand me precisely I 
must ask you to allow me to explain. 

Do not be misled by the quotation, for it is harmless. Do 
not be disappointed if I represent that my header signifies 
merely an intention to devote a chapter to the chief implements 
of the game ; but lend me your ears alike, friends, countrymen, 
and brothers. It is of arms and the man that I sing, or, pro- 
saically, of bats and balls. 

Cricket without bat and ball would be like the play of 
Hamlet with the wholesale omission not only of the Prince of 
Denmark, but of all the rest of the royal Danes. 

You will have seen from the illustration in the previous 
article (page 33) the difference between the old-fashioned clubs of 
the old days and the light ornamental weapon of the present. 
At first the bat was without form, and clumsy, and more 
resembled the shape of a sickle than anything else. You would 
have found it difficult enough to wield the old instruments in 
vogue when Hambledon was the centre of cricket, and Windmill 



Downs resounded with the old Hampshire war-cry of 
and turn." It required some strength, believe me, for 
tried their weight, and have succumbed 
under the ponderosity of a machine that 
might even now be more suitable for 
the exercise of Indian clubs. 

The old bat was, as I have already 
said, curved in the form of a butter- 
knife, and was obviously of little use 
except for the purpose of hitting — 
blocking or scientific plaj joing things 
at that time not dreamt of in the 
philosophy of a cricketer. The bowling 
was what is known as underhand, and 
the mysteries of roundhand, of curves, 
spins, and the other secrets of attack 
now so skilfully employed were utterly 

I have 

giants in those days, when every one had a sobriquet by way 
of distinction, and even the bats themselves bore these friendly 
appellations, if reliance can be placed 
on one that was seen in the pavilion 
at Lords in 1860 with King's nick- 
name of " Little Joey " duly insoribed. 
It would be interesting to trace the 
history of some of these old bludgeons 
from the cradle to the grave, did space 
admit. If you wish to see an eccen- 
tricity, though, in this line you will 
find in the pavilion at Lords, duly and 
religiously preserved, a very peculiar 
bat, which was used by an ©Id Hamble- 
don hero, one Eobert Bobinson, a gen- 
tleman who was popularly known as 
" Three-fingered Jack." 

Fig. 1. 

bats of the btgone. (Dates, 1743 to 1827.)* 

Fig. 3. 


Fi<r. 4. 

.known, so ihat the great point of the game was to hit 
without thought of defence. 

And hit they did with a vengeance, if we can believe some of 
the traditions of our forefathers. At least there were some 

But what about the bats and balls of the present day ? What 
about their method of usage and their different qualities ? 

* From "Echoes from Old Cricket Fields," by Fredorick Galo. 



You mean to say that you want some practical advice on this 
particular subject; and you are quite right in asking. You 
need not trouble yourself about the ball (Fig. 8), however, in 
the first place, for, by a wise arrangement of things, the 
selection and provision of balls, in the case of matches, falls 
on the managment and exchequer of the chief club, and 
directly proceeds, like many ether calls, from the public purse. 

But with the 
bat (Fig. 9) the f~ ~> 

case is different, 
for there are im- 
perfections that 
and as criti- 
cally studied as 
the points of a 
horse. See that 
your own special 
taste is satisfied 
first, or you will 
do little or no 
good. You can 
rely on the judg- 
ment of honest 
bat- makers, of 
course, but it will 
be much better 
to be informed 
yourself of the 
principal things 
that should be 
noticed in the 
constitution of 
the article that 
is required. 

See that the 
wood is well sea- 
soned and of 
good growth, for 
on this you will 
have to depend 
greatly if you 
want a bat that 
will do you any 
honest service. 

See that the 
wood is straight 
grained, if pos- 
sible, and give 
it time before 
you determine 
to subject it 
to hard and per- 
sistent usage. A 
bat, like wine, im- 
proves withkeep- 

ing ; and do not use it if you can avoid so doing, until it has had 
a chance of getting mellow, and becomes well saturated with 
the oil that you have used. 

The bats used now have all the advantages of cane handles, 
which of course greatly increase the force of repercussion, but 
many prefer to have an ordinary bat at first, and, if suitable 
afterwards, make the addition of the cane handle, as is easily 
done. Much of the difference of opinion that exists on the sub- 
ject of bats is obviously due to fancy, but as much work has to 
be done with the weapon, it should suit the ideas as much as 



Fig. 9. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 7. 

possible of him who has to wield it. If you have a good bat it 
will be your own fault if you do not realise your most ambi- 
tious dreams. Only do not, like a bad workman, quarrel wit' 
your tools. Do not ascribe your ill success to any demerits a. 
bats or balls. 

There are other implements necessary to the satisfactory out- 
fit of a cricketer or of a cricket club that suggest their own 

different spheres 
of usefulness 
without the need 
of special illus- 
tration. The il- 
lustrations them- 
selves, indeed,, 
will best explain 
their purpose. If 
you are a wicket- 
keeper you will 
be able to esti- 
mate the advan- 
tage of gloves 
(Fig. 1) specially 
for that post. 
They are posi- 
tively essential 
in the case of 
fasfebowlers; and 
it would be mere 
foolhardiness to 
attempt to un- 
dertake the task 
without them in 
these days of 
lightning bowl- 
ing. They are 
made of the best 
mock buckskin, 
and perforated, 
so as to give 
ventilation to the 
hands without 
interfering with 
the resistance 
given to the ball. 
Batting gloves 
too (Fig. 2) are 
now requisites, 
and are only dis- 
pensed with by 
the more reckless 
followers of the 

To play cricket 
and enjoy it you 
should lessen the 
risks of an ugly knock as much as possible, and unless you use 
these articles of defence, you may get your hands or fingers injured 
for life. Experience has made these accessories as perfect as they 
could well be. They are also usually made of mock buckskin 
leather, and the palm of the hand is cut away so as to allow a 
firm grasp of the handle of the bat, a strip of elastic fastening 
each to the wrist by means of a button. On the back of the hand 
on each finger are strips of thick tubular india-rubber arranged 
so as to keep every portion likely to be hit by the bowler well 
protected. You will Bee that different provision is made for 

Fig. 8. 



the two hands. Obviously, in holding the bat, the back cf the 
left hand is exposed to the bowler, so that almost every part is 
covered, the hoop of india-rubber preventing many a nasty 
crack in the neighbourhood of the wrist. As the thumb of 
this hand is guarded by the bat, no special protection is neces- 
sary, while the risk to the right hand is mostly about the 
knuckles and fingers, no other part being so much exposed. 
Cricket-shoes (Figs. 3, 4) are obviously accompaniments that can 
hardly be spared, and spiked soles are not luxuries that can be 
dispensed with. Laced boots though are more the fashion, made 
of buckskin leather, and these are more useful as giving a better 
support to the foot and ankle ; nails too are very popular in the 
place of spikes, but I am conservative enough to have a prefer- 
ence for the spiked soles, and I vote for them unhesitatingly. 
It would seem superfluous to mention the necessity of leg guards 
(Fig. 5). Get a fast bowler to pound away at you for an hour 
■without this outer cuticle, and I wish you joy. They are well 
padded with strips of cane, and reach well above the knee, so 
that all the lower part of the leg is thoroughly covered. Tou can 

get a good knock even with these stout coverings, so do not be 
foolish enough to play to any sort of bowling without them. 
It is a mistaken policy, even if you do not get hit, for I defy you 
to play as resolutely as you would with the consciousness that 
you are so much at the mercy of a tear-away bowler. 

Prudence in these matters, believe me, is a virtue, and not a 
sign of cowardice. Fig. 6 is a specimen of the telegraph, and 
Fig. 7 of the nets used for practice in cricket. To a cricket club 
I can safely say that there should always be one of the latter. 
It is not always that you can ensure a sufficiency of players, even 
to form a number for practice. With one of them your work 
will be easy enough, or at lea"st your labour much reduced. If 
you have one of them with sides in addition you will find yourself 
still further assisted, as most of the hits will thus be stopped, 
and no long-stop will be required, and one bowler and two fields- 
men will enable you to have a good practice. If you determine 
to have a complete outfit, take my advice and get the different 
articles of good stuff and of good makers. Tou will find that 
an unwise economy will be an expensive luxury in the end. 


By Rosa Feunell. 
olden egg-work — presentations — the mosaic pont — blending op colours. 

OME time since a little book was 
given away by Mr. Cremer, 
of Regent Street, in it he 
says : — " If you stroll into 
the Etruscan bronze-room 
of the British Museum you 
will see some large imita- 
tion eggs (ostrich). The 
surfaces of these eggs are 
elaborately decorated with 
figures of animals 
(sphinxes), etc., and with 
festoons ; and they were 
very beautifully painted, for wo have proof positivo that 
the Etruscans were excellent artists, and these eggs have 
still patches of colour lying thick upon them." 

The same book also describes a drawing of two eggs by Fr. 
Bartoli, in the words of the artist : — " Two Easter Eggs ye 
which are sawed open w : a fine instrument made for ye pur- 
pose ; ye shells within are cleaned & dryed, yn lined w: gilded 
paper & adorned w : figures of saints made of silk & gold ; they 
are made to open & shut, & are tyed together with rubans. 
Eggs of thi3 sort are made for presents to Ladys of quality. 
These two were presented on Easter day, 171C,to ye Beautifull 
young Lady Manfroni, of a very antient Family, by Sig'° 
Bernini, who soon after marryed her." You will see from 
this that the amusement cf decorating eggs is of a very early 

But to return to our font. First give the surface of the 
plaster a good soaking of boiled oil, and after this, when dry, 
a thin coating of copal varnish, which will render the font, 
which was before of a crude and offensive whiteness, in appear- 
ance quite equal to marble. Now we draw (after allowing the 
varnish to dry) two parallel lines of any width around the 
plinth, and giving this a second coat of varnish — only, be it 
observed, as far as we suppose the work will proceed — we dip 
the point of a camel-hair brush, finely pointed, into the varnish, 
by which we can select from its compartment the most 
minute portions of egg-shell, and placing these on the varnish 

of the plinth, which is of a greater body, and therefore moro 
retentive than that on the brush. Another and another piece 
of shell, according to fancy, is placed as near as possible to 
the former, taking care not to approach the boundary of tho 
band too closely for the present. This having been done, it 
will be found that interstices are left here and there, which 
may be either filled in with minute portions of shell, or 
finished, when the whole is dry, with bronze, gold, or silver 
powder, a re-touch of varnish having been applied to such 

As some difficulty may be experienced in carrying the mosaic 
with great evenness to the defined lines, space may likewise be 
left for a band of gold to be run round them, carrying the gold 
into the serrated cavities uncovered. The work has to be 
again varnished, confining it this time to the mosaic alone. 
Proceed with the other parts of the font in the same way, after 
seeing that your former work is quite dry. 

Flat surfaces may thus be treated with great ease and 
facility, and it perhaps might be well — although wo do not 
anticipate any particular difficulty in decorating round subjects 
— for the tyro to commence upon a level object, say a paper- 
weight of white or coloured marble, the solidity of which will 
provide a greater steadiness to the manipulation than an article 
with a comparatively small base. 

There is no reason, after a little practice, why this really 
pretty branch of art should not be extended to moro important 
objects ; and that kind of mosaic or coloured inlaid work occa- 
sionally employed in Italy during tho middle ages for external 
decorations could be readily imitated for the inside of summer 
houses or artificial grottoes, indeed, the outside of such retreats 
might be characteristically ornamented by such means as well ; 
and perhaps, in that case, the most classic example would bo 
the facade of the Duomo at Pisa, where, though the pattern is 
chiefly in black and white, brilliant reds and blues are inter- 
mixed at intervals. 

Nor need the pupil, when sufficiently advanced, fear to essay 
a higher flight, for what could be done by the old masters in 
mosaic, and is yet done by a very largo school in Italy, could 
be effected by the simple aids wo have at our disposal. Not 



only elaborate ornamental scroll-work is thus within reach, but 
even figures, human and animal, can be just as readily encom- 
passed ; certainly to the extent they were carriei by the 
ancients, for many of their examples are executed in a few 
simple colours, with hardly any attempt at variety of tints or 
due gradation of tones. 

What more beautiful border could be made for the frames of 
prints than by these means. The broad deal frame in the 
Oxford pattern of a worsted worked sampler we have seen thus 
finished, giving it a value and apparent consequence it would 
be scarcely able to maintain by more expensive surroundings. 

We scarcely dare suggest a yet loftier ambition for the aspir- 
ant ; yet it is possible a more exalted stage is open to those who 
possess perseverance and have a correct knowledge of outline. 
It is true, the outline might be rendered by another hand, or 
the rudest tracing from a skilful but bold work of art would 
suffice to fill in with the egg-shell. Real mosaics, which have the 
effect of paintings, are attended with infinitely greater cost, 
and are beyond all comparison more laborious and tedious in 
their process. We are therefore extremely tender in alluding 
even to the possibility of such a standard of attainment, but it 
may be just of use to give some notion of its difficulties, even 
in actual mosaic. As each separate piece of glass is of the same 
individual colour throughout, the graduation of tints, the melting 
off or blending of any one colour from its highest lights to its 
darkest shadow, can be obtained only by an immense number 
of small pieces, of which those contiguous to each other exhibit 
scarcely any perceptible difference to the eye. It is acknow- 
ledged, even by connoisseurs and collectors of mosaic, that the 
aole advantage, in any degree proportionate to the cost attending 
it, is the extreme durability of the work when accomplished, an 
attribute which the more fragile egg-shell could not claim. 

Still we cannot but think that if such " industrious idleness " 
were undertaken for mere curiosity, or to produce something 
perfectly unique in egg-shell, that certain difficulties alluded to 
in real mosaic might be modified or entirely got rid of. For 
instance, sharpness of outline is arrived at by grinding the 
different pieces of glass to even sides to fit each other. This 

we are assured could be done with egg-shell, each piece being 
held by tweezers and rubbed upon a fine flat watch file, or 
on a Turkish whetstone of close texture. But what a labour ! 
Granted, however, this task completed, the outline might be 
followed as closely as possible with pieces of one dark-coloured 
shell only, and when all the outline was defined, the parts' filled 
in according to taste and discretion, remembering, as matter 
of encouragement, that some of the best of the great mosaic 
masters gave to their works a certain angularity or eccentricity 
of outline — whether by design or otherwise — not in accordance 
with the canons of true drawing or the rules of Nature. 

We have further evidence that the ancients were not altogether 
ignorant of the great beauty and variety in the form of the egg, 
in the various ways in which its shape is made to blend into, 
although partly hidden, in the graceful cups, vases, and other 
domestic utensils which they have left to us, and which we only 
of late years have had the wisdom to take as our models. Nor 
were their architects unmindful of its excellence, for we have in 
the ovolo or egg-shaped moulding a proof that .they were not 
ignorant of its application, and thus we find it mostly under the 
abacus of capitals, placed between the corona and the dentils 
in the Corinthian cornice, and by its form suggestively fitted to 
support another member. But it is, or ought to be, always used 
only in situations above the level of the eye. This fact has not 
been lost upon an amateur taxidermist a friend of ours, the 
ceiling of whose museum of cabinets is supported by this mould- 
ing, and its ovolo, which are really cavities, each containing an 
egg placed horizontally therein, dropped in their respective 
places from unseen apertures at the top of the frieze. 

We must here draw to an end. but it is obvious that the 
subject would admit of yet greater if not considerable ex- 
tension. If, for instance, we were to speak of the adaptibility 
of the egg as a mould for wax decoration, or even minute 
rosettes in paper, ribbon, etc., we should be led into other more 
space-occupying regions. But we trust we have said enough 
to justify the observation that there are many pleasing uses 
left to us for an egg, even after it has been contemptuously 
thrown aside as " a mere shell." 


By the Author of " Harmonious Colouring as Applied to Photographs," " The Art of Miniature Painting," etc. 

S a matter of course, the beginner will meet with many 
little difficulties, some of which will be of a discourag- 
ing nature, and tend to produce that sensation of dis- 
appointment felt more or less by all who take up a new 
subject. But he need not despair, for in no branch of art can 
advance, with even moderate application, be made with more 
rapidity than in colouring photographs. The tyro has, too. this 
advantage, that though he may err in his choice of pigments, 
and lay on a gaudy colour where one of a subdued nature is 
requisite, still his lines are so defined, that the result can hardly 
fail to be pleasing. 

Now colour the lower lip, using pink for the high light, and 
for the other part carnation or scarlet, avoiding covering- 
the dark line between the lips, and making them more or less 
brilliant, according to the nature of your subject. Work a little 
pink over the cheeks, chin, nostrils, and just above the brows. 
Touch the edges of the shadows very slightly with a little 
green, worked gently into the local or general colour of the 
flesh, which must next be taken up and used, to bring softly 
into combination the colour you last used and the green at the 

edges of the shadows, which will serve to break the purity of the 
flesh tints retiring from the light without rendering them dirty. 
In selecting the local or general flesh colour, modify it with a little 
yellow or carmine, to make it accord more nearly with the com- 
plexion of the original. For the upper lip, use a little carmine 
and madder brown; for the deeper shadows, carmine and green; 
and for the deepest, carmine and a very little black or deep brown. 

And here, in accordance with my plan, I may as well make 
clear the meaning expressed by the term cast shadow. All 
shadow is of course simply a deprivation of light, and tins 
may arise either from the surface retiring from the light, or 
from the light being received on some intervening surface, ard 
so prevented from reaching it. The first kind is called shadow ; 
the second kind, cast shadow. Thus, the nose projecting pre- 
vents the light from falling on the surface beneath it, which 
consequently receives a cast shadow (see D in Fig. 6, page 17). 
For the same reason we speak of the cast shadow of the chin 
or neck, meaning that the chin casts a shadow frdm the chin 
upon the neck. 

If the hair of your subject is dark, it should be left 



untouched ; if light, the requisite tint of red, brown, or yellow 
should be selected, and applied thickly on the high lights and 
lights, more sparingly on the half tints, and Tery slightly 
indeed on the darkest shadows. 

Having finished colouring the head, now proceed to colour 
the hands. Use for the nails and the knuckles a little pink, 
and finish with the colours given for the face, preserving, at 
the same time, the gradations of light and shadow with jealous 
care. In the same way colour the arms and bust, should they 
be, as in the case of a lady in full dress they will be, uncovered, 
using for the lightest portion of the bosom the lightest flesh 
colour, with a very little pink added to it, and keeping 
the half-tints cool with either green or blue, preferring the 
kitter if the flesh of the original should be very fair or white. 

In colouring draperies with 
powder colours much care 
must be exercised to secure a 
good effect. If very dark they 
are always best left uncoloured, 
or at most only a little colour 
should be applied on the lighter 
tones. In any case the darkest 
shadows of the drapery must 
be left untouched. The high 
lights of a silken material may 
be judiciously strengthened 
with light touches without 
destroying the characteristic 
forms of the folds. 

A soldier's scarlet coat ia 
very troublesome to the ama- 
teur colourist. In this case 
we have found it best to apply 
a wash of transparent crimson 
water colour before proceeding 
to employ a brilliant scarlet in 

The more brilliant and 
powerful greens, yellows, and 
reds may all be employed in 
colouring draperies. For white 
satin a little white on the high 
lights is all that will be re- 

There is a powder colour 
sold called damask, which will 
be found very useful for dra- 
peries, as will also the carmine, lavender, violet, and plum 
colours, all of which are prepared for the process, and sold by 
the dealers in photographic materials. 

The background is a very important portion of your work, 
upon which the general artistic effect will very largely depend. 
In the photograph it should be neither very light nor very dark, 
but, should it be the latter, allow it to remain untouched. 

For your purpose the best kind is that which is sufficiently 
dark to give brilliancy to the high lights of the flesh, and 
delicacy to the half-tints, without decreasing the vigorous 
touches of dark shadow to which, if they remain darkest, the 
face will owe a forcible striking effect, and the features an, 
appearance of relief. 

The colour of the background must be selected with a view 
to effect in colour, and to giving relief to the figure. If the 
flesh is of a cold and pallid character, as, in deference to the 
facts of the living model, it sometimes must be, give it the 
warmth afforded by a complementary colour in the back- 

Here some of my readers may ask what is a complementary 
colour ? 

As I write alike for wise and simple, I reply practically — no 
illustration beats the practical one — by asking the reader to 
place before him, on a sheet of white paper, a brilliant red 
wafer, and to look steadily at that interesting disc, and that 
alone, for a few seconds. 

Then let him remove his eyes from the wafer and look at the 
white paper. He will there see another wafer, the spectre of 
the first, but instead of being red it will be green, green being 
the complementary colour of red. Availing ourselves of this 
optical principle, we therefore make the background to our 
sickly-looking lady or gentleman green, and thus, withoct 
violating truth in the colouring of the flesh we render its 

most striking defect less con- 
spicuous. As the effect of 
green colours is to give com- 
plementary rosy hues, so blues 
give complementary yellows ; 
and reds, as already ex- 
plained, give a complementary 

These facts, which a repeti- 
tion of the above experiment 
with wafers of these colours 
will demonstrate, are to be 
carefully borne in mind when 
you are deciding upon the 
colour or the prevailing colour 
of your background. In re- 
ference to the statement we 
have made about giving relief 
to the figure, back-grouods 
serve this purpose in proportion 
to the effect of being distant 
which they have, an effect 
which is dependent upon the 
colour and upon the disposi- 
tion of light and shadow. 

If coloured of one uniform 
tint, backgrounds are too flat 
to, indicate a retiring surface, 
which would necessarily receive 
various half-tints of light and 
shadow. If they are too posi- 
Fig. 1. tive in colour they do not 

suggest the presence of air 
between their surfaces and the figures placed in front of them. 
By using quiet retiring colours more or less warm in hue the 
colourist will " keep back " the ground, and by varying their 
tints and shades he will introduce an effect of light, atmosphere, 
and space behind the portrait which is all important to its 

Sometimes, however, the considerations involved in the selec- 
tion of a background are very complicated, and it is not at all 
easy to manage an effective one by the means above indicated. 
A little bright positive colour in a background will occasionally 
be most valuable, either as aiding the general effect of colour, 
or as tending to give a strongly complementary hue to the flesh. 
In this case a pictorial background usually takes the place of 
the mere expression of mysterious space, shadow, or colour, 
behind the figure, and we have well-defined skies or landscapes, 
a room, a garden, or a terrace. 

To get such effects with powder colours is somewhat difficult, 
but, nevertheless, some very charming backgrounds of the kind 
have been common in the works of our best colourists. 



To illustrate the process we need a few illustrations. Fig. 2 
shows us what we will suppose to be the photographic back- 
ground, not too dark, and quite untouched, a slightly indicated 
figure representing the place where the portrait should be. 

To produce on this a background of sky and cloud. 

Take first the bottle of colour labelled " horizon." Apply 
this as shown at A, the undulating line showing the outlines of 
hills dark against the horizon, making it strongest nearest to 
these outlines, and working it softly upwards towards the top 
of the picture to the line B, not, however, preserving a line 
there, but breaking it irregularly into the tint. 

Next, with the same colour, give the touches of light indicated 
at c C c, and the light indicated at d. Next take your bottle 

properly blended and softened one into the other, the young 
colourist will be able to judge the degree of success he has 
attained and the effects he should endeavour to obtain. 

This completes the first colouring of such a background, as 
! the previous colouring did that of the flesh and drapery. 

We shall have occasion to refer to Fig. 3 again when we 

' describe the second colouring, which is given after varnishing. ' 

Having completed the sky, take a little of the darkest blue, 

; mixed with a little from the bottle labelled " damask," and work 

I this over the distant hills at J, working in here and there with 

j a fresh brush, and on the side of the hills nearest the point 

from which the light falls, e, a little of the horizon tint. A 

few dark green touches softly blending with the dark grey and 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

of lavender, and work a very little of it over the clouds at e, 
softening it into the touches of horizon colour until they blend 
with it by imperceptible degrees. Take the darkest grey you 
have, and indicate with it the forms shown at r ;i softening this 
into the lavender, as it was softened into the previous tint. 

Now take a bottle of clear bright blue, it is frequently labelled 
" sky colour," and with this fill in the spaces G, bringing them 
softly to the edges of the grey, with which it should slightly 
blend, and sharply to the edge of the light touches c, which it 
must in no wise sully or degrade, softening it down into the 
horizon c«lour to the line marked h, where let it break irregu- 
larly into it. At m we have indicated where some dark green, 
touohed on in the form of a little foliage, will add both to the 
picturesqueness of the whole, and give value to the carnations 
in the flesh, giving the finished effect shown in Fig. 3. By 
referring to Fig. 2 for the position of the different colours, and 
to Fig. 3 for the effect such colours should produce when 

blue at L L, will complete this background, which, if well done, 
will be very pleasing to the operator and to his or her friends. 

Another kind of excellent background is that introducing a 
curtain, the folds of which are often excessively valuable in 
affording effects of relief, colour, and space behind the head 
and figure. The photographic -background should for this 
purpose be darker than that required for effects of sky and 
cloud. Fig. 1 shows the plain background of the photograph. 
Take the colour selected for your curtain, say damask, remem- 
bering that it must be but one tone lighter than that of the 
photograph, and apply it at the parts marked A. 

Then take carmine, with a little of the horizon colour, and 
work in touches of light, as shown in parts marked b. 

For c use the carmine with the damask. Let the colour bo 
thicker here than at A. A little sky and cloud in tho space 
marked D, with hills against the horizon, as in the background 
previously described, will render this very effective. 




By James Mason. 
two excellent games — nouns and questions — capping* veeses. 

N the evening of the second meeting of the Bound-Game 
r/ Club every one came early except Emily and her friend 
<L 4 s5 ^ — it was his fault we were sure, for he had promised to 
call for Emily and act as escort. 

At length in walked the two expected members of the Club. 

"Behind time ! " said David, looking at his watch. 

"Blame Emily for that," said the gentleman; "she was not 
ready when I called." 

" Oh, speak as truly as you can ! " said she ; " you came late, 
you know." 

And it afterwards appeared that there were faults on both 
sides, and that one was not more to blame than the other. 

It was at David's house that we had met again — indeed, it was 
agreed that we were always to meet there — so it was the most 
proper thing in the world that he should have the principal 
hand in settling what games were to be played. 

" What is the first to be ? " asked Alice. 

"Nouns and Questions," she was told. 

" A game requiring mental exertion," said the Eeporter. 

"Then we can't play it," said Emily and Tom, who have 
both a modest opinion of their powers. 

"Stuff and nonsense!" cried David; "it is mere child's 
play. If you have just ordinary ingenuity and can rhyme 
' trees ' and ' breeze,' and ' mountains ' and ' fountains ' to- 
gether, you will succeed in it very well." 

" If that is all," replied they, " we'll do our best." 

All then took their seats round the table, and David, who by 
general consent was appointed leader for the evening in all 
games requiring a leader, handed two pieces of paper, one large 
and the other small, to each player. " On the large piece," he 
said, " every one must write a question — any one that comes 
into his head ; on the small he must put a noun : then he must 
fold up the papers separately. 

There was much fidgeting about, and biting of nails, and 
many other signs of mental perplexity after that, but at last all 
had chosen nouns and questions to their minds. 

Two vases were then passed round, and into one vase the 
questions were dropped, and into the other the nouns. They 
were then well shuffled by David, and each one in turn drew a 
question and a noun. 

"Now," said the leader, "you have each to write a stanza on 
the large piece of paper answering the question, and at the 
same time introducing the noun which has fallen to your 

"Why," said Kate, "my question has not the remotest con- 
nection with my noun." 

" Neither has mine," said Arabella ; " but perhaps yours will 
suit my question ; let us exchange." 

" That's against the rules !" exclaimed David, " it adds to the 
fun to have the nouns and questions unlike." 

There was an interval of silence. 

When all had finished writing, the papers were folded up 
■with the noun inside, and handed to the leader, who read them 
aloud f®r the amusement of us all. 

" Some one," he began, has asked, ' Hew many miles to Baby- 
lon ? ' and the noun is ' day.' Here is the answer : — 

• How many miles to Babylon ? 

" Threescore and ten," the children say, 
But if that roadway we all were gone 
We wouldn't be back for many a day.' '' 

"Another," said David, opening the second paper, "has 

' mustard ' for a noun, and has been asked, in the words of 

Shakespeare, ' What shall he have that killed the deer ? ' He 

answers : — 

'When'er he dines, to cause him grief, 

Let all he gets be so and so, 
Give him no mustard to his beef, 

Then thrash him well and let him go.' " 

David read this with such emphasis that it was as clear as 
daylight he had written it himself, and took no small pride in 
it. So everybody remarked that it couldn't be better ; and he 
proceeded to the reading of the rest, which were of various 
degrees of merit. John Eergusson, who possesses the gift of 
rhyme, was found to have written about sixteen stanzas. They 
were by no means well received, however, it being generally held 
that ho should keep his gift within reasonable bounds, and that 
in this game the shorter the answer the better. 

We left off playing now at Nouns and Questions, but not 
before Notes- and-Queries had told us that it was sometimes 
known as " Crambo," and sometimes as the "American Game," 
and that Oliver Cromwell and ever so many other distinguished 
men had been known to play at it. Our next diversion was 
another writing game called Capping Verses. 

"I shall give you all sheets of paper," said David, and he 
gave them. " Now," he continued, " at the top of your papers 
write a line of poetry, either original or a quotation ; then turn 
down the papers so that the writing cannot be seen, and pass 
them on to your neighbours on the right, mentioning, as you do 
so, the last word of your line. Tour neighbour will insert a 
line to rhyme with yours." 

" And after that ? " said Emily. 

" After that," said the leader, " the papers are to be passed 
on again to the right, and on and on, round the company, till 
the poems are long enough. 

" Had we not better choose a metre for our poems ? " asked 

" No, no," said Alice, " let us leave that to chance " — which 
every one thought the best plan. 

When the papers had gone twice round our circle, we began 
to be impatient to see what sort of nonsense verses we had 
turned out. So they were gathered together, and handed to 
David, who opened the first and read : — 

" The way was long, the night was cold, 
Often have you heard that told. 
Pan the crooked pipe found out : 
Pinch him and burn him and turn him about. 
On the topmost bough that looks up to the sky, 
She heaved a sigh and wiped her eye. 
" Is this fair face the cause,'' quoth she, 
Pate's hidden ends eyes cannot see. 
Her eyes are wild, her head is bare ; 
None but the brave deserve the fair. 
He carried with him hawk and hound, 
With hollow sound he smote the ground. 
What hath he done ? What promise made ? 
The moving accident is not my trade. 
Old King Cole was a merry old soul,. 
All flaxen was his poll. 
Cry cock-a-eloodle doo, 
Say I died true. 

Charge, Chester charge ! on, Stanley on ! 
The rain is over and gone, 
And nine long tedious days, 
Which make me look a thousand ways. 
Hark the first and second bell. 
Sweets to the sweet, farewell ! " 




By Major Hough. 

duelling in france an anachronism — fencing in england — the volunteer movement— fencing in connection 
with drill the foil forte — diagram — the line of defence — the parries — engagement and disengage- 
ment simple, counter, semi-counter, and oval parries — pronation and supination. 

THOUGH Italy seems to have been the cradle of modern 
fencing, Prance soon became the university of the art, 
and remains so at the present day. It is much to be 
lamented that the barbarous practice of duelling should in 
that eountry be fostered by the taste ; but of that we fear there 
can be little doubt. A politician or a journalist keeps himself 
in health and exercise by daily practice in the ; 
he becomes exceedingly expert with the foil ; and the confidence 
which the knowledge of this gives him tempts him to use his 
tongue or his pen with undue freedom. The man assailed 
might probably treat his scurrility with indifference, if it were 
not for his reputation as a swordsman, and the consequent 
dread lest quiescence should be attributed to pusillanimity ; 
and so an encounter takes place between two men who have 
no personal enmity whatever. 

It is strange to us that a custom so absurd should still con- 
tinue amongst a people so witty, and with so keen a sense of 
the ridiculous. 

Fencing has never been cultivated so extensively in England 
as in France, though at the time when every gentleman wore a 
sword at his side, and might be forced at any moment, however 
pacific his disposition, to use it, the learning how to do so 
effectively was, of course, a necessary branch of education. 
Eut it was a French master of the art who instructed him. 

Of late years, however, fencing has revived in England, and 
the taste for it is increasing. This is owing partly to what may 
be called the renaissance of athleticism, and partly to the volun- 
teer movement, which has raised sheds and drill halls through- 
out the length and breadth of the land, where young men 
assemble to practise military exercises. . 

Now, of these, mere drill is the most tedious, and fencing 
(under which title we include the broadsword and the use of 
the bayonet) the most fascinating ; and since fencing proper, 
of which we are at present treating, is better adapted to the 
" setting-up " of the figure, and giving a free and soldierly 
appearance, than all the extension motions in the world, it is 
wise, as well as pleasant, to encourage it. 

We explained in our first paper the position in fencing ; this 
shall be devoted to the Defence. 

The foil is a quadrangular blade ; it should measure thirty- 
four inches from point to hilt. The most esteemed foil blades 
are manufactured at Solingen, and bear that name. 

Beware of the flat blades, flexible as a riding whip, sold in 
some toy-shops. 

The handle should be seven inches long, almost square, 
slightly curved, of uniform size throughout, and should be 
covered with twisted twine of two sizes; the pommel not too 
large, and just heavy enough to balance the blade when placed 
on the forefinger between two and three inches from the guard. 
The best hilt is the ordinary open iron one, but both sides 
should be bent upwards, to protect the thumb and fingers from 
injury, and should also have a piece of strong leather or buffalo 
hide on the side next the handle. 

The button on the point is sometimes covered with a bit cf 
cardboard, with wash-leather tied over it, but gutta-percha will 
be found more convenient. Take a small square of that sub- 
stance, warm the point, and mould the gutta-percha over it. 

That half of the foil which is nearest the handle is called the 
forte, the other half the faible. 

Constantly to oppose the forte of your own blade to the faible 
of your enemy's is one of the secrets of fencing. Therefore you 
should try to keep your wrist raised a little above that of your 
adversary, so as to dominate his, in the upper lines ; in the 
lower lines, keep your wrist a little lower than his. 

The Line is the direction which the foil should take either 
for attack or defence, pointing to the opponent's body, not his' 

The Defence. — Pupil and instructor are on guard opposite to 
one another, at longing distance ; the blades of their foils joined 
on the inner line, touching but not pressing one another. 

The best and clearest description of the lines of defence is 
afforded by the diagram, with its explanations given by Captain 
Chapman in his excellent little work on foil practice, which we 
cannot do better, with his kind permission, than reproduce here. 
A swordsman presenting his point to the front, either defen- 
sively or offensively, may be himself attacked in any one of tho 
following four directions, termed the lines of defence :— 

On the left of his sword hand ) 

beneath the hilt. j 

On the right of his sword hand ) 

beneath the hilt. ) 

On the right of his sword hand \ 

above the hilt. J 

On the left of his sword hand ) 

above the hilt. ) 

The low inside line. 
The low outside line. 
The high outside line. 
The high inside line. 

It will thus be seen that, with a sword of ordinary length, one 
only of these lines can be defended at a time, and consequently 
the three other lines must remain open to attack. 

For the defence of each line there are two parries (sea 
Fig. 3) ; the sword in both parries being placed in a similar 
direction, the parries themselves differing only in the position 
of the sword's edge, the sword-hand being held in the one case 
in supination (the nails turned upwards), and in the other in 
pronation (the nails turned downwards) These eight parries 
are called : — 

1. Prime. 5. Quinte. 

2. Seconde. 

3. Tierce. 

4. Quarte. 

6. Sixte, 

1. Sep time (or half -circle). 

8. Octave. 

The allotment of these eight parries to the four lines of defence 
is thus : — 

From the centre of the breast, and with the elbow moderately 

1. Prime ("The hand tending to the left, the") 

point lowered and inclined to the j Parry the attack 
\ left, the nails turned down. )- directed on the 

7. Septime | Tbe same, but with the nails | inside low. 
(or half-circle) (^turned up, and the arm elongated, j 

2. Seconde f The hand tending to the right,^) 
I the arm straightened, the point | Parry the attack 

J lowered and inclined to the right, j directed on the 
j the nails turned down. f outside low. 

i The same, hut with the nails | 
L turned up. J 

C The hand tending to the right, "j 
I the point raised and inclined to the | Parry the attack 
■{ right, the finger nails turned down. )■ directed on the 
I The same, but with the nails | outside high. 
( turned up. J 


8. Octave. 

3. Tierce 

6. Sixte. 



4. Quarte 


5. Qrnnte. 

( The hand tending to the left, the""| 
| point raised and inclined to the | Parry the attack 
-j left, the nails turned tip (slightly). }- directed on the 

The same, but with the nail3 j inside high. 
^ turned down. J 


These parries are effected with the forte of the blade upon 
the adversary's faible, either by 
a sharp beat or a simple pressure. 

Observe that in each of the two 
parries which may be employed to 
meet the same attack, the foil 
blade follows the same line, so that 
the point is in exactly the same 
spot when the movement is com- 
pleted, the difference lying in tho . 
position of the wrist, arm, and 
elbow, caused by turning' the nails 
np or down. 

The question then may be asked, 
why this complication ? Why not 
simply teach four parries to meet 
the four attacks ? 

Because the parry should always 
be formed with tho view to ripost- 
ing, or attacking immediately tho 
adversary's blado is turned aside, 
and this is most readily and effec- 
tively done, sometimes with the 
hand in : supination, at others in pro- 
nation. Thus, the double parry 
gives scope for the attainment of 
that most desirable object in fenc- 
ing, variation in the attack. 

There is also another object in 
having these two parries for each 
thrust, which is not apparent in 
the use of the foil, and need not be 
more than summarily alluded to. 
Fencing is adapted to the use of 
swords of different form, and when 
your weapon is of the two-edged 
description, such as a rapier, it is 
requisite to avoid parrying with the 
fiat of the blade. 

Crossing swords with your op- 
ponent is termed the engagement; 
when in attacking you he shifts 
his blade into a new line, as from 
the inside to the outside, or vice 
versa, he disengages. In the en- 
gagement the sword should be held 
securely, but without strain ; at 
the moment of parrying the hold 
should be tightened. 

Simple parries are those which 
are made when, on the adversary's 
disengagement, your point is passed in direct course either 
from tierce to quarte, or quarte to tierce (high lines) ; 
septime to seconde, seconde to septime (low lines) ; or when 
the point is raised and lowered from the high to the low, or 
from the low to the high lines on the same side, e.g., from 
quarte to septime, septime to quarte. Thus the simple 
parries always throw off the attack in the line in which it is 

Counter-parries are when the sword-hand, in parrying a dis- 
engagement, describes with the point a circular course round 


the adversary's blade, until it meets it again in the line of tho 
original engagement, throwing off the attack in an opposite line 
from that in which it is directed. 

This circular movement — done by the action of the fingers 
more than by that of the wrist — commences under the adversary's 
blade in the high lines, and over his blade in the low ; thus, 

from the engagement of quarto 
(the foils joined on the inside), on 
the adversary's disengagement the 
circle is described by lowering the 
point, passing it under his blade, to- 
wards the right, returning upwards 
and resuming the position of 

From the engagement in the 
other lines, the disengagements are 
parried upon the same principle, as 
will be clear if you refer to the dia- 
gram, where the arrow-heads denote 
the course taken by the foil. 

The counter or round parry may 
also be used to meet a direct thrust, 
without disengagement ; in quarte, 
by dropping the point under the 
adversary's blade and circling up- 
wards, throwing off the attack in 
the opposite line, that of tierce; in 
tierce, by the reverse action, throw- 
ing it off in quarte. 

The parries are termed semi- 
counters when, by a half-circular 
action, the attack is thrown off 
from a high line into the opposite 
low (e.g., from quarte to seconde), 
or brought upwards from a low 
line into the opposite high (as from 
septime to tierce). 

As a general parry a circular or 
deep elliptic movement of the point 
directly in front of the body, from 
right to left, or left to right (the 
hilt maintained at the centre), may 
be adopted. (See oval parry in 
Fig. 3.) 

Two or more parries are often 
combined in continuous action, so 
that if the adversary's blade is 
missed in one line it may be met 
in another ; a simple parry is per- 
formed after a counter, or a round 
parry after a simple. But syste- 
matic combinations are only to be 
learned by constant practice ; the 
great thing is to take pains in 
studying the correct formation of 
the regular parries. 
And here it may be observed that all these parries which 
have been indicated and described are not of equal import- 
ance. Tierce, with its counter (or the outer circle), and 
quarte (with its counter (or the inner circle) should be princi- 
pally employed. (Figs. 1 and 2.) 

In parrying during the action of recovering from the longe, 
the outer circle is preferable to the inner. All other parries are 
but variations of quarte and tierce in lowering or raising the 

At the same time the practice of other parries is by 



no means to be neglected by men engaged in any military 
capacity, who desire to know bow to make practical use of the 
swords they wear, seeing that thay are a defence against cuts 
as well as thrusts ; 
and as due atten- 
tion to the posi- 
tion of the nails 
in pronation or 
in supination can 
readily be paid 
when practising 
with the foil, while 
it is almost impos- 
sible to carry it 
out in stick play ; 
and as such posi- 
tion of the finger 
nails is absolutely 
requisite to secure 
the presentation 
of the edge of the 
regulation sword, 
rapier, sabre, or 
cutlass, and not 
the flat, to the at- 
tacking blade — 
without which the 
guard would be in- 
with the foil, pro- 
perly and carefully 
taught, is not only 
a sufficient in- 
struction in the 
use of a cut and 
thrust weapon, but 
the very best. So 
that a really good 
fencer, who had 
never touched any 
weapon but the 
small - sword or 
its representative, 
the foil, would be a 
match for any ad- 
versary, whether 
armed with broad- 
sword, sabre,lance 
or bayonet. 

Practice in Par- 
ries. — Engage in 
quarte, press the 


Fig. 3. 

instructor's blade lightly— you have the advantage,being protected 
while he is exposed. He therefore disengages, by directing his 
pointunder your wrist, with the intention of passingto the opposite 

side of your blade. 
Before his point i3 
raised, lower your 
own by the action 
of the wrist and 
finger 3, with the 
nails up, and in 
straightening the 
arm. You have 
parried, lialf-cir- 
cle, in the inside 
line low. He dis- 
engages by pass- 
ing his point over 
the forte of your 
blade. Turn your 
nails down, pass 
the hilt a little to 
the right, on the 
same level, and 
catch his blade 
with the forte of 
your own ; you 
have parried se- 
conde in the out- 
side line low. 

He disengages 
by raising hia 
point above your 
hilt. Eaise your 
hand and point, 
bendingthe elbow, 
and catching his 
blade with the 
forte of your own. 
Tou have par- 
ried tierce in the 
outside line high. 
He disengages by 
directing his point 
past your blade. 
Turn your nails to 
the left, catching 
his blade with the 
forte of your own. 
Yon. have parried 
qua/rte on inside 
line high, the ori- 
ginal engagement. 



TpF^BOM the period we arrived at in the previous article 
little advance was made, till the introduction of the 
circular-wicked burner, with central air-way and oxy- 
genating conical chimney, by Aime Argand, or the now well- 
known powerfully illuminating " Argand Lamp." Next came 
the addition of that most perfect collector of Hght (when pro- 
perly constructed) the parabolic reflector. In recent days the 

By Samuel Highlst, F.G.S., etc. 


single condensing lens has been improved on by the introduction 
of the "double condenser" of Herschel, or its modifications 
and the "triple condenser" of Andrew Eoss and others. The 
"sources of Hght " have also been improved on by the dis- 
coveries of the " oxy-calcium " and " oxy-hydrogen," or " lime 
light." the "magnesium" and electric light; and the entire 
instrument has been rendered perfect by carefully-devlaed 



arrangements for making it compact, portable, and so ready to 
the hand of ,the exhibitor, that all its parts and accessories 
may, in the course of a few minntes, be unpacked, placed in 
any position for work, without having to disturb the arrange- 
ment of furniture, wall pictures, etc., and be re-packed and 
removed as quickly, which to the travelling lecturer means a 
saving of money both in regard to carriage and assistants, and a 
position of independence in regard to extraneous aid in strange 
places, that can only be appreciated by those who have had 
experience with the cumbrous arrangements of former days. 
Further, by the adoption of refined methods of painting on 
glass and photographic reproductions of ioientific and artistic 
subjects, and natural scenery, the magic lantern has been 
raised from the position of a nursery toy to that of an im- 
portant physical instrument of acknowledged educational value. 

In describing the optical construction of the magic lantern, 
it is a matter of absolute necessity that I should use certain 
technical terms employed by opticians. I will therefore proceed 
to introduce my readers, through the intermediate agency of 
our friend the magic lantern, to what the French, in their 
excellent scientific manuals, call notions elementaires, or pre- 
liminary ideas, on optics. 

Light. — First we must try and get a clear idea about the true 
nature of "light," for though every one can diatiugnish between 
light and darkness, and recognise light when they see it under 
various aspects, there are but few who know in what manner 
this effect is produced, or why their vision ie excited. 

They know that when the sun rises, light spreads over the 
face of the earth, and that at midday during fine weather the 
great disc of the sun gives forth light of such intensity that 
they daro not look it in the face with unguarded eyes, an:l when 
this great luminary sets, darkness creeps over land and sea. Or 
by applying fire to the wick of a candle or lamp, or to a gas 
jet, they know they can produce light artificially, as we are 
accustomed to say ; but as light, whether from the sun, or a 
candle, or a lamp, or a gas burner, arises from the gaseous 
products of "combustion," they may be regarded as natural 
and independent " sources of light." 

Besides light originating from the chemical process of com- 
bustion, we know that it is also generated by bodies in a state 
of "incandescence," as from charcoal, the metals, and earths 
(such as lime), when heated to high temperatures; and of 
"phosphorescence," as from fluor-spar (when exposed to the 
sun and then observed in a dark room), the glow-worm, decaying 
fish, etc., produced at low temperatures. 

All " luminous" bodies generate and emit light, and do not 
" borrow " the light they give out from other sources. 

There are somebodies that seem to be "luminous," but in 
reality are only " illuminated," for these reflect light borrowed 
from independent sources. The moon, a mirror, a white cloud, 
a snow-field, trees, living beings, furniture, buildings, are 
examples of illuminated bodies which become perceptible 
through the organ of vision, by virtue of the borrowed light 
they reflect or scatter in all directions ; and one object is dis- 
tinguished from another by the excess or defect of light thus in- 
directly transmitted to the eye. A bright object placed before a 
dark background is distinguished by its excess of light ; a dark 
object against a bright background through its defect of light. 

Corpuscular Theory. — The ancients imagined that the sensa- 
tion of light was produced and vision performed by something 
which emanated from the eye to the object, and the sense of 
Vision was explained by the analogy of that of Touch. The 
Arabian astronomer, Alhazen, who lived at the latter part of 
the eleventh century, seems to have* been the first to refute 
this doctrine, and to demonstrate that the rays which created 
vision came from the object to the eye. Sir Isaac Newton, with 

others, held the view that luminous bodies shot out minute 
particles with inconceivable rapidity in all directions, which pene- 
trated the pores of transparent matter, and that the sense of 
vision was excited by such particles striking the optic nerve. 
This is known as the " corpuscular " or " emission theory." 

Formidable objections have been raised, both by mathe- 
maticians, astronomers, and physicists, to Newton's idea; the 
one most comprehensible to those who have not studied optics 
being that, as we know light is transmitted with enormous velo- 
city (according to Foucault 1S5,177 miles in a second of time), 
if such corpuscles were of any conceivable weight, they would 
without doubt destroy so delicate an organ as the eye, for a 
shot weighing one grain, if moving with the velocity of bight, 
would possess the momentum of a cannon-ball of 150 lbs. weight, 
moving with a velocity of 1,000 feet a second. 

The Wave Theory. — The theory of the emission of corpuscles 
from luminous bodies was first opposed by Hooke in his " Micro- 
graphia," published in 1664, who substituted the idea that 
hght, like sound, was the result of wave motion ; and this notion 
was subsequently developed into the now universally received 
"wave theory" by the investigations of Huygens the astro, 
nomer, Euler the mathematician, and Young and Fresnel the 

The wave theory supposes — first, the existence of an all-per- 
vading midium of extreme tenuity, and of extreme elasticity, 
termed the " luminiferous ether; " secondly, that a luminous 
body excites, by the vibrations of its molecules, wave-motion in 
this ether, which transmits the undulations thus created 
through intervening space, till, impinging on the nerve-woven 
retina of the eye, the sensation of light results, in the same 
manner as when a violin string is made to vibrate, it imparts 
a series of little pats to the air surrounding it, and the atmo- 
spheric particles, takingupthe pulsation, "pass it on" through 
intervening space till a pat is in turn imparted to the nerve- 
woven tympanum (or drum of the ear) of the listener by the 
surface of air in immediate contact with it, and the sensation 
of sound is produced. 

We may demonstrate this in the manner shown in Fig. 2. 
Let c be a solid wooden rod of some length, supported on an 
insulating stand ; on applying a tuning-fork, F, that has been 
struck upon a leaden cone capped with leather to one end of the 
rod in the manner indicated, the beats. of its almost inaudible 
vibrations will be perceptible to a finger placed at the other end 
of the rod ; but if we place this end of the rod lightly in contact 
with the sounding-board of a lute, as at L, the vibrations are 
rendered sonorous, and can bo distinctly heard over a room. 

This arrangement serves as a rough model for illustrating 
the transmission of light from its source to the eye. The 
vibrating fork, F, would represent the " source of light " which 
excites undulations in the theoretical "ether" represented 
as a section by the rod c; while the sounding-board, L, indicates 
by analogy the manner in which the nerve-woven retina renders 
the imperceptible vibrations of the source into the perceptible 
sensation of Light. The source of light, f, may be the sun ; 
the rod c may represent the 92,000,000 of miles of luminiferous 
ether existing between the sun and our earth, by which a wave 
is transmitted at the rate of 185,177 miles per second. 

When reading of the velocity of the propagation of light, the 
novice in optics is too apt to conjure up in his mind's eye the 
idea that something tangible travels from the source of light to 
the eye at the rate of 185,177 miles in a second of time, thereby 
unwittingly adopting the corpuscular or emission theory in 
place of the generally received wave theory. The manner in 
which an impulse is transmitted over a distance may be de- 
monstrated experimentally in the following way : — Let us 
suspend half a dozen elastic balls by separate threads to a 



horizontal rod, so that they shall hang in a straight 
line, and just touch each other lightly, as shown in Fig. 
3. On pulling ball No. 1 aside, and letting it strike 
No. 2, the first ball will come to rest ; but the second 
ball will transmit the impulse to No. 3, and also come to 
rest ; and so the motion will be carried on by the inter- 
mediate balls, 4 and 5 (or more), till the original impulse 
is transmitted to the last ball, which, having nought in 
contact with it, is put in motion as indicated in No. 6. 

Thus we get a distinct notion of the manner in 
which a motion of transmission is communicated suc- 
cessively from one ether particle to another over a 
considerable distance, without such particles moving 
from their original plane of vibration when excited 
by a luminous body. As it is desirable we should 
obtain an equally clear idea of the true nature of 
" wave motion," let us watch the form and method 
of propagation of waves on a fluid surface. 

If we drop a stone into a stagnant pool of water, 
a series of concentric waves will arise around, and 
spread out from the spot where the pebble sank, as 
shown in Pig. 4, the water, we shall notice, rises and 
falls in undulations decreasing in height and depth 
as they are generated furthest from the centre of 
vibration, as shown in Pig. 5. All those particles of 
the water which are raised at the same instant consti- 
tute what is termed a "wave." The particles 1, 2, 
3, or the particles 4, 5, 6, Fig. 6, are said to be in 
similar "phases" of vibration; from which it will 
be seen that a wave or undulation consists of all the 
particles between two which are in similar phases, as 
between 1-2, or between 4-5; and the length of a wave 
or "wave length" is the distance between two similar 
phases, estimated in the direction in which the motion 
is propagated, A wave, therefore, comprises particles 
in every phase of vibration. 

Waves diverging from a centre, as shown in Fig. 4, 
spread gradually outwards at right angles to the nearly 
upward and downward vibrations, as shown by the 
arrows in Fig. 5. It is obvious that in waves of liquid 
the direction of vibration of the molecules is vertical, 
while the propagation of the waves is horizontal or 
" transversal." In sonorous waves the direction of 
vibration is longitudinal to the direction of trans- 
mission. In luminous waves the direction of vibra- 
tion is said to be transversal to the direction of 

If, instead of viewing the miniature undulations 
created by throwing a stone into a small pool of water, 
we look out upon the waves of the ocean, apparently 
we see them advancing and moving steadily onwards to 
the shore. 

Again we are possessed with the idea of " a wave 
of motion " of the waters towards the observer ; but if 
we fix our eyes upon any object, such as a sea-bird, 
on the bosom of the ocean (in any part where it is not 
greatly affected by. stormy winds or by a set current, 
such as sailors call a "race "), we shall find that it 
rises and falls as it is reached and passed by each 
wave, but does not advance as it would of necessity 
do if the particles of fluid ©n which it rested had a pro- 
gressive motion. This proves that a wave does not 
consist of the same particles in two successive instants. 

But we may convince ourselves in another way that wave- 
motion is not a motion of translation. If we observe 
the very beautiful undulations of waving corn on a windy 

Fig. 1. 

day, we shall notice that waves appear to flow from 
one end of the field to the other ; but as we know 
each ear of corn is anchored by its stalk and root 
to a fixed spot of earth, we are perfectly certain 
that this charming effect is nothing more than an 
optical illusion, similar to that produced by twirling 
a piece of twisted barley-sugar or glass from left to 
right, when the wavy rod seems to move onwards, or, 
if held perpendicularly, downwards, like the flow of a 
jet of water ; and when the rotation is reversed from 
left to right, the motion then appears to be laclcwards 
or upwards. 

I trust. my readers have now a clear idea of the 
real nature of "wave motion" — that there is no 
motion of translation or onward advance of the par- 
ticles, whether they be solid, liquid, gaseous, or etheri- 
form — and, as illustrated by the corn-fields, that the 
direction of progression (" transmission " or " pro- 
pagation ") of the waves is at right angles (or " trans- 
versal ") to the direction of vibration. 

We are now in a better position to comprehend in 
what manner a luminous body creates the sensation 
of Light. If we place an iron ball in the fire, it 
speedily rises in temperature and gives out heat j 
but these " dark heat rays," as they have been termed, 
are not perceptible to the eye; presently the ball 
radiates heat in a manner that begins to affect the 
eye, becomes "red-hot;" then passes to a yellow 
heat; next glows at a white heat; and finally be- 
comes incandescent, and gives out intense light. 

Now we know through experimental investigations 
that a heated body is in a state of vibration, and, like 
the violin string previously referred to, its particles 
impart a series of little pats to the surrounding ether, 
which excite wave-motion, and create the sensation 
of light in the manner previously described. Such a 
source of light as this fire-ball — like a miniature sun 
— gives forth in all directions from every point of its 
surface ' an infinite number of undulations of equal 
magnitude, and propagated with equal velocity to 
points equally distant in the same space of time ; so 
that all points in a similar phase of vibration would 
be situated on the surface of a sphere of which that 
source is the centre, as shown in Fig. 7. Now it 
will be observed that if waves of equal magnitude 
radiate from every point of a small globe towards 
the surface of a larger sphere, as stated in our illus- 
tration, the interspaces apparent in Fig. 7 must arise, 
and the question will naturally "crop up" — Are the 
light-creating waves surrounded by cones of unaffected 
ether P The answer physicists give to such a ques- 
tion is that the original waves starting from any 
luminous point impart their vibratory motion to all 
neighbouring particles of the luminiferous ether in a 
manner similar to that in which, during frosty weather, 
we* see ice crystallisations start from a point on a 
window-pane, and spread out in fan-shaped forms, as 
the crystal-generating influence radiates from atom 
to atom of the watery film diffused over the glass. 

Each physical point in a luminous body is an inde- 
pendent source of light, and is termed a " luminous 

Bay. — Light is propagated through the same homo- 
geneous medium* in right lines, whether it emanates from a 
luminous body, or is reflected from one that is only illuini- 
* Same kipd of matter of equal density throughout. 



nated. Any right line proceeding from a luminous body is 
termed "a ray." A ray is the smallest portion of a beam of 
light which we are capable of conceiving, as indicating a 
direction around which the luminous waves are vibrating, 
for, unlike the wave, a ray has no material existence. 

regarded a3 a pencil, it is then termed a " beam," which may 
consist of parallel, as in Fig. 8, or diverging as from f to b, in 
Fig. 9, or converging rays, as from b to f, in same Fig. 

Focus. — The point f, Fig. 9, from which the rays diverge, or 
to which they converge, is termed the " focus." 

Pencil of Light. — The lines of light or raya which come from 
a luminous point, reach the eye as a cone with the pupil of the 
eye a3 a base, and the point for an apex, as in Fig. 1. Such an 
assemblage of rays is termed a "pencil," or conical pencil 
of light. "When such a pencil extends over a great distance, 
as from the sun to our earth, conical rays virtually become 
parallel to the eye of the observer, as seen at p p, in Fig. 1 ; 
and we then speak of a cylindrical pencil, more commonly of 
u parallel rays," 

Beam of Light. — If an assemblage of rays is too large to be 

Normal. — A straight line perpendicular to any point of a 
surface is termed the " normal " to that surface. 

Having gained a fair idea of the generally received concep- 
tions as to the nature of light, and of certain technical terms 
connected therewith, we will proceed in our next article to 
demonstrate such of the laws of light as it is necessary my 
readers should understand for a thorough comprehension of 
what I may have to say on the optical construction of the 
magic lantern and other oi t'.cal instruments and appliances on 
which I shall hereafter have to treat. 





,'ffi LASPEE was defeated in his match, and this he attributed 
•jYV to his old-fashioned heavy boat . He thereupon completed 
his new four-oars, and he appeared with herat the Thames 
National Eegatta, at Putney, in 1844, and succeeded in winning 
the .£40 prize on the 21st June, although he was defeated, per- 
haps owing to bad steering, by Robert Coomber's crew in the 
champion race for the purse of .£100 on the following day. 
In the succeeding year, however, he won the chief prize for 

a half inches long. She was, moreover, in very fair repair, and 
in pretty sound condition, considering that she had attained 
the age of twenty-seven years. 

A sculling outrigger also appears to have been built at 
Putney in the summer of 1844 — the same year in which Clasper 
brought his novel boat up to London, but six months beforehand — 
by Samuel Wolsencroft, of that village, for Mr. Westropp, of 
the Civil Engineers' College, which then stood on the spot whence 


fours. This boat was built of mahogany, in several narrow 
strakes; she was called, it is believed, the "Five Brothers," 
and her iron outriggers were only eight inches long. At 
a subsequent period Clasper brought out a single-strake 

In 1838 a pair-oared outrigger, called the " Knife," was 
built in DubMn by a coach-builder named Allpress, who con- 
structed various kinds of boats ; and only a few years since she 
was lying in the boat-house of the Dublin University Eowing 
Club, at Eingsend. She was built in seven strakes on each 
sjde, and measured thirty-two feet two inches in length, two 
feet eight inches from gunwale to gunwale (outside) at her 
widest part, and was fitted with iron outriggers each seven and 

the Cedars now overlook the Thames below the bridge. She 
was a single plank boat, but she soon split, although when 
repaired she lasted some years. 

In 1845, the following year, a four-oared outrigger was built 
by W. Biffin of Hammersmith, and was his first attempt at the 
new craft. In her he rowed for and won the landsmen's prize, 
at the Thames Eegatta of that year. The introduction of the 
outrigger now became more and more improved upon, and 
outer keels were discontinued. Outriggers were first used in 
the match between Oxford and Cambridge in 1846, and in 1857 
the universities met in the modern keel-less eights, using also 
round loomed oars. 

Honour to whom honour is due, however, and it must be 




admitted that the boating world of the present day is indebted 
to Harry Clasper for the adaptation and adoption of the racing 
ontrigged boat. At the hands of Clasper himself, Searle, Biffin, 
Salter, Jewitt, Messenger, Tagg of East Moulsey, and others, 
she has received those artistic finishing touches which made 
her what she now is. 

The " tubs " come here as a kind of mongrel racing-boat; in 
fact, a cross between the rapid sculling wager-boat of the 
present day and the antiquated heavy wherry all can remember 
being used in the race for Dogget's coat and badge. These 
"tubs " are outrigged, but built of several strakes of fir, with 
keels, and, from being much heavier, are generally used for 
training novices and oarsmen for the lighter and faster kind. 
There are amongst them eights, fours, and pairs. Gigs are 
also often used, with very upright or " walled " sides for the in- 
struction of raw hands, as, from their width, they are very steady. 

The sculls and oars are made of white deal, and consist 
of three parts or divisions, known as the handle, loom, and 
■ blade. The handle and loom occupy the length from the row- 
lock to the middle of the boat, where they should (for river 
rowing) overlap one another from four to sis inches for the 
etyle of sculling known as the " overhand," in which one hand 
passes over the other ; but to avoid this the rowlocks are some- 
times constructed far enough apart to allow a sufficient length 
of loom without such overlapping, so that the length of the 
outrigger irons and half the breadth of the boat, when adiled 
together, give the length of the inboard part of the scull, which 
may be generally taken as something over two feet ; but for 
the over-handed arrangement the boat should not be less than 
twenty inches wide, and the outrigger must project at least 
fourteen inches beyond the side of the boat. The handles of 
sculls or oars are made round for the width of the hand, but 
the makers are careful not to polish or make them too smooth, 
usually leaving them just as finished by the rasp. 

From the handle to just outside the rowlock most sculls 
are made square, with an oblong leather button nailed fast 
to the upper side, which corresponds with the back part of 
the blade, so as just to bear or butt against the inside of 
the thowl, and keep the scull or oar from sliding out. The 
" Clasper oar and scull " is different, as it is quite round and 
covered with leather, with a very peculiarly shaped button en- 
circling three-fourths of the oar at this part, and projecting 
nearly an inch. Outboard the scull or oar is round at the back 
for some distance, and square in front ; then it gradually 
becomes oval in section, tapering till it reaches the blade, which 
gradually spreads out till it forms a breadth of thin wood some 
four inches wide, or in some cases even more. This blade is 
curved, the centre being nearly two inches deeper in the hollow 
than at either end, and is hollowed out something like a spoon 
in shape, with a web or strengthening piece running from the 
loom half down the middle, very much the same as the raised 
rib in a spade ; the back of the blade is a little rounded, and 
the end is usually guarded and finished with a strap formed 
by a narrow strip of copper carefully nailed on so as to pre- 
vent the wood splitting. 

The oar or scull should be nearly balanced at the nut or 
button, but in all cases must fall out rather inboard. In racing- 
boats the sculls should never be less than ten feet or more than 
ten feet four inches long. 

We now come to rowing, and sculling, and will describe the 
first-named, taking the generally accepted definition for our 
purpose — i.e., the propulsion through the water by means of 
oars, the water being the fulcrum, the rowlocks the weight to be 
moved, and the hand giving the power ; the whole being a lever 
of the second kind in mechanics, the person or persons opera- 
ting sitting with their faces towards the stern, and his or their 

back to the bow or front of the boat. The action of rowing 
consists in reaching forward with the oar in the air a little 
above the surface of the water, then dipping it into the water, 
and forcing the body straight backwards, the oar being thus 
dashed through the water, and quickly pulling the handle 
home with the arms to the chest, by means of the resisting 
power of the thwart or seat, and stretcher or footboard. 

The rower in the modern outrigger sits nearly in the middle of 
the boat, that is to say about on that part which is one-third of 
the length of the thwart from the side opposite to his rowlock, 
where his mat is firmly tied, and upon the front edge of this ho 
sits, bending his knees, separating them about a foot, and 
placing his feet, with Ins heels close together, firmly against 
the stretcher, exactly in front of the middle of his body. Thus, 
he sits quite square to his work, and will then be sure to> 
swing backwards and forwards exactly in a line with the boat's 
keel, or parallel with it. If his feet are nearer the side of the 
boat than they ought to be, he will swing towards the middle, 
or " row into the boat ;" and if they are too near the middle line, 
he will "row out of it," both being bad faults, and making 
the boat rock and roll very considerably ; the stretcher should 
be adjusted to such a convenient length that in the stroke the 
oar should just clear the knees, and the strap should be buckled 
tightly over the inside foot, which is the one upon which most 
strain falls in feathering the oars. The thwart on which the 
rower is seated should be of such height that the rower may 
have a good command over his oars, but sufficiently low to let 
him get well over his knees, the lower the seat the more likely 
is the rower to depress or drag his boat's bow under water ; 
and the higher in reason that he sits — so that his hands clear 
his knees — the lighter and smarter will be the stroke, and the less 
will be the boat's dip when she is hanging on the rower's hands. 

The action of rowing is made up of two portions, and there- 
fore two-fold, i.e., the stroke and the feather. The stroke is 
the putting of the oar through the water, with the blade, to 
which the water offers a resistance in its passage at right angles 
to the fluid traversed. 

Feathering is strictly speaking the turning of the oar at the 
conclusion of the stroke by dropping the hands and turning 
the wrists, and thereby bringing the blade into a plane 
with the surface of the water ; but the term is also commonly 
used as including the carrying back of the oar, in the same 
position or plane and recommencing another stroke, as the oar is 
then said to bo on the feather. This great accomplishment of 
rowers can only be acquired or caught by the learner carefully 
watching and imitating masters of the art, and this is suc- 
ceeded instantly by the oar being restored to its former state, 
in doing which the wrist is straightened, and both hand and 
elbow thrust rapidly forward at the same time, to which is 
added a forward action of the shoulders, so as to carry away 
the loom from the body at once, and then when the arm be- 
comes straight the body follows as rapidly as is necessary. 

The head is kept well up, and the eyes looking full at the 
back of the man in front ; the chest full, and well to the front ; 
the back slightly arched forward, but without constraint; the 
shoulders moving easily forward ; and the hands reaching well 
over the toes. 

All these evolutions cannot be carried out in the first few 
lessons, the pupil gradually learning the first rules of rowing, 
i.e., the power of swinging his body properly, and of prevent- 
ing the catching of " crabs," which usually result from the 
water being allowed to catch the oars when the boat is moving 
rapidly through the water, or technically speaking has con- 
siderable "way" on her, and turning the blade flat, so that 
the rower cannot bring it out, and by the impetus of the boat 
is forced backwards over his thwart. 




By Ellis A. Davidson, Author of " Drawing for Carpenters and Joiners," " Drawing for Cabinet-Makers," " Happy Nursery," etc. 

OW you must understand 
that the shelves are not to 
come quite to the front of 
the book-case — joiners 
■would say they are not to 
be "flush" — but are to be 
" set bach " one inch, so 
they must be made one 
inch narrower, and this re- 
quires us to introduce to 
you a new tool, the ' ' gauge ' ' 
(pr. gage), Fig. 4, page 52, 
the price of which is about 
sixpence. In its simplest 
form it is a flat block of 
wood, through which a stick is projected, in this there is 
fixed a steel point. Now to use this in the present case, 
loosen the screw by which the cross-piece is held in its place, 
with your hammer strike the end, until the steel point is just 
one inch from the face of the block, and then tighten the screw 

Holding the tool by the long end of the cross-piece, with the 
thumb on the block, and keeping the block tightly against the 
edge of the board, move the gauge along, by which means the 
steel point will mark an indented line one inch from the edge of 
the board. 

This strip is to be sawn off ; and in doing this, observe, that 
as the cut is in the direction of the fibre of the wood, the saw 
will move more easily than when working cross-wise, too easily 
in fact, unless great care be exercised, for if the tool be merely 
pushed, without being guided, it will be likely to get into the 
direction of the fibres, which may not run straight, and if the saw 
once gets out of the line, the evil, like everything else that 
strays from the right path, will go on increasing with every 

Now take in hand your wider board : Tou will remember that 
the inside width of the case is 3' 6" then the thickness of each 
of the sides is one inch, so that the external width is 3' 8". Cut 
from your broad board four feet, to form the top of the case, which 
will then project two inches on each side, and as its width is 
eleven inches, and the upright sides only nine inches, it will 
project two inches in front as well. 

From the remaining portion of the board cut two lengths of 
3' 6" for the remaining two shelves, and cut off from each of 
them a strip of three inches wide, reducing them to the width of 
the other shelves — viz., eight inches — put these strips away, as 
you will want them presently. 

Now plane the edges of the shelves you have sawn, bo as to 
get them nice and smooth, and be careful that they are square 
with the face of the boards. If you had a " bench " you would 
screw two of them together in the jaws of the vice, and thus 
plane them ; if you have not a bench, you may nail two of them 
together (the nails passing through at the ends only), and you 
thus afford a broader space for the plane to act on than the 
edge of one shelf would give. Plane also the edge of the one-inch 
strips, and cut from them, or any other spare wood you may 
have, ledges 7| inches long, bore holes in these with your 
gimblet, . (price 3d.), place them under the lines marked for 
the shelves, and bore holes into the sides, using the greatest 

care not to bore through the boards ; the ledges should be cut 
slanting on their outer end, and their edges should be taken off 
with the plane. The plane used should be one called a "smooth- 
ing plane," price new, about 3s., second-hand, Is. 6d. or 2s. 

Now proceed to put the parts together ; and here you will 
have to descend to the floor. Lay your sides flat down and screw 
the edges in their place (the screwdriver, Fig. 7, p. 52, costs from 
Is. to Is, 6d.) ; you should cut away the edge of the hole all 
round with your gouge or chisel (tools which we shall describe 
directly) so that the head of the screw may sink flush with 
the ledge, this is called " countersinking." The screws should 
be If inches long, and cost about 3d. or 4d. per dozen. 

Now rear the boards on edge, and having bored holes in the 
ends of the shelves, nail them to the ledges (a good hammer, Fig. 
8, p. 52, may be obtained for Is. 6d.), observing that they are to 
be flush at the lack with the edges of the sides, but not in the 
front, using 2-inch nails, and as you will want some rather 
larger, say 2£, for nailing on the top, buy a pound of these two 
sizes mixed — the price is 3d. per lb. Next nail on the top flush 
at the back, projecting two inches in front and at the sides, 
plane the edges of the 3-inch strips, cut pieces of them nin© 
inches long, and nail at the bettom of the sides outside. Cut the 
remaining one 3' 8" long, and nail across the bottom of the 
front, thus forming a low wall or ledge to prevent the portfolios 
slipping out. 

Having thus described the construction of the whole set of 
shelves, we will now proceed with the finishing. 

Measure off on the moulding, 3' 10", that is, two inches more 
than the external width of the case. Now let the annexed 
sketch represent the top edge of the moulding, the line a b 


being the back, or flat side. Mark the distance A c, equal to* 
A D, and draw the line C D. Place your square against c, and 
carry a bne from it down the back of the moulding, hold the 
piece quite upright, and with your saw cut straight down in the 
line D c, thus removing the triangular piece d a c. Cut two 
more pieces ten inches long each, and saw them off angularly 
also, so as to fit the long piece, and thus you will be able to 
nail these' three pieces under the projecting top, to form a 
cornice round the three sides. 

The saw which should be used for this purpose, is the 
"tenon" or sash saw (Fig. 2). This is a smaller size than the 
hand-saw ; is much thinner, and has its upper edge encased in 
a brass or iron binding. A useful size is fourteen inches, the 
price of which is about 4s. to 6s. 

It will add much to the graceful and light appearance of your 
work if you shave off the edges of the bottom and of the 
sides. In regard to the edges of the bottom ledge, the work is! 
simple, as they are removed by running the plane along them"; 
but when you come to " chamfer " off the edges of the sides, the 
work is a little more difficult. You must begin with your chisel, 
making a deep oblique cut at A 3 c, Fig. 3, and then working 
towards this cut, shave the corner of the wood away so as to 
give room for the plane to work, for, of course, you know that 



che blade or " iron" of the plane is situated near the middle 
of the block in which it is fixed, and that it will not, therefore, 
work up to the point where you desire your chamfer to cease. 

Tou must also mark with your gauge, on each side, the exact 
width of your chamfer, otherwise you will have no guide for 
your plane, and the slant will encroach more on one side than 
the other, which would give a very unpleasant appearance to 
the work. The chamfer is to be started at the top, at about an 
inch from the bottom of the moulding, in the same manner. 

Now, as to planes; these are of various kinds. The one 
alluded to here, as most useful to the amateur joiner, is called 
a " smoothing plane." If you want a rather thick shaving taken 
off — that is, if you wish to re- 
move a good deal of wood — hold 
the plane upside down, with the 
front end towards you, and 
strike a few blows on that end 
of the block with your hammer, 
and if you keep your eye fixed 
on the under side of the plane 
(then turned upwards) you will 
see the blade gradually rise, and 
then, of course, it will cut 
deeper into the wood. If, on 
the other hand, you wish to cut 
off very little — in fact, only to 
smooth the surface — strike on 
the other end, when the iron will 
recede. You must, however, be 
careful as you do this to give 
a tap every now and then on 
the wooden wedge by which the 
iron is kept in its place, which 
will otherwise become loosened, 
and then, of course, the iron 
will slide upwards, and will not 
cut the wood. 

Of course, you can easily un- 
derstand that a plane is only a 
chisel kept in one position by 
a wooden block, in which it is 
fixed, but if a chisel itself 
were to be used, it would be 
almost impossible to prevent 
it cutting deeper in one part 
than another, either from in- 
equality in the hardness of the 
wood, or from the workman 
pressing at some moments more 
heavily on the tool than at others. 
The blade being, however, fixed, is kept by the block to a uniform 
position, and as the block extends over some length of surface, 
the blade is prevented from working deeply into it. 

The plane used for taking the rough face from wood is 
called the " jack-plane," Fig. 4. I don't know why, unless, per- 
haps, some kind old joiner once made one like it for his little 
boy Jack. In order to get the surface of the boards quite level, 
the workman uses a "trying-plane," which is longer, and in every 
way larger than the "jack" — Jack's big brother in fact. Thus, to 
get tho surface of a large board perfectly level, he uses the 
" trying-plane " and the "long plane ; " and for planing the edges 
of long boards which are to be glued together, he uses a 
plane longer still— the head of the whole family — called the 

The jack plane is from 14 to 17 inches long, and varies in 
prico from 4s. to 5s. 6d. ; the trying-plane is 22 to 24 inches 

Fig. 3. 

long, and costs 6s. 6d. to 7s. 6d. ; and tho jointer, which is from 
28 to 30 inches long, costs from 8s. to 9s. 6d. There are 
numerous other kinds of planes used for different sorts of work ; 
should either of these be required in making any of our 
examples, they will be described in their places. 

Now, as to chisels : these are of various kinds. The three 
most likely to be required by an amateur are the paring chisel 
(Fig. 5), the gouge (Fig. 6), and the mortising chisel (Fig. 7). 

The paring chisel is the one referred to in the present artiole, 
and costs from 8d. upwards, according to the size. Three will 
be found useful, one £ inch wide, another £ inch, and the third 
1£ inches, or thereabouts. These may all be had with or without 

handles. In the latter case they 
are cheaper, and you will socn 
learn to make handles for your- 
self, either by turning or by 
planing them in an octagonal 
form ; or handles may be bought 
very cheaply at second-hand 
tool-shops, so may chisels, bear- 
ing in mind the caution already 
given, viz., that only tools which 
have been used, so as to show 
that they really are second- 
hand, should, as a rule, be 
bought at such shops. 

The wood generally used for 
handles is beech. Pieces which 
are of use for but little else may 
be purchased at most timber 
yards or saw-mills, for a nomi- 
nal sum. 

Gouges are ckisels the sur- 
faces of which are curved, so 
that they cut a groove instead 
of a flat cut. They are also 
made in numerous sizes, and of 
various degrees of curvature. 
They vary from lOd. to 3s. each. 
The sizes most useful to ama- 
teur joiners will be |--inch and 
^-inch, the curve not being quite 
as deep as a " half-round." 

We will defer the considera- 
tion of the mortising-chisel until 
we require to use it, and will 
now proceed with the finishing 
processes of our book-shelves. 

In the first place, rub down 
the edges and surface with fine 
glass-paper, which maybe purchased at about Id. per sheet, so as 
to remove all roughness, etc., and when this is done, rub the whole 
again with a piece of rag or old towelling, to clear off all the dust 
which would otherwise interfere with the staining, by giving the 
work, when finished, a rough and gritty appearance. There are se- 
veral stains sold. Oak will be the best for the shelves. The price 
is 6d. and Is. per bottle ; but that in the bottles is much too 
strong for use. Pour some of it into a basin and mix water with 
it (by stirring with a piece of stick) until you have ascertained, 
by trying it on an odd piece of wood, that it is the right 

Place your book-shelves in such a position that the part you 

are going to stain may be horizontal, and apply the liquid with 

a piece of a sponge, using a common paint brush (called a 

sash tool, price about 4d.) for angles, and for the moulding. 

As you are putting on the staining, you may improve the 



appearance of the sides by doing a little in the way of 
graining; if the boards themselves are not quite as prettily 
veined as you would like, you can, when the staining is nearly 
dry, wrap a piece of damp rag round your thumb, and, by a few 
hard touches, partially remove the colour in cer- 
tain places, or you may draw a piece of an old 
comb over it, and you can add a knot or two 
with your brush or sponge. 

This is entirely a matter of taste, and you will 
soon attain the little skill required. When you 
see a grainer at work on a door or shutter, as 
you pass along stop and observe his method of 
working, from which you cannot fail to get a very 
good lesson. 

When one side is dry. stain another, and if 
when the whole has been stained, you do not 
think the colour dark enough, pass your sponge 
over it again, so as to give it a second coat. 

The next process is " sizing." The size is 
merely thin glue. It may be bought at the shop 
where you buy your staining ; you will get as 
much as you want for a penny or twopence. 
Break the thin cakes up, and put the pieces into 
a jar or basin, just covering them with water, 
to allow them to soak ; then put the jar on the 
hob, and allow the size to melt away entirely in 
the water. This size should be used whilst quite 
hot, and is to be painted over the stain with 
a paint brush. ■ 

When quite dry, a second 
coat may with advantage be 
given, but in this case care 
must bo taken that the first 
coat of size is thoroughly 
dry before the second is ap- 
plied ; and it is well to bear 
in mind that two coats of 
thin size answer the purpose 
much better than one thick 
coat. Thick size should, in 
fact, be avoided, as it clogs 
in working, and dries streaky 
and lumpy. 

The varnish is to be laid 
on with rather a large hog- 
hair brush, the price of which 
ranges from one shilling up- 
wards. A great annoyance 
is created by a few of the 
hairs coming out of new 
brushes during use. This 
may be in some degree pre- 
vented, by putting the brush 
to soak in water for a day 
cr so, by which the haira 
become expanded, and so 
are made to hold more closely together in their string binding. 
When the brush has been soaked, strike it against a slack 
cr wall, holding it by the end of the handle, until the water 
is nearly out of it, then place it either in a warm room, or 
near the fire to dry. The free parts of the bristles will, of 
course, become dry much sooner than those which are bound 
up, and few if any of the hairs will come out. See that you 
lay on the varnish evenly, and work as rapidly as you can ; for 
the varnish dries very quickly, and if worked slowly is apt to 
become streaky. 

Fig. 8. 


Fig. 12. 

Fig. 9. 

The front edges of the shelves need neither be stained nor 
varnished, they are to be finished in the following manner : — 

Get some American cloth — green or ferown. It is sold at 
drapers' shops, at a low price per yard. Cut strips, say four 
inches wide, and cut them into semicircles at their 
edge, as shown at Fig. 8. To do this nicely, cut 
the pattern in a piece of cardboard, to act as a 
"templet;" lay this on the white side (or back) 
of the American cloth, and mark around it with 
a pencil ; move this along until you have marked 
as much of the strip as you will require, then 
cut the edge in these pencil lines. Fasten the 
strips to the edges of the shelves, with very small 
tacks, of which you Gan get a quantity for a 
penny. The small dark blue tacks are the best 
for this purpose. They should be hammered in 
as far as you can get them, until their heads 
sink quite into the American cloth. 

Now, to finish the shelves and make the whole 
case look nice and bright, buy at a carver and gil- 
der's some flat gilt moulding, of a pattern some- 
thing like this (Fig. 9) ; the flat surface (a) being 
dull gold, and the curved part (b) burnished, or 
bright. This is sold in lengths, at about a penny 
a foot. The size required is § inch wide and 
i inch thick. You will require four lengths of 
3' 6" each, for the shelves. You can, of course, 
carry this gilt moulding round the upper edge of 

the cornice, just under the 

projecting top, but this is 
not really necessary, and is 
purely a matter of taste. 

In cutting these pieces 
from the lengths, you must 
use your tenon saw very 
carefully, for you must know 
that under the gilding there 
is a thick coating of com- 
position, which is very liable 
to chip off. Begin, therefore, 
to saw just at the angle, 
using the saw very lightly 
until you have cut through 
this brittle skin. 

The gilt mouldings are to 
be nailed in front of the 
upper edge of the border of 
American cloth, the top edge 
being level with the surface 
of the shelves. The nails to 
be used are little brags ones, 
called upholsterers' pins. 
You must carefully bore 
holes for them through the 
gilt moulding, and in strik- 
ing them with the hammer, 
be careful that you hit thein on the head, as a sideway blow 
on the moulding would chip off the gilding. 

The method of fixing the shelves here given is the very 
simplest; but many other plans are adopted by which the 
shelves are rendered movable, in order to suit the sizes of 

The following is the most generally used : — 
Cut four strips of wood, rather harder than the other (beech 
or birch), ^-inch thick, 2 inches broad, and saw angular 
recesses in them at definite distances, as shown in Fig. 10. 



These strips are then to be screwed against the sides of the 
"book-case, aad ledges made to fit into them, on which the 
shelves are to rest, as shown lower down. 

-The shelves must be cut as shown in Fig. 11. 

Where this plan, however, is adopted, a piece of wood, 
broader than the mere thickness of the sides of the case, must 
be hailed over them, as shown in Fig. 12, to hide the strips and 
ledges here referred to. 

The alteration in the distances between the shelves is 

effected by moving the ledges into the recesses at the height 

In order to prevent the whole book-case from falling for- 
ward, it is advisable to secure it by an iron "holdfast," 
driven into the wall just under one of the shelves, and attached 
to it by a screw. The wall must, however, be probed first with 
a bradawl, so that the holdfast may be driven in between two 
bricks. It is also safe to plug the wall — that is, to drive a 
wedge of wood in first, before inserting the holdfast. 


By J. C. Leake. 


HE only modification of flower- 
boxes necessary when they 
are to be employed in-doors 
consists in placing a tin 
or zinc tray at the bot- 
tom, which may catch the 
drained-off water, and con- 
vey it into a vessel pre- 
pared for its reception. 
This is important, as both 
carpet and furniture would 
inevitably be spoiled with- 
out it, since it is fre- 
quently difficult or impos- 
sible to remove the plants 
for watering without injury. 
To fit a zinc tray to a trough or box of this description is a 
very simple and easy matter. We will suppose the box to be 
eight inches wide, and four feet in length. A piece of zinc 
(that known as No. 13 thickness will answer perfectly) should 
be provided, four feet four inches in length, and twelve inches 
wide. This will allow of the edges being turned up two inches 
on each side. The sizo of the bottom of the box should be 
marked out on this, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 1, and 
these lines should be scratched in (not too deeply) with a 
knife or blunt chisel. As will bo seen by the Figure these 
lines will leavo four squares marked a A a A at the angles, 
which must bo cut out. The edges must then be turned 
up so as t@ form a tray, which should be fitted into the box 
before soldering. 

After this the angles should be soldered up, which may be 
effected by first damping by means of a feather each angle for 
about half an inch on each side with muriatic acid or spirits of 
aalt. The solder being melted with the soldering-iron, or copper- 
bit, as it is technically termed, the edges will speedily become 
united, and a watertight tray will be formed. In this, near 
one end, should in like manner be soldered a short piece of 
lead or zinc pipe, which should be passed through the wooden 
bottom of the box, and which will serve for the escape of 
the water. 

It is an improvement if a small tap, such as those used 
for gas fittings, be applied to the end of this pipe, but it is not 
essential. In this case the slips of wood upon which the pots 
are to stand should not be fixed, but merely laid upon the 
bottom of the zinc tray. Of course, in order to facilitate the 
outflow of the water, the boxes should be fixed slightly lower at 
the end where the pipe is placed ; and before the plants are 
■watered, a pail or other suitable vessel should be so arranged 

under the pipe as to catch the waste. This is a very cleanly 
method of procedure, and should always be adopted. 

Hitherto we have spoken only of a single box, suitable for the 
ordinary plain window, but this system of window decoration 
may with much greater effect be displayed in the large bow or 
bay windows, now so common. For boxes to fit inside the 
window the ordinary form may be employed, merely making the 
boxes fit one to the other at the ends. As, however, outside 
there is usually a pillar or pier to support the top of the window, 
the boxes must be fitted round this so as to form a continuous 
line outside. This may be effected as shown in Fig. 5, p. 55, in 
which a represents the pier or column and B the boxes. It will 
be observed that the front of the boxes must be longer than the 
back by the distance from c to D, and these must, of course, be 
nicely fitted together at the junction C. It is better to make 
the ends finish square, as the work will be both easier and 
stronger. The space c should be filled up with pots containing 
running plants, which may be trained to cover the piers, which 
will materially enhance the effect. 

Having described the various forms of window-boxes, which 
are mostly intended for external decoration, we may now 
proceed to notice the methods which have been devised for the 
cultivation of ferns, which are more especially adapted for in- 
door decoration. 

There is no need in this place to describe the exquisite beauty 
of the fern tribe, it is too well known to require any at- 
tention from us ; but it is requisite to remind the reader that 
the plants may be easily cultivated, at but small cost, either of 
money or labour. It is a fallacy to suppose that fern cases 
need be either very elaborate or' expensive ; and we shall in 
this article proceed to show how the amateur may for himself 
construct a simple and useful case. 

There are many varieties of ferns which will grow well in 
open pots in a room ; but those of a more delicate character 
are best cultivated under glass. Indeed, even the more hardy 
plants acquire more than their natural and ordinary delicacy 
and beauty when thus protected ; and as this protection may be 
easily and cheaply afforded, it is well worth while to employ a 
covering of glass in all cases. 

To those who have been accustomed to the more elaborate 
and expensive constructions usually employed, it may seem , 
startling when we observe that a perfectly effective fern case 
may be made at the cost of less than one shilling. Tet this is 
strictly true, as we shall show. All that is necessary is to 
provide a common garden saucer of brown earthenware, and 
having planted a small fern therein, to purchase an ordinary 
glass shade of about four inches in diameter. ; this, placed 
over the plant, and gently pressed into the earth, will be found 




to form a perfectly effective fern case, in which the smaller 
Varieties of plants may be most successfully cultivated. 

Bearing this in mind, it will be readily seen how this prin- 
ciple may be extended to the larger and more elaborate cases ; 
such, for instance, as those proper for employment in the 
decoration of a drawing-room window. In Fig. 4 we show a 
case of this description, suit- 
able for standing upon a 
small circular table, or for 
employment occasionally, as 
an ornament elsewhere, as 

This case consists of a 
base board (a) of the re- 
quired size — that is to say, 
about two inches larger than 
the diameter of the glass 
shade employed. This board 
should be not less than one 
inch in thickness, and 
strongly put together, as by 
this the case will have to be 
lifted. Upon this must be 
secured the circular rim, 
also of wood, marked B in 
the illustration, and which 
should have upon its upper 
edge a groove to receive 
the glass. 

The pan or trough to re- 
ceive the earth and contain 
the plants may be either of 
earthenware or of zinc, and 
it should be perforated as 
■shown at C to receive a short 
piece of pipe, and so ensure 
perfect drainage. Three or 
four blocks of wood or 
knobs of metal should bo 
screwed into 'the base board, 
as at D, so as to raise the 
case from the table and 
ensure steadiness. 

This practically completes 
the case t which will now only 
require decoration. 

The chief difficulty in con- 
structing such a case as this 
is the formation of the cir- 
cular rim of wood which 
supports the glass shade. 
The best method of proceed- 
ing will be to cut out of 
clean soft pine a number of 
segments of a cirfcle, as shown 
in Fig. 2. As this rim will 
not need to be more than 

three inches deep — just enough to hide the dish or trough — 
three complete circles, cut out of a board one inch in thickness 
and placed one upon the other, will make up the required 

These layers should be secured — the first one to the base 
board, and the second and third to this, by means of nails or 
fine screws ; and the rabbet may be made by bradding a thin 
slip of wood bent round to follow the outer case of the circle. 

As these segments of wood are laid on the base board the 








Fig. 5. 

joints should be "broken," or so placed as not to come one 
over the other — thus, if the first joints are at A, the second 
should be made at B, as shown in Fig. 2. 

Practically there will be very little difficulty experienced in 
cutting out these rims; and, with a sharp "turning saw," 
enough to form two or three cases may be cut in about an hour. 

A second plan, which ia 
perhaps easier, consists of 
forming this circle in plaster 
of Paris or cement. In this 
case the base board will re- 
quire to be larger than the 
glass shade by some three 
or four inches, in order to 
receive the rim of plaster 
(e, Fig. 4). The board having 
been cut to a true circle, 
as before described, is to be 
fixed firmly upon a bench or 
table. A piece of wood 
should then be cut to the 
shape shown at A in Fig. 3, 
and made to revolve upon 
the exact centre of the base 
board by the pin B. The 
distance from the centre 
must be determined by the 
size of the shades, so. that 
the rabbet (c) will be of the 
proper size to receive the 
glass, indicated by the dotted 
lines. When this has been 
arranged, a quantity of plas- 
ter or cement should be used 
quite soft in a basin or dish 
and laid on the edge of the 
board where the rim is re- 
quired either with a trowel 
or a large knife. 

The " trammel" or mould 
should be at once passed 
completely round, so as to 
scrape off the superfluous 
plaster, when more may be 
put on where required to fill 
up the outline. This process 
is to be repeated until the 
inner surface presents the 
outline shown at E, Fig. 3, 
mixing the plaster more and 
more soft as the work pro- 
ceeds in order to get a clean 
sharp outline. 

When the whole has " set " 

er become hardened, the outer 

part, which should be left 

rough, may be decorated by 

mixing soft cement or plaster and embedding in it fragments 

of rock, stone, or shells, as the good taste of the constructor 

may suggest. 

In order to secure this rim to the base board it is well to 
drive a few rough old nails into the wood in the circle which 
will be included in the plaster. These will become imbedded 
in the soft material and will firmly secure the parts together. 
The only drawback to this style of construction is that it 
makes the case rather heavy and difficult of removal, other- 

%. 2. 

r ™ "pi 

Fig. 3. 



wise it is an excellent plan, as it is very durable, and the rock- 
work if properly executed forms a very suitable and tasteful 
setting for the ferns. 

The decoration of the rim of the case, where wood is em- 
ployed, is a matter which of 
course allows the widest margin 
and the fullest scope for the 
taste of the constructor. One 
©f the simplest methods is that 
previously mentioned in our 
article on window boxes, and 
consists of covering the work 
with short branches, as shown 
at p. 55, in Figs. 3 and 4. 

If neatly executed in wood 
of different colours and well 
varnished, this sort of work 
presents a very neat appear- 
ance. There are of course 
various patterns which may be 
easily executed in this manner 
by crossing the slips of wood, 
some of which are indicated 
at Figs. 5 and 6. 

As the surface is curved 
some little difficulty may at 
first be experienced in fitting 
and bending the slips to tho 
required curves and shapes. 
The slips should bo cut as thin 
as possible, and before bending 
they should be well steamed 
or soaked in hot water, which 
will render them pliablo. It is 
advisable to use copper brads cr 
vory fine brass screws rather 
than iron, as the latter will 
rust and discolour tho wood. 

One other hint will suffice 
to indicate to the construc- 
tors the various designs and 
substances which may be 
employed for this purpose. 
The material known as 
virgin cork may be most 
fitly and elegantly applied to 
this use. This substance is 
moderately pliable, and may 
be easily bent to tho re- 
quired curves ; it is very 
rapidly worked, and durable. 
As the natural colour is 
agreeable, it will need no 
colouring or varnishing, and, 
finally, itis exceedinglycheap. 

With these suggestions we 
may safely leave this part 

of our subject to the taste of our readers, and pass on to con- 
sider the other and larger forms of fern cases. 

To construct a case of rectangular form (Fig/ 6) is not at 
all a difficult matter, nor is it beyond the power of the veriest 
amateur. We shall suppose that it is desired to make a case 
say twenty inches long, fifteen broad, and of the same height. 
The first thing will be to provide the glass. Of this there 
will be required two squares, each twenty inches long by i perfect hardening of the glue. As soon as the glue is quite hard 
fifteen wide for the sides, and one of tho same dimensions for | and dry the case should be inverted, and a slip of tape glued 

the top ; the two ends will be required fifteen inches square 
each, all exact measure. 

The most suitable glass for the purpose will be that known 
as " sheet," and it can be procured of good quality at about 

fourpence or fivepence the 
square foot. This glass Bhould 
be selected as flat as possible, 
and if the purpose for which it 
is required be explained to th» 
dealer there will be mo difficulty 
in obtaining it. 

For a case of the dimensions 
proposed the ordinary glazing 
thickness will be sufficient. This 
is known as "thirteen ounce" 
glass — that is to say, it weighs 
thirteen ounces per square foot. 
The glass should be thoroughly 
cleaned by means of a paste of 
whiting and water, especially 
at the edges. 

This having been effected, a 
pot of strong glue should be 
made, and some good black 
tape provided, some of which 
should be about an inch in 
width, and some ( of three- 
quarters of an inch. The piece 
of glass which is to form the 
top of the case should now bo 
laid upon a table, and a slip of 
tape of the required length 
having been well covered with 
glue — which should be used very 
hot — should be placed for half 
its width upon the edge of the 
plate, and well rubbed down. 
For this the wide tape should 
be used. This' operation 
shonld be repeated fur the. 
other edge and tho ends. 

This top plate of the case 
should now be supported 
by placing it upon a box 
or other suitable contriv- 
ance, at the height of fifteen 
inches above the table, so 
that the sides and ends of 
the case may be easily 
brought up to it. One of 
the sides should then be 
placed quite close, and the 
overlapping edge of the tape 
having again received a 
coating of hot glue, should 
be turned down over the 
Bide and attached to it, bo 
as to secure the top and side together. This process must be 
repeated with the other side and the ends, taking care to keep 
the tape at an equal distance from the angle, and to rub out 
the glue as much as possible. 

Without moving the case, the upright joints at the angles 
must now be joined in the same manner, when the whole should 
be left for ten or twelve hours in a dry room, to allow of tho 



tightly into each of the internal angles, taking the utmost 
care to ensure perfect adhesion. For this purpose the narrow 
tape should be employed, and care should be exercised so as 
not to let it overlap that on the outside of the glass, or it 
will present an unsightly appearance. After allowing this to 
become perfectly dry and hard, some slips of tin-foil should 
be cut to a width rather greater than that of the tape, and 
these should be glued exactly like the tape, and so as to 
cover it. This should be done both inside and out. 

After drying, this tin-foil should receive at least three coats 
of good oak varnish to protect it from the moisture which is 
euro to rise in the interior of the case. The outer angles 

should have one or two coats of black Japan varnish, which 
will cover the tin-foil and protect it, as well as improve the 
appearance of the case. 

The next business will be to provide a tray and box to form 
the base of the case. A frame of wood about one inch in 
thickness and of the size required, should be constructed so as 
to allow the glass forming the case to rest in a rabbet upon its 
top edge, as in the circular case previously described. To the 
lower edge of thi3 frame the bottom of the case must be 
secured so as to form a shallow box. The rabbet may be 
formed as before suggested, by bradding a slip of wood to the 
top edge of the tray. 



Bx R. B. Wobmaid. 

" "Whist is a language, and every card played is (or ought to he) an intelligible sentence."— J. C. 
" It is of more importance to inform your partner than to deceive your adversaries." — J. C. 

" The rules of play are the result of calculation and experience as to the best chances of trick making, and the inferences made from play 
are rational and logical deductions, and not merely conventional knowledge." — Mogul. 

J HE sum and substance of the theory of modern whist 
may be said to be embodied in the three short sentences 
cited above. " Combination," we have often been told, 
"is the cardinal principle of the modern scientific game," and it 
is, of course, an essential condition to the success of this com- 
bination that each of the two partners should concur in adopt- 
ing such modes of play as will most efficiently carry it out. 

" It is not necessary " (to quote a recent writer) " that each 
should be equally skilful, or shall bring an equal amount of 
judgment to bear ; but it is essential that each should under- 

stand the game in the same way ; should be guided by the same 
main principles, and should adopt the same system in the 
general treatment of his hand." 

To attain this, a knowledge of what has been sarcastically 
termed " Book Whist " — but which we may observe is merely 
another name for the concentrated experience of the best 
modern players — is absolutely indispensable. "We would 
not be misunderstood. We readily admit that there are a 
number of whist players who have probably never opened a 
book on whist of later date than Hoyle or Mathews, but who 



hj long practice, careful attention, and natural ability, hare 
acquired a very considerable knowledge of the game — up to a 
certain point. 

In the words of a writer in the Quarterly Review — " They 
are very observant, recollect and calculate well, draw shrewd 
inferences as to how the cards lie, and generally are adepts in 
all the accidental features of good play. * * * * But, 
skilful as these players are, they commit, as Deschapelles 
says, ' one long and continual fault which they do not see — 
they are forts jouers qui sont detestables partenaires.' They do 
not play upon system ; they will not conform to the conven- 
tional language of the game ; and hence they lose the great 
advantage of the combination of their own with their partner's 
hand. Worse than all, they habitually — we were almost 
tempted to write invariably — play solely for their own hand — 
' the worst fault,' remarks Mr. Clay, ' which I know in a 
whist player.' " 

A mere beginner, possessed of a bare smattering of the 
recognised routine of the game as laid down in the "books," 
would be infinitely preferable as a partner to a player of this 

In whist "a little learning" is not the "dangerous thing" 
it is in other pursuits. A knowledge of the leads, and of the 
proper card to return in your partner's suit — which may be 
readily acquired by a few hours' " book " study — is no slight 
step in advance, and if the student knows this much, and will 
content himself with playing an honest straightforward game 
— always bearing in mind the golden principle that " every card 
played ought to be an intelligible sentence," he will speedily 
make good progress. 

In the words of " Cavendish :" " If you adhere to this, you 
will soon acquire a reputation for playing a straightforward, 
intelligible game, and this character alone will counterbalance 
the disadvantages which will sometimes attach to the fact that 
you have enabled the adversaries to count your hand. If your 
partner knows that you play at random, and without method, 
he will be in a state of constant uncertainty ; and you almost 
preclude him from executing any of the finer strokes of play, 
the opportunities for which generally arise from being able to 
infer with confidence the position of particular cards. The 
extreme care of two skilled players against two unskilled ones 
amounts almost to this, that towards the close of a hand the 
former have the same advantage as though they had seen the 
others' cards, while the latter have not." 

Above all things a beginner should avoid the vicious habit — 
which we are satisfied is the fertile source of half the bad whist 
which we see at the present day — of playing " false cards." 

We do not say that a false card is never right; on the 
contrary it occasionally happens that a departure from the 
routine is the only method of saving or winning a game, but 
it should be remembered that an experienced player is justified 
in attempting a coup that would be unpardonable in a tyro. 

In the first place, a false card, when played by a beginner is, 
nine times out of ten, a blunder ; while, in the second place, a 
good player will instinctively suspect, and hence lose all con- 
fidence in. a partner whom he knows to be addicted to the 
practice — and when .once mutual confidence is destroyed there 
is an end to the combination and co-operation which constitute 
the essence of whist partnership. 

To the uneducated whist player it may seem a matter of 
small moment whether a player, holding king, knave, ten, and 
others, lead the knave or ten, or whether, with only two and 
three of a suit, he put on the higher or lower card, as second 
player — but in reality it is all important. If in the one case 
he lead the knave, and in the other play the three, he has either 
wilfully, or through carelessness, deceived his partner as to the 

nature of his hand, by withholding from him information which 
he was in duty bound to give. 

Such conduct in the ordinary concerns of life would be 
called by a harsh name ; and yet we witness it daily at the 
whist table, simply because players will not be at the trouble 
to learn the alphabet, or, as some term it, the conventionalism 
of the game. 

For our own part, however, we repudiate in toto the term 
" conventionalism " as applied to whist. To say, as some 
contend, that modern whist is simply an arbitrary and con- 
ventional system of signals, which are adopted by the general 
consent of a certain school of players for the purpose of 
enabling A to convey certain information to his partner B, 
or for the purpose of enabling B to draw certain inferences 
from the fall of the cards as to the contents of A's hand, 
is, we submit, a rank libel on the king of card games ; in- 
deed, assuming this to be the ease, it becomes a moot point 
whether two persons, acquainted with the conventional code 
of signals — in other words two good players — would be morally 
justified in sitting down to a rubber for a stake against two 
pthers unacquainted with the system, i.e., two bad players. 

But in reality the term conventional is altogether inapplic- 
able. What are called the " conventional rules " with regard 
to the lead, the return lead, and the play of the second, third, 
and fourth hands, etc., are not " conventional " in the ordinary 
acceptation of the term, but rules based upon the experience 
and authority of the best players — or, in the words of " Mogul," 
" the result of calculation and experience as to the best chances 
of trick-making"- — reduced to a system. 

Take, for example, the following simple case. I am third 
player, and hold king, knave, and two of a suit led by my 
partner, and win the trick with the king. J£ I intend to return 
the suit I am bound by the " conventional" rules to return the 
knave. Why ? Because I infer my partner to be strong in 
the suit, and, being numerically weak myself, I return him a 
strengthening card, with the double object of getting rid of 
high cards which might subsequently stop his suit, and of giving 
him an opportunity to finesse, should he think proper to do so. 

Similarly, if I win the trick with the king, and hold the nine 
and two, eight and two, or seven and two, it is equally my duty 
to retain the higher of the two remaining cards, as by so doing 
I may possibly strengthen my partner, and cannot, by any 
chance, injure my own hand. 

By a parity of reasoning, if I am left with the three and two, 
I must return the three. 

Here the advocates of the " conventional '"' theory step in 
and say — " This is the weak point in your case. It cannot be 
pretended that by returning the three instead of the two, you 
can by any possibility strengthen your partner. On the con- 
trary, your only possible object in retaining the three in prefer- 
ence to the two, is to convey information to your partner, who, on 
the fall of the two in the next round will naturally infer that 
you have no more of the suit left, and this, we contend, is 
an instance of pure conventionalism." 

To this we reply : — Tfc is quite true that in this particular 
case the return lead of the higher of two remaining cards 
cannot possibly strengthen your partner, but it is a fair and 
legitimate extension of the general principles which govern the 
return lead from a three suit, and as such, cannot be termed 
" conventional." 

We admit that by playing the three we enable our partner to 
calculate how many we have left of the suit, and thus, in some 
measure, assist him to " count our hand," but this is a collateral 
advantage ; the knowledge he thus acquires is not the result of 
a conventionalism, but is a direct and logical deduction from 
the general principles of play. . 






the beginning 1 of the first 
article on this subject I quoted 
Faraday's remark that toys 
are the most philosophical 
things in the world. 

This may not be quite clear 
without an example or two. 
Suppose we take a child's kite ; 
may we not by its aid identify 
lightning with electricity, and 
receive an instructive lesson 
on the composition of mecha- 
nical forces ? Every one knows 
to what use a common kite 
was turned ' by the ingenious 
Benjamin Franklin. From a pea-shooter too we may obtain 
evidence of the elastic force of gases, and of their economical 
employment when used expansively. The sucker, as I have 
told already, illustrates the weight of the atmosphere, and 
its equal pressure in all directions. The sling, the hoop, the 
top, and many other toys, show the property of centrifugal 
force. And watch a top when it is in motion ; you will see 
every spot and bruise on its surface converted for the moment 
into an elegant zone : this may impart a good lesson in 
physiological optics. Thus, to a reflecting mind, every toy 
affords ample food for thought. 

Let me take as the first toy -game in this article, that known 
as the Graces. This pleasing name it owes to the graceful motions 
which characterise skilful play ; indeed, the Graces is one of the 
most elegant of pastimes. It requires plenty of room : an 
excellent place for it is — say the lawn in front of an old house. 
And as for the players — but every one will suit himself as to 

The way in which the Graces is played is as follows : — 
The players have each two sticks and two or more hoops 
of different sizes, and, standing some distance apart, they throw 
the hoops from one to the other. The hoops are both thrown 
and caught by means of the sticks. The best mode of throw- 
ing and catching has been thus described by an authority on 
the subject : — ■ 

" In throwing, hang the hoop on the sticks, and then cross 
them, so as to prevent it from falling off. Hold the sticks 
with their points downwards, on the left side of the body, the 
left hand grasping one stick firmly, while the right holds the 
other loosely between the finger and thumb. Now raise the 
arms, point the left-hand stick in the direction which the hoop 
is meant to take, and with the right-hand stick throw the hoop, 
gliding at the same time the right-hand stick over the other. 
These movements should be performed a3 one, without any 
pause between them, and, if they are properly done, the hoop 
revolves rapidly, so as to keep it steady as it flies through the 
air. Unless this be done, it wabbles, or even turns over and 
over, in either of which cases the player to whom it is thrown 
can scarcely have a chance of catching it. The hoop should be 
thrown tolerably high, and ought to be sent with such accuracy 
that if it were not stopped it would fall on the head of the 
second player. Catching the hoop ought to be done with both 
sticks slightly crossed, unless it be flung much to the right or 
left, when of course a single stick must be employed. Some* 

times an unskilful player flings the hoop so that it presents its 
edge to the catcher. Even in this case an expert player will 
catch it by giving the lower edge a little tap with one stick, 
the effect of which will be to make the hoop fall over tho 

A game having a sort of relationship to this one is that of 

Bags. In Canada and the United States, Bags is a highly 

popular recreation. It is not so elegant as that just described, 

! but it is a very healthy form of exercise, and especially adapted 

j for warming one on cold days. If the thermometer be low and 

i you sit shivering with cold toes, in spite of the fire, turn out 

and have a game at Bags, and, my word for it, you will be 

comfortably warm and uncommonly cheerful in a quarter 

of an hour. 

It is played with four cotton bags half filled with dried peas, 
and tied at the mouth. These are taken up by two players, two 
bags each ; one bag in each hand. Player number one throws 
the bag in his right hand to number two, transfers the bag in 
his left hand to his right, catches a bag sent by number two in 
his left, throws to number two the bag in his right, transfers the 
bag in his left to his right, and so on. Player number two does 
just the? same as number one. The object of the game is to 
keep the bags as long as possible from falling. It is difficult 
to do this for any length of time at first, but with practice the 
bags may be kept up for half an hour or more. 

Battledore and Shuttlecock used long ago to be quite a fashion- 
able game among grown-up persons. It is mentioned in an old 
comedy of 1609, and is also recorded as having been used as a 
diversion by Prince Henry, son of James I. Now-a-days it 
does not enjoy so high a position by any means, but it is still 

The game may be played by one or many, but play by one 
alone is apt to become tedious ; to have any great enjoyment, 
two at least should join in it. The sport consists in keeping 
up the shuttlecock by striking it from one person to another. 
The difficulty of keeping it up increases with the number of 

Originally battledores were all of wood, but the best kind are 
those now known as " drum," with parchment heads. The all- 
wood ones are easily made, and are quite good enough for a 
beginner to practise with. They are cut out of a piece of flat 
deal not more than quarter of an inch thick. The spade is 
to be made about five inches long and five inches broad j the 
handle should be six or seven inches in length. 

If you would make the better kind of battledore, get a slip of 
lance-wood and let it be about sixteen inches long, one and a 
half inches broad, and a quarter of an inch thick ; the outside 
edges too must be slightly rounded. Now bend it to the shape 
of the spade, and along the inside cut slight nicks about an 
inch apart and almost half way through the wood. Steam or 
boil the slip of lance-wood, and it will curve to the shape required. 
Bevel off to fit the handle, which you should prepare previously, 
making it (the handle) quite round, except at the end which is to 
be joined to the spade, and that end should be square at the 
edges. Glue the spade to the two sides of the handle : you see 
the spade in Fig. 1, and the handle in Fig. 2. Bind the join 
firmly rsund with fine waxed thread, and let it stand till the 
glue is dry. 

The next thing is to make ready the parchment head. It is to 



be cut to the shape of the spade, with a margin 
large enough to turn down over the wood- work, 
and in this margin you must make notches, 
so that when turned down it may lie neatly. 
Soak the parchment in water, take oft the 
damp, and glue it by the margin to the wood- 
work. Repeat this on the other side. 

To finish the handle, bind round it a slip of 
coloured velvet or leather. Now you have the 
battledore complete. 

A shuttlecock is made by cutting a piece 
of cork to form the body, in the shape of 
Fig. 3. Fix a short brass-headed nail in the 
lower end, and in the circle on the top of 
the cork fasten several grey goose feathers, 
all of the same size, and let each one stand 
in an oblique direction to the others. The 
feathers should not be too widespread, other- 
wise the shuttlecock is apt to be slow of flight. 

The Chinese are great players with the 
shuttlecock, but instead of driving it with a 
battledore, they keep it up with the upturned 
sole of the shoe. Ten or a dozen stand in a 
ring and dexterously send it from one to the 
other, the blow being given with the sole of the foot or 
the ball of the big toe. 

The Bandilor falls next to be described. This is a toy 
made of hard wood, and is something like a pulley with 
a very deep groove. A piece of string is wound round 
the groove, a hole being made in the centre of the 
wood, through which hole the string is passed and out 
of which it is prevented from slipping by a knot. 

In playing with the bandilor, the end of the string 
is held between the forefinger and thumb, and the grooved 
piece of wood is let fall. As a natural consequence the 
string is unwound, but if the fall bo suddenly checked 
by a sharp jerk, the bandilor will commence at once to 
rise, and will go on ascending and descending as long 
as the player likes. The movement depends on the same 
mechanical laws as that of the Cutwater, described in 
the first article. 

The Bandilor, by the way, under the name of " Quiz," 
was a very fashionable toy about the beginning of this 
century. It is now almost out of date, and, except as 
manufactured by private hands, is seldom seen. 

But enough for a moment of mere matter-of-fact 
toys. Let us turn aside into the region of music, and 
see how that fascinating instrument an Molian Harp is 
made. Is it difficult to construct ? No, not if you are 
at all neat-handed. 

Make a long box of very thin deal about four or six 
inches deep ; mark a circle in the middle of the upper 
side, an inch and a half in diameter, and in it drill 
small holes. Fasten bridges at each end of the upper 
side, each like the bridge of a fiddle, and over these 
bridges pass seven, ten, or even more strings of very 
fine catgut ; and those strings are to be tightened up or 
relaxed by means of screw ping. 

Tune all the strings to the same note, D is perhaps 
the best. Place the instrument in the space left by a 
window when partially open, or in any current of air 
where the wind can pass over it with full force. When 
the strings are blown on with sufficient degrees of 
strength different sounds will be produced ; the harp will yield 
to the inspiration of the passing breeze, and sometimes its 
tones wi!l bo heard in full concert, at others they will Bink 



Fig. 2. 




away in the softest murmurs, most musical 
most melancholy. 

A colossal imitation of the instrument just 
described was invented at Milan in 1786 by 
the Abbe Gattoni. He stretched seven strong 
wires, tuned to the notes of the gamut, from 
the top of a tower sixty feet high to the house 
of a Signor Moscate, who was interested in 
the success of the experiment ; and this ap- 
paratus, called the " giant's harp," in windy 
weather yielded lengthened peals of har- 
monious music. In a storm it was some- 
times heard at the distance of several miles. 
Similar sounds must have been often heard 
by our readers when near the telegraph wires 
of a line of railway. 

Our excursion into the realms of music has 
not lasted long; and it seems almost a 
descent from the sublime to the ridiculous 
when I say that we shall consider now the 
familiar game of Puff and Dart. But this is 
a good amusement and worth noticing. It 
sometimes goes under the name of " Draw- 
ing-room Archery." 
A large target is hung against the wall, painted in 
rings, with a bull's eye in the centre, and with each 
ring figured to show the number of points to be 
gained by the players. Towards this target a needle- 
pointed dart is blown through a brass tube. 

Each player has a number of darts, and according 
to the part of the target he hits, so is the number of 
points towards game that he scores. 

Darts shot by the breath out of tubes are used by 
the natives of Borneo and some parts of South America 
as weapons of offence. The darts are of small size, 
but dipped in such deadly poison that a wound is 
sufficient to cause death. The tubes through which 
they arc sent are of considerable length, sometimes as 
long as twelve feet. 

Bart and Target is a pastime allied to that of Puff 
and Dart, just described. The apparatus required for 
the game is not difficult to make. The dart is a 
straight piece of stick about six inches long, with a 
pin at one end and a paper guider at the other. The 
pin should just be a common pin, with the head taken 
off ; it is to bo inserted in the stick with the point 
outwards and secured in its place by means of thread 
or sealing-wax. 

The guider is made of a square piece of paper, folded 
twice from corner to corner, and inserted in two slits 
at the end of the stick, as shown in Fig. 4. 

The target may be made of a piece of board ; upon it 
are to be painted a few concentric circles with a bull's 
eye in the centre. The player whose dart after each 
round is found nearest the bull's eye counts one to> 
wards the game, and has the first shot of the next 
round. A number is fixed on at the beginning of the 
game, and he who first reaches it is the winner. 

A Paper Dart is a still more simple affair than the 
dart used in Dart and Target. It is made in this way : — ■ 
Take a piece of good stout paper — writing-paper does 
very well — and cut it so that its length may be con- 
siderably more than its breadth. Double the paper so 
there may bo a fold running down the middle length- 
— from x to z in Fig. 5 ; then open the paper out again. 
up the two corners a a. Now tike the two points b b 



and fold the paper so that these points meet at c. The paper 
will then have the form shown by the dotted lines. Fold the 
paper in two, by the fold x z, when it will look like Fig. 6. 
Turn the edges d d d down so as to be parallel with the fold 
x z ; one edge is to be turned down to the one side, and the 
other edge to the other side. Now catch 
hold of the fold x z between the forefinger 
and thumb, and open out the wings of the 
dart, which is at last complete. When thrown 
from the hand you will not find it a very 
good weapon to aim with, but it ia graceful in 
its motion through the air. 

Another paper toy, very easy to make, as 

Now insert the thumb of each hand, and pull out the paper so 
that it may take the form shown in Fig. 9 ; and you must take 
care in doing so to arrange the corners d d, Fig. 8, neatly 
Turn up the points e (Fig. 9) one to the one side, and the other 
to the other, till they touch the point /, folding of course to 
the dotted line. Insert the thumbs again, 
and pull out the paper to make the form 
shown in Fig. 10. Take hold lastly of the 
points g g, and pull them outwards right and 
left, taking care not to press the inside, and 
the boat will be complete, as in Fig 11. 

The great poet Shelley had an excessive 
passion for making and floating paper boat3. 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 11. 










Fig. 9. 

is the case with most things when once one knows the way, 
is the Pa/per Boat. 

Take apiece of paper, not very thick, but not very thin either, 
and in size about nine inches by six, or six inches by four 
— at any rate let the breadth bear about the same relationship 
to the length as in these sizes. Then double the paper as in 
Fig. 7 ; turn up the corners a a till they meet at b, when the 
paper will look as in Fig. 8 ; turn down the two sides c, one to 
the one side, the other to the other side, to the dotted line d d. 

It has been said that on one occasion, having no other paper 
at hand, he launched a .£50 bank-post bill on the pond at 
Kensington Gardens, and, with greater good luck than he 
deserved, succeded in recovering it on the opposite bank. This 
is denied by one of his biographers ; but Medwin will have it 
that such an incident did really occur with a .£10 note on the 

The last toy to bo mentioned in this article is the Prophet, or 
Sybil (Fig. 12), which does not require much explanation. Its 



principal part is made by cutting a circle of pasteboard, a few 
inches in diameter, and adorning the edges with, fancy paper. 
When this is done, mark on the white surface twenty equal 
divisions, by means of lines radiating from the centre, and 
within each division place a number referring to the accom- 
panying Table of Prognostications, or, better still, place the 
prognostications themselves in the vacant spaces. 


1. At the end of a changeful life, wealth. 

2. Early and prosperous marriage. 

3. Many lovers, but no husband. 

4. A speedy and important journey. 

5. Eich by a legacy. 

6. Hours of pleasure, years of care. 

7. He is false. 

8. Tou will marry your present choice. 

9. Wed thrice, and die in widowhood. 

10. Travels by land, voyages on sea. 

11. If not wed now, never. 

12. It will be your ruin. 

13. Happiness in wedlock. 

14. Changes in love soon. 

15. Long life and a merry one. 

16. Pears from a rival, but you will succeed. 

17. Beware of a false friend. 

18. Twice wed. 

19. Unhappy, ere long, but the sunshine follows 

20. Your present lover will not be your mate. 

Now buy or carve a figure of wood, or make it of cardboard or 
any other material, and let it have a venerable and mysterious 
air and hold in one hand a wand pointing downwards. Mount 
the circular card on a small wooden stand, through the centre 
of which a steel wire is run. Fix the figure of the prophet on 
the wire so that it may revolve freely. Spin the figure round, 
and according to the reading of the division at which the wand 
points when it comes to a standstill, so will, or at least so may 
be, the fortune of the inquirer. The other evening a young lady 
asked me to read her fortune with this toy. "It is all nonsense," 
said she, "but let us see what the prophet says." I took the 
head of the figure between my forefinger 
and thumb and gave it a turn ; round spun 
the prophet. The young lady watched 
him eagerly as he went slower and slower. 
The wand appeared as if it were going to 
stop at No. 7, " He is false," and my 
pretty maiden grew quite pale. ." It is all 
nonsense," said I, to console her. But the 
wand did not stop at 7, as we expected, 
it just crossed the line and touched No. 8, 
and rested there : " Tou will marry your 
present choice." " It is all nonsense," she 
said again, but her face grew as bright as the dawn. It was 
clear that she was overjoyed at the response of the oracle. I 
saw her shortly afterwards exchanging glances with a friend, 
and know now well enough who her present choice is, for love 
cannot be hidden. 



By W. A. Lloyd. 



HE essays to keep animals in 
water are of very ancient 
date. Our illustration 
(Fig. 1) is a facsimile of 
a vessel containing zoo- 
phytes, taken from a work 
published 150 years ago. 
But I think that the word 
"aquarium" used in its 
present sense, was first 
employed by Mr. Henry 
Philip Gosse (the still living 
father of the aquarium), in 
his book entitled " The 
Aquarium," published in 
April, 1854. It does not 
occur in his preceding volume on the zoology of the Devon- 
shire coast, issued in 1853 ; and though Dr. S. H. Ward leo- 
tured on the subject in 1841, I cannot ascertain if he then 
employed the word. Mr E. Warrington, Mrs. Thynne, and 
other early experimenters, never used it before 1854 ; and the 
aquarium in Eegent's Park has always been from the beginning 
officially termed " The Fish-House." 

But the term "aquarium" was justly objected to, because 
it signifies only a vessel in which water may be held, and does 
not express, as it should do, that it contains also plants and 
animals. So, too, " fish-house," was felt to be inexpressive, as 
other animals besides fishes are maintained in aquaria. 

Then "vivarium" was proposed, and not accepted atall widely, 
because it may mean all kinds of animals, aquatic or otherwise. 

The Zoological Society of London, in a book it has published 
thus calls its collection of animals, ranging, as it does, from 
zoophytes to monkeys, a vivarium. So Mr. Charles Knight, 
who died the other day, suggested the word " aquavivarium," 
which is so far an improvement on the other names, that it 
conveys the idea of animals in water; and this compound 
term was first used in print by Dr. E. Lankester, in June, 1853. 
Yet even it is imperfect, because it does not convey the idea 
cf the plants, which are as necessary as the animals in an 
aquarium, and besides, aquavivarium is a clumsy and long name. 

It would be well if it and the other two pedantic-loooking 
Latin words, vivarium and aquarium, were abolished, and some 
Saxon word could be found which would express a combination 
of ivater, plants, and animals. But no such word exists, and 
therefore it is as well to continue to accept "aquarium," as it 
has been conventionally accepted for the last nineteen or 
twenty years, has the one advantage of being employed in 
all English-speaking countries, and is used without translation 
in every other country. 

It must therefore be understood that the word "aquarium" 
shall be employed as a collective term for all associations of 
water, plants, and animals kept under conditions to be presently 
named, and that the words "tank," "vase," "reservoir," and 
so forth ; and all apparatus, as motor engines, pumps, pipes, 
etc., and all-buildings specially erected to contain such things, 
shall be considered as parts of an aquarium. 

The conditions under which an aquarium must be conducted 
are as follows : — 1. The water used — whether sea-water or fresh- 
water — must not be changed, and it must not be added to, except 
to supply deficiency caused by evaporation or accidental loss. 



2. Vegetation growing below the surface of the water must 
assist in its purification in a manner which will be afterwards 

3. The animals must not be such as respire air by means of 
lungs, because they are then independent of water for breathing 
purposes, and for them water is merely or chiefly a medium in 
which they move, not a medium by means of which they 

Thus, however interesting it may be to see reptiles, birds, and 
mammals — as e.g., turtles, tortoises, alligators, snakes, and 
newts ; diving and other aquatic birds, as ducks, geese, coots, 
and others ; and whales, porpoises, dolphins, seals,' otters, water- 
rats, water-shrews, and very many more — moving about under 
water, in a manner in which they 
cannot be seen in a state of Nature, 
yet none of them are properly ad- 
missible in an aquarium, if that word 
is to be employed, aa all words should 
be, to express a definite idea. 

There is no reason why all these 
animals should not be maintained 
so as to exhibit them in clear water 
through which they might be viewed 
laterally, instead of being kept, as 
they now usually are, in water so 
turbid that they seldom can be seen 
when below its surface, and then 
only from a point of vision above 
that surface, and, doubtlessly, much 
might be learned from such an ex- 
hibition, only it must not be termed 
an aquarium. 

The reason of their exclusion from 
aquaria properly so called is not 
merely because their admission 
would deprive aquaria of all signi- 
ficance in the restricted and conven- 
tional meaning it has been found 
convenient to adhere to for pre- 
venting confusion, but because the 
transmission and keeping of such 
lung-breathing animals is for the 
most part much easier than to send 
non-lung-breathing creatures from 
long distances, and to keep them 
when obtained. 

Hence the introduction of lung- 
breathing creatures opens a door 

for the evasion of difficulties, and obviates a necessity for the 
honest overcoming of the same. 

4. The animals must on the contrary be any or all which by 
means of gills, or by having a respiratory function distributed 
over the whole surface of their bodies, possess the power of ex- 
tracting oxygen from that which is dissolved in the water, which 
it absorbs mainly from the atmosphere by contact, and in a 
much-lesser degree from the oxygen which is evolved from the 
plants under the influence of light. 

Such creatures (found in both sea- water and in fresh- water, but 
not in so great a variety in the latter) range from sponges to 
fishes, and no higher, unless the perennibranchiate group be 

The latter creatuies form a small division, which seem to 
divide the fishes from the reptiles. They are all aquatic 
(and live in fresh-water) and they exist below the surface of 
Water, so that there is no very great objection to their admis- 
sion, but the selection must stop there, however strong may be 


the temptation to overstep the boundary line thus drawn, for a 
given reason. 

It will be seen that when aquarium animals are selected 
according to these laws, the water in which they are kept is 
not only a fluid in which they may move, but is one in which 
they breathe, and is, in fact, their atmosphere. 

Take for example two aquatic animals, a duck and a trout. 
A duck may live in water which is proverbially dirty, as when 
one says, " As thick as a duck-pond." Clean water is not at 
all necessary for it, as it is independent of it, even when it dives 
and remains for many seconds below, because the bird breathes 
air by means of lungs above the surface of the water, which is 
merely something in which it can swim, and from whence it may 

extract some of its food by means of 
a bill specially contrived for the pur- 
pose. A trout, on the contrary, not 
only needs water to swim in, but 
water to live in ; and the water 
must be sufficiently pure and aerated 
for the fish to exist in while it ex- 
tracts from it its "breath of life." 

Water, however, is a heavy, dense, 
inert fluid, absorbing air, and being 
consequently purified in an in- 
finitely slower degree than a very 
much greater mass of air ; and when 
made impure, much time is needed 
to restore it to its pure condition. 
For example, if the fifty thousand 
gallons of air contained in a closed 
room of twenty feet square be con- 
taminated by the breathing of fifty 
human beings, the atmosphere of it 
can be almost instantaneously made 
pure by opening windows and doors. 
But if only one gallon of water 
be contaminated in a similar degree 
from the breathing of an excessive 
number of creatures in it, some 
hours must necessarily elapse be- 
fore it can be restored to purity 
by some such simple means. 

Then, to send a duck a hundred 
miles by railway is an easy matter, 
in a light basket which prevents 
its escape, and which admits air. 

But to transmit a trout a similar 

distance needs not merely a vessel 

to contain perhaps a hundred pounds weight of water, but 

that water (the atmosphere of the fish) must be kept sufficiently 

pure on the journey. 

So it is with the maintenance of all aquarium animals proper :- 
there must not only be a sufficient quantity of water, but that 
water must be made to absorb air (which it does with compara- 
tive slowness) in a degree which is faster than the animals con- 
tained in it can use up that air. 

Then the amount of air which water can take up varies as to 
its temperature. Thus, it absorbs much less when warm than 
when cold, while the animals need air in at least as great a pro- 
portion in a warm as in a cold temperature ; hence an allowance 
must be carefully made for this, as it does not require to be 
made when the animals do not extract oxygen from water, as 
in the case of a duck. 

To instance a duck and a trout is to suppose what seems an 
extreme case ; but it is in reality no further wrong than to 
introduce an alligator, turtle, seal, or porpoise. 




The primary laws by means of which the sea anemone has been 
bo long kept in the simple glass jar shown in Fig. 1, p. 57, are 
identical in all respects to those which governed its existence 
in the sea, or, what is perhaps of more consequence to an in- 
tending aquarium keeper, they are the same as those which 
control the well-being of complicated and large aquaria, costing 
many thousands of pounds. 

In my first paper I mentioned that my reading Scoffern's 
" Chemistry No Mystery," when a boy, taught me that costly 
apparatus was quite unnecessary for the mastering of principles ; 
and I now permit myself to say, before going on further, that 
though I am writing this in the Crystal Palace aquarium, sur- 
rounded by every possible contrivance that can ensure success, 

low these hiding-places I could fiad many little sea anemones of 
several species, some hopelessly smashed, but others quite per- 
fect (having been been protected by the strong projections of 
the oyster shell), and unharmed by rain or other fresh water. 

It was quite a mistake of the late Dr. George Johnston, of 
Berwick-on-Tweed, to say as he did, in his " History of British 
Zoophytes," that sea anemones are instantly killed by immersion 
in fresh water. 

The species I found thus were Actinoloba dianthus, Sagartia 
viduata, S. troglodytes, S. bellis, and 8. elegans, but very seldom 
the common Actinia mesembryanthemum. 

All these I used to pick off the shells with never-wearying 
patience and care, and drop them into the factitious sea-water, 


there was a time, nineteen or twenty years ago, when not only 
shillings and sixpences were not to be thought of by me to be 
spent in aquarium matters, but pennies and halfpennies had to 
be laid out carefully. So, with artificial sea-water made from 
salts prepared by a Holborn chemist — which salts he kindly 
gave me because I gave him the receipt for mixing them — I set 
up small aquaria in wide-mouthed glass bottles costing a penny 
or twopence each. The sea I had never seen, and was not so 
presumptuous as even to hope to see it, and I knew of no one 
living by the sea who could send me marine animals. But that 
daunted me not, for I used to sally forth at dead of night where 
heaps of oyster-shells were thrown by day from street oyster- 
stalls in Smifchfield and St. John's Street, and bring them 
home. The oysters devoured in such poor neighbourhoods 
were not the genteel little smooth " natives," eaten at luncheon 
bars, but big rough "commoners," with bold foliations of the 
upper shell, and deeply ribbed on the lower one, and in and be- 

and transfer them to my bottles, to which they adhered, and 
made themselves happy. 

I used to feed them with little morsels of oyster-flesh which I 
found adhering to the insides of the shells, and when the water 
in the bottles would become offensive from the effects of tho 
food, because the quantity of fluid wa3 too small to hold enough 
oxygen in solution to decompose the dead animal matter fast 
enough, I poured the water from the little bottles into a great 
earthenware foot-pan covered with a sheet of glass to keep out 
dust, and standing in a dark corner of the room. The foot-pan 
was so very large in comparison with my small bottles, that tho 
emptying of them periodically into the pan did not interfero 
with the purity of the water in the latter, so that from it I imme- 
diately re-filled the bottles one at a time, on successive days. 
Tho water in the foot-pan on the floor below thus effectually 
counteracted all tendency at going wrong in the bottles on the 
window-sill above. 




By Charles E. Innes. 



ifT^ XHENEVEB a tour is made extending beyond 

v(Alw ... ... 


day, it is necessary to take a complete change, that 
«^c) is, if personal comfort is to be studied, for many 
a fine morning is followed by a wet afternoon, and it is not 
very pleasant to reach one's destination thoroughly soaked, 
and tken have to dine and pass the evening in wet clothes ; 
while, in addition to this, whether it rains or not, a change 
will be found a great luxury. On these tours the numbers 
should be limited— two, or, at the most, three companions 
are quite sufficient, whilst, if even one friend cannot be found, 

had to be traversed the whole distance on foot, and in some 
places it was a question whether the machine would not be 
blown backwards by the wind. It took two hours to reach the 
Seven Thorns Inn, a distance of ten miles, and nearly two hours 
more doing the eleven miles on to Petersfield. Soon after leaving 
the latter town, Butser Hill had to be crossed, and here, though 
the old coach road has been shortened and improved as to its 
gradients by a magnificent cutting, the chalk road was so 
greasy, and the wind blowing so strongly through the gap, that 
a halt for breath was necessary every twenty paces. The season 



the trip may be made alone with great enjoyment. If two or 
three travel together, the pace should always be regulated by 
the slowest goer, otherwise, what may be pleasure to one may 
be misery to the other ; and in arranging distances, due regard 
must be paid to the state of the roads and the direction of the 
wind, as what may sometimes be easily accomplished on one 
day, will at other times take two days' hard work. This the 
writer once experienced to his cost, when he left Godalming one 
morning about ten o'clock, expecting to reach Newport in the 
Isle of Wight about six o'clock in the evening. The start was 
made in a drizzling rain, with the wind blowing a gale from the 
south-west ; in other words, a dead noser. Hindhead Hill, which 
in fine weather and the road in good order, can be ridden up, 

was winter, and soon after passing through Horndean darkness 
came on, with Portsdown Hill still to be surmounted, and it 
was with no small feeling of pleasure, when, through grease, 
slush, wind, and rain, the Portsmouth lights were seen in the 
distance, and Southsea was at length reached, just in time to 
catch the last steamer for Hyde. The twenty minutes spent in 
crossing was the only period of the journey during which the rain 
ceased, for on reaching the island it came down worse than ever, 
with the pleasant prospect of nine miles more over a narrow, hilly, 
unknown road in the dark. To take a fly and sit in wet clothes 
was not to be thought of ; besides, it would have been tacitly 
acknowledging a defeat by the weather ; so a start was made up 
Union Street, and by steadily plodding on, alternately riding 




and walking, Newport was reached about half-past nine at 
night. The actual distance of road covered was less than fifty 
miles, but it was as hard a day's work as the most enthusiastio 
bicyclist coald wish for. 

Before starting on a tour, be sure and see that your machine 
is in good working order, that the bearings are free from grit, 
and properly oiled, the saddle screwed tightly on, and the 
break ready to be put on should any emergency arise requiring 
its sudden application. Various substances are used for con- 
necting the break with the guiding-rod, such as leather, catgut, 
and wire-cord, but the first-named will generally be found pre- 
ferable, as catgut is very much affected by the weather, and 
wire-cord is apt to stretch. 

When driving on a machine with india-rubber-tired wheels, 
the break should be used as little as possible, on account of the 
extra wear and tear occasioned by it ; and if on descending a 
hill you keep your feet firmly on the treadles, pressing slightly 
as they ascend, a sufficient check will in most cases be given to 
the machine. 

An all-important point is tho position of the saddle. Some 
riders prefer it as far removed from the front as is consistent 
with their feet reaching the treadles ; but this is undoubtedly a 
mistake : the nearer you can sit to tho guiding-rod the nearer 
you will be brought to your work, and the greater power you 
will consequently be able to put into each revolution of the 
crank, as your weight will materially assist the muscles of 
your legs, and this is more especially the case in going up hill. 
It must be remembered, however, that the rider's height must 
be taken into consideration in determining this. A man six feet 
high will not be able to ride in the same position as a man six 
or seven inches shorter, supposing the two machines are the 
same size ; but a few trials, shifting tho saddle each time, will 
soon satisfy the mind on this point. When riding in company, 
and you have to pass through a narrow part of tho road, or you 
are meeting or passing a vehicle in a narrow lane, the more 
experienced of the riders should go on ahead, the others follow- 
ing, but not too closely, in case the leader ha3 suddenly to stop 
and dismount. By attending to this a collision will be avoided. 

Another mistake beginners often make whea riding with 
others is to try and race for the lead, or, as it is termed, 
" ride jealous." In a long day's work no one can afford to do 
this, and in the natural course of events the lead will bo found 
to be pretty evenly divided. Never force the pace during tho 
early portion of a long run, let your muscles gradually warm to 
their work, and when half the day is over you will reap the 
benefit of it, especially as a reserve of motive power is always 
useful towards the evening, in case circumstances compel you 
to finish your journey at an increased pace. Another thing that 
is only to be gained from practice is picking your road, that is, 
selecting the hardest and most even portion of it to run on ; 
this will often be found to be close to the edge, but wherever it 
may be the experienced eye will at once detect it ; and a 
bicyclist who does not attend to this will probably be expending 
four times as much strength as one who does. 

The formation of the road will also tell very strongly. 
Chalk will be found to be a great enemy ; even when dry, the 
india-rubber does not run lightly over it, but when wet it is 
terribly Blippery, and it will be necessary to drive very care- 
fully on these occasions, as the wheels are apt to slip up side- 
ways, in which case a spill is inevitable. 

We will now venture to hope that you have been practising 
diligently for some months, and that as you find a run of twenty 
or twenty-five miles is no longer accompanied by fatigue, you 
are anxious to test your endurance over a greater distance. 

By all means do so, and as it is well to have a companion, 
let U3 travel together ; and our journey shall be no myth, but 

the counterpart of one actually taken last summer, when neither 
of the riders had been previously taking more than an ordinary 
amount of exercise. Being busy, we cannot spare more than 
one day for our run, so let us have our machines ready on the 
preceding afternoon, and get as far on our way as we can the 
same night. The Portsmouth road will carry us through some 
lovely scenery; and as you have probably often seen Portsmouth 
before, we will strike off to our right some five miles short of 
the town, and work back towards London through Fareham, 
Bishop's Waltham, and Winchester, to Basingstoke, where, if 
darkness overtake us, we can finish our journey home by train. 

Our machines are at Putney, and have been thoroughly 
cleaned and oiled ; our oil-cans are full; our spanners, plyers, and 
other requisites are in their case; so, strapping on our luggage — 
which consists of whatever we require for stopping out one 
night — we mount, and at 4 p.m. commence our trip. 

Putney Hill is not very steep, but owing to the road being 
macadamised it is a very unpleasant hill to go up, and we are 
not sorry when we find ourselves at the top, running across the 
Heath, where we strike the main road from London. 

Putting our feet on the rests, we run carefully down the hill, 
for the road is loose, and it will never do to have a spill so early. 

A little farther on we cross the Beverley, and find ourselves 
at the " Robin Hood," with Combe Hill before us; and as 
there is no pleasure in riding up it either in dry weather or 
wet, owing to its sandy soil, we will get off and trundle our 
machine to the top, where we mount once more, and after half 
a mile of level road, run down Kingston Hill through Norbiton, 
Kingston, Surbiton, and Long Ditton, to Esher. 

The latter village is prettily situate on a hill, and as by this 
timo it is nearly half-past five o'clock, let us have a little 
refreshment at the "Brown Bear" before adding oil to our 
bearings and continuing our journey. 

Leaving Claremont on our left, we cross Esher Common and 
some sandy hills, which brings us to Street Cobham, or, as it is 
commonly called, Cobham Street. 

Here the road turns sharply to the right, till, after crossing 
tho Mole, we ascend Pain's Hill, and bear again to our left (the 
road straight on leading to Byfleet), when, at the top of the 
hill, we find ourselves on Ockham and Wisley Commons, tho 
former on our left and the latter on our right hand. 

Before descending the hill leading from Ockham Common, let 
ns rest a few minutes to enjoy the glorious sunset over Bolder 
Mere, with its dark background of firs, and the surrounding 
gorse lit up into a sea of gold ; for we may travel many a mile 
on our way ere we view a lovelier scene. 

Having spent a few minutes in thus refreshing our eye3 and 
recruiting our bodies, we mount once more, and passing close 
to the mere, another few miles bring us to Ripley, a pleasant, 
straggling little village, boasting an ancient chapel said to 
have been founded during the reign of King Edward II. 

Six miles more over an undulating road, and we find ourselves 
working up the hill into Guildford ; but as it is still light, we 
purpose pushing four miles farther on, to Godalming. 

Gildeford or Guildford finds a place in many a page of 
English history, and was in olden times a great favourite with 
royalty, especially at Christmas ; and many are the revels that 
the old castle could have borne witness to in the days of 
Henry II. and John. Little of it however remains now but 
the keep, which is worth a visit. 

The main street of the town is paved, and the hill at the 
western end is very steep, so we had better, soon after entering 
the town, take a turning on our right, and wind round the back 
of the High Street, joining it again at the foot of the hill near 
the Wey, which we cross, and then take the left-hand road, the 
other leading over the Hog's Back to Farnham. 



It is a stiffish hill we are climbing, but the road is good, so 
there is no occasion to dismount. 

With St. Catherine's hill and the range known as the Hog's 
Back on our right, and St. Martha's Hill away to our left, we 
feel inclined to agree with Cobbett, "that there is hardly 
another such a pretty four miles in England. The road is 
good, the soil is good, the houses are neat, the people are neat ; 
the hills, the woods, the meadows — all are beautiful." And 
through this lovely scenery we finish our evening's run, just as 
the shades of night are falling, at quiet old Godalming. 

Immediately after crossing the Wey again, the hill into the 
town begins, and it is better here to dismount, as, though the 
road is not steep, it is very badly paved, and the consequent 
jolting will neither improve our tempers nor our machines. 

At the top of the hill we turn to the right, and soon afterwards 

wheel our machines into the stable-yard of the " King's Head," 
and as they are not muddy, we will at once see them safely 
housed, and go in and order dinner before mounting to our 
rooms to have a good wash and to unpack our luggage. 

One article of this same luggage may excite curiosity 
amongst the uninitiated who have never seen an " Etna," 
which i3 capable, with the aid of some methylated spirits, of 
warming up tea or coffee at a few minutes' notice ; and as 
to-morrow morning we mean to be off soon after daybreak, 
and breakfast some twenty miles on, the "Etna" will prove 

After dinner we order sandwiches to be cut, and some tea 
brewed and bottled, to take with us when we start, making 
arrangements at the same time with the landlord for letting 
ourselves out between five and six o'clock in the morning. 


By Charles Black, Champion, 
mallets — eccentricities op platers strange tools handles to hold the mallet to strike. 

first advance in the shape 
of mallets is to be attri- 
buted to private enterprise. 
Probably some player who 
had a private lathe thought 
that if he turned himself a 
little larger head, ho might 
be more often successful in 
his shots, and then, when he 
had hit, he might send his 
foes such a tremendous way, 
perhaps right into the shrub- 
bery, and then have a hunt 
for the lost ball with a 
pretty partner. Whatever 
noble or wicked ideas 
prompted the conception, the big mallet appeared in due course 
of time ; and for a time every player who could produce one a 
little bigger than his neighbours was dubbed the local " swell." 
Most of the manufacturers were, and still are, very loth to 
fall in with the new conception of a mallet, as the increase of 
wood needed to make eight mallets is considerable ; and the 
mallets which are even now sent out in the ordinary croquet 
box are ridiculously inadequate, compared with the average 
match-mallet, putting aside the more ponderous weapons. It 
is a serious difficulty which those who wish to popularise good 
croquet have to contend with. 

Private judgment having asserted itself in respect of the 
size of the mallet, it was not long before it took the shape into 
consideration, and the result is a medley •indeed. There is 
nothing like figures to illustrate results. Well, in 1869, a great 
advance was supposed to have been made on the toy mallets, 
and those used in most of the public tournaments were 6 
inches long, and 2£ inches in diameter, weighing about lib. 
12oz. ; there were mallets heavier than these then existent, 
some being used at the Crystal Palace tournament in 1868 ; but 
the figures given represent the average. 

In 1872 the mallets used in public tournaments varied in 
weight from 2-^-lbs. to 3£lbs., their length being from 7 inches 
to 9 inches, and their diameter full 3 inches. The increase in 
weight is to be partly attributed to the use of plates, which 
will be now explained. 

Some players, notably Mr. Peel, the then champion, finding 
that the stroke which has been described as the "rush " was 
difficult to achieve without striking your own ball too high, and 
thus making it hop over the other, conceived the idea of cutting 
away the bottom of the mallet, as shown in Pig. 1, the dotted 
line denoting the part taken off. The mallet was thus able to 
be swung nearer to the ground, and the striking centre struck 
the ball very low, and made it go forward steadily. In many 
'other strokes, too, it diminished the chances of the mallet 
catching the ground. 

This kind of mallet has been now adopted by the majority of 
croquet players, and many have supplemented the change by 
" plating " their mallets, i.e., by having a brass plate screwed 
upon the flat bottom. 

Of course this makes the mallet considerably heavier, and, in 
the opinion of its advocates, renders many strokes easy of exe- 
cution which are very difficult with light implements. There 
can be no doubt that much less exertion is needed with a heavy 
mallet, and so a lady who aspires to excellence in match play, 
will probably do well to use one ; but given strong wrist-power, 
and fairly muscular arms, it becomes a question whether the 
additional weight does not make the mallet too unwieldy, and 
incapable of very delicate play. No one, however, can be 
dogmatic on this point, for it is a matter of private taste, and 
each player had better choose the weight which suits him best, 
and make himself master of its peculiarities. 

The passion for very heavy mallets must have now reached 
its maximum, for we heard the other day of a gentleman using a 
weapon weighing seven pounds. The development of the croquet 
mallet as the peculiar implement of any individual player, and 
not the mere adjunct of the croquet-box, has not been without 
its comic side. There are some people who are always profes- 
sing to have the " last thing " about mallets with which you can 
hit at any distance, and the result is generally very typical of 
misapplied genius (F). 

We have had mallets with looking-glasses fitted in them, in 
which the ball aimed at was to be reflected ; mallets with black 
lines drawn along them, which were to guide the eye unerringly; 
mallets with long handles ; mallets with short handles, some- 
times heavily weighted with lead ; mallets, also, with one end of 
the head more heavily weighted than the other ; and innumer- 
able shapes and sizes o'f heads; but all former peculiarities 



had to bow before the combined oddities of a mallet which 
graced the Wimbledon lawn this year (Fig. 2). 

The head of the mallet was a large square slab of wood, 
octagon-shaped at the top, and sliced at the bottom ; but the 
handle which was inserted in it was the great curiosity. It 
was shaped at the top like a spade handle, and the shaft was 
bound tightly round with leather and whipcord, in order to 
ensure a firm hold and deaden vibration. But there was 
additional provision made against vibration being felt at the 
moment of striking, by the manner in which the handle was 
inserted into the mallet-head. The wood shaft came to an 
end, and then two pieces of thin iron, quite separate, were 
the connecting link between the handle and the mallet-head. The 

springy, but there is great danger of its warping in our climate, 
as it is all imported from Canada ; green-heart is inimitable for 
one purpose, the stop stroke, as its toughness enables the handle 
to be reduced near the mallet-head to nearly the thickness of a 
little finger, and thus the elasticity of the handle is something 
wonderful ; but this very quality militates against the use of the 
mallet for other strokes, for the handle is so elastic that the 
player unconsciously puts the stop on when he least desires it. 
There are various means for ensuring a firm grasp of the 
handle. Some cover it with leather (Fig. 3), but this gets slip- 
pery in wet weather ; others bind it with whipcord (Fig. 4), 
which is liable to blister the hands ; others use the octagon-shaped 
handle (Fig. 5), which is supposed to keep the head of the mallet 

'"■ ^.'"^'"^iv.wm- 

Fis. 3. 

iiimffiiWH 1 =q 53 

Fiff. 1. 


Fig. 4. 


-q: ■; ■-;-,j|L; nrmi_, ■...;- : >mw 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 7. 


owner of this machine, when about to strike, grasped the spade 
with his left hand, with his knuckles turned towards the 
striking end, and steadied the handle by laying hold of the 
whipcord. It required a most inelegant attitude to perform 
properly with it, as the player had to stoop completely over the 
ball, and turn his head askew to take aim. 

The owner certainly managed to win one game with this 
bludgeon, but he lost his first tie, and so his patent did not 
even gain the guarantee of success. Surely, we need not go 
back to the days when "Adam delved" to find an elegant 
model for our mallets ! 

Apropos of this wondrous spade-handle, a word may be said 
on tho different handles used for mallets. Three kinds of wood 
are chiefly employed — ash, rock-elm, and green-heart. It is 
very difficult to procure a really good stick of ash, but if 
obtained, it makes, in our opinion, far fie best handle for all 
purposes ; rock-elm is a very beautiful wood, and is light and 

pointed true ; others cut notches in the wood ; and we all know 
the familiar rings turned in the handles of the croquet-bos 
mallet. The head of the mallet is made best of box, as it drives 
well, when seasoned properly, and is not so liable to chip at the 
rim as lignum vitas. Ivory mallets are simply expensive toys, 
as they chip frightfully. Figs. 6 and 7 are fair specimens. 

There remains a very important point to notice— the way to 
grasp the handle so as to ensure good play. Here, again, the 
words of Lauthier on pall-mall serve admirably as a general 

" The hands ought not to be either too close to one another or 
too far apart ; the arms neither too stiff nor too extended, but 
easy, so that the stroke may be free and unconstrained. The 
left hand, which is uppermost, ought to have the thumb 
opposite the middle of the mallet-head, and the thumb of the 
right should cross a little obliquely over to the tips of the fin- 
gers, because if in raising the mallet we do not keep the thumb 



so crossed, the mallet swerves in falling on the ball. The right 
hand must therefore hold the mallet as tennis players hold the 
racket, for this thumb so clenched with the tip of the fingers 
(Fig. 8) is much firmer, and better directs the stroke to where 
one wishes to go, and gives more strength and ease to the 
wrist, which ought to work with freedom." Every word of 
this passage may be applied to croquet. 

It is the right hand which does the main share of the work. 
Why, it is not so very long since it used to do all the work, in the 
days of one-handed mallets ; but it was found that playing with 
one hand did not give sufficient command of the balls, even if 
it were possible to hit more accurately that way ; so the left 
hand was brought in to aid. And now there are no one-handed 

"rush" the mallet must be grasped very firmly, and swung 
rather more from the shoulders than the wrists, that is to 
say, there must be little elbow work, else the ball will be hit 
too high, and jump over that which it is intended to drive 
forward. It is best for this stroke to have your ball as 
nearly as possible midway between your feet, so that the mallet 
may be swung like a pendulum, and, as it were, pick up the 
ball in the middle of its swing, when it is at its nearest 
point to the ground. It is for getting underneath the ball in 
order to ensure its travelling that the slice is chiefly useful. 
Let the beginner attempt this stroke first at very short dis- 
tances, and then gradually increase the interval. 

The " cut" requires a quick eye rather than any particular 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

players seen in public matches. The left hand steadies the 
mallet when great force is used, and the right hand directs the 
application of that force by the firm grip which the clenched 
thumb gives. There is no rule without its exceptions; and let 
no one despair of excellence if he finds that it is more natural 
to place his left hand below his right, for there is a very suc- 
cessful player who always holds his mallet in that fashion. It 
is difficult to give any precise rule as to what distance from 
the mallet-head the hands should be placed. 

If a player is not very tall, let him or her stand upright, and 
taking the handle of the mallet, touch the back of the ankle 
with the head, and the place at which the handle is then 
held will give a good position (Fig 9). Players, however, must 
consult their own convenience, and try to be at once elegant 
and effective in whatever attitude they adopt. 

A few words on the way of holding the mallets for the 
peculiar strokes we have described. In order to make a 

hold of the mallet. For the " split," " roll," and " pass," tho 
mallet-handle must be "gripped" as if for dear life, in all 
cases, but the method of applying force is very different ; for 
in the " split " there must be almost always a sharp crisp blow ; 
in the " roll" a heavy pressing stroke, with the whole weight of 
the body put into it; in the " pass" a pressing stroke, with the 
addition of wrist action, only to be learnt by actual instruc- 
tion from a proficient. In the " stop " stroke, the handle ought 
not to be grasped too tightly — just as in billiards the cue is held 
rather loosely for screwing — but the fingers must be clenched 
enough to make the mallet hit the ball full in the centre, or the 
stroke will be a failure. Let the mallet be under-sized, and 
have a green-heart handle. Dogmatism on the subject cf 
mallets is certainly to be deprecated, but a practical recommen- 
dation seems necessary for beginners, so we will leave them to 
test our recommendations with a sliced mallet of about 2|lbs, 3 
with a head of boxwood, and an octagon handle of good ash. 




By C. W. Alcock. 
PRISONERS' BASE — the game (cont.) — chivy — his labours — prison — deliverance — the captain — ruses — tacticians. 

, i HrVT is as a rule not a player of the very highest order 

\>J of skill, for you can readily comprehend that he acts 
chiefly in the character of a decoy, or to use perhaps a 
better illustration, of a reconnoitring party, and a cautious 
general will never risk the loss of a portion of his be3t forces 
until he has had some little insight into the strength of the 

Chivy is usually despatched into the centre of the field, 
equidistant between the bases and prisons, but this may be said 
to be only the case when the limits for play are of an extensive 
kind, and there is plenty of chance for the reconnoitring player 
to gain and regain his position. But where the bounds are 
necessarily more prescribed, chivy is despatched from either 
of the base3, and the one requisite for his safety is that he 
must in his venturesome excursion pass at least beyond one or 
other of the prisons before he returns. 

Directly, of course, he leaves his base, according to instruc- 
tions, one of the opposite side, who are in occupation of the 
white base, is despatched in hot pursuit, and now begins the 
battle, till it wages fast and furious. Of coarse, the player 
who as I have said follows chivy with the purpose of way- 
laying him or of cutting off his retreat, is in turn pursued by 
an antagonist ; and so the chase goes on, until, it may be, the 
whole of the players are hard at work. 

You must not suppose, though, that the sport is at all indis- 
criminate, and that one player may touch any other of the 
opposite side just as opportunity serves, for, by a wise provision, 
only those who have left the home before him in pursuit can bo 
touched, so that priority ha3 here a recognised value. 

Meanwhile let us follow poor chivy on his perilous trip, and 
consider how he is likely to fare under different circumstances. 
It is not easy for him to escape, you may be sure, unless he be 
capable of turning like a hare, and is fleet of foot, for he has 
to cross directly in face of the enemy, and, without he be full 
of expedients, ho will inevitably be taken prisoner. 

If even he succeeds, there are others of his fellows who are 
certain to succumb to the vigilance of the pursuers, and 
whether the case be his or theirs, the lot of a prison is the 
sure consequence. 

Put yourself for a moment, then, in the position of a prisoner, 
and place yourself quietly, as you will have to do, in the charge 
of the player who has been lucky enough to effect your cap- 
ture. He will take you safely enough to your prison, for 
after a capture his person is as sacred as if he were veritably 
the bearer of a flag of truce, and he is inviolate until he has 
placed you in durance and returned safely to his own home 
once more. 

It is not at all improbable, if your capture has been attended 
with any difficulty, that you will find your prison already 
tenanted, for the sport allows of no delays, and captures and 
releases follow in quick succession. Now that you are in 
prison, though, you will have to begin at once your plans for 
escape, for it is in his schemes for your deliverance that your 
captain will have an opportunity for showing either his skill or 

You will have to look out for the arrival of your deliverers, 
and the first touch of one of your own side, if he be able to 
reach you unmolested in spite of the enemy, will prove your 
freedom, so that no chance must be lost. All that is required 
of you in your confinement, is that you keep some portion of 

your body within the limits of the prison, so that the longer 
your arms and the more extensive your reach, the better will 
be your prospects of a speedy rescue. 

More than this, if there be several of you, as long as one of 
you show that he has not overstepped the limits of the prison, 
you have fulfilled the law, and you can thus, by joining your 
hands together and forming a chain of connection, spread out 
far towards the region of your own home, and effectually lessen 
the risks of those who are bent on your deliverance. 

You can easily see that as the game progresses and the 
prisons become filled, the excitement is of no mean order ; and, 
indeed, the scene is vivid in the extreme, as the one side nears 
ultimate success, and then, it may be, loses its chance by an 
unlooked-for rescue of one of the enemy. 

The game may go on for ever, for it is not won until the one 
side has succeeded in placing within the sure confines of its prison 
the whole of the enemy, and this is an achievement that is 
rarely gained, unless either one party be vastly superior to the 
other, or the captain of the one be much superior in resources 
as well as artifices. 

And what of the arts required in the game ? 

It may seem simple enough, you may possibly imagine, but 
there are niceties in the various tactics that require the super- 
vision of a skilful captain ; and the manoeuvres in deploying 
your forces to the best advantage need something more than a 
dullard to devise. 

It is not so easy to perfect the operations for the relief of the 
several prisoners, you may rely upon it ; and it is in this special 
branch of the game that tact and generalship are most needed. 
In the selection of captains, it is not so much that they them- 
selves should be the fleetest of foot, but that they should be 
capable of marshalling their own side, of directing the various 
players according to the exigency of the moment. 

I have seen many clever strokes on tho part of a captain that 
would earn fame in a battle more material in its character. 
Sometimes you will see him make a bold sally on his own 
account, and either intercept an unsuspecting foe, or by a dash 
that seems at first hopeless, secure the rescue of a prisoner 
when all hope was apparently well-nigh abandoned. At another 
you will find him equally sage in counsel in the direction of an 
assault on an unguarded position. 

There are many ruses in this sport, be assured, and certainly 
not the least creditable is that which I remember as invariably 
successful, of a player, in the heat of a spirited engagement, 
when the contending forces are so hopelessly immersed in the 
fury of the warfare as to be oblivious of every external point, 
calmly utilising tho occasion to steal undisturbed up to one 
or the other of the prisons, and set at liberty the whole of its 

It is not always the most complicated inventions that succeed 
best ; and you will find that the easiest way is not only often 
the nearest at hand, but as often is that which is the least sus- 
pected and the least suggestive. At any rate the simplicity of 
prisoners' base is very much on the surface, so do not count 
on immediate promotion. You may act as chivy at first, until 
you reach higher flights, for you may stumble. It is not a 
rare occurrence, though, in ordinary life to see chivy in the 
best position, taking advantage of every wayfarer incapable 
or slow of foot to pass his way. Only he, too, sometimes slips 
himself, and ia taken to prison. 




By Eliza Cheadle. 


| HE handle, instead of being the 
last consideration, is. in the 
screens in question, almost 
the first thing to be thought 
of. Prepare a piece of wood 
four inches long, and bind 
the two middle feathers 
firmly on to it; then work 
from the centre. The fibres 
of each succeeding feather 
should lie over and com- 
pletely hide the shaft of its 
predecessor. One set only 
of fibres belonging to each 
feather is to be visible; 
the bare stems are ranged 
very closely side by side, and bound down to the handle evenly 
and firmly. Any one who has spliced a bat will be an adept 
at this performance. 

Having arranged the feathers of one half, you go back to 
the middle, and place those of the other half in a like orderly 

In the front of the screen, the fibres visible of each feather 
are to face towards the centre one; and no shafts should be 
seen except those of the two outsiders, which, of course, have 
no wing underneath which they can hide any part of themselves. 
Their outside fibres are cut away to about half the breadth of 
those which are on the other side their own and their neigh- 
bours' shafts. 

If you prefer it, you may fix the quills to the handle in a 
different way ; and that is, to range the quills together while 
holding them in your hand, and having made half the depth of 
your handle hollow, to deposit therein the little bundle, fixing 
it with glue. 

But which ever way you adopt, you must afterwards pass a 
piece of strong wire through the shafts. Curve the wire first, 
and then string the feathers on to it, as it were, close to where 
the fibres begin. There is no need to fasten it at either end ; 
and the shafts being very close together, the wire will never 
be perceived. This will hold the lower part of the screen 
properly together. 

And now it is time to thread a strong darning-needle with a 
long length of white thread, wherewith to keep the upper part 
of the feathers in order. Push the needle through the shaft of 
the outside feather, about three inches from its tip ; the needle 
should go in at the back and out at the front, and a knot 
should be ready to prevent the thread from escaping entirely 
through the aperture. Pass the needle through the fibres, close 
to the shaft, and draw it out at the back ; if you can manage 
without ruffling the feathers — and as it has been done I don't 
know why you should not do it also — pass your needle and 
thread through the shaft of each feather, not as at first, from 
back to front, but through the sides, so to speak, of the quills, 
and immediately pass it through the fibres to the back again, so 
that no stitches are seen on the right side. 

If you cannot pierce the shafts, then you must just span 
them with the thread, but this will not hold the feathers as 
firmly as the other plan. You gradually ascend, going through 
each shaft a little nearer to the top, so that when you have 
reached the middle feather you are within an inch of its tip ; 

then begin to descend until you come to the other outside feather 
at which point you ought to be in a straight line from where 
you started. 

On the smooth soft white surface paint some flowers and 
leaves, using powder paints for the purpose. The flowers 
should not be very large representations, and they are not 
expected to be very true to Nature. 

Birds sporting lengthy tails, and butterflies fluttering gaudy 
wings, add character to these screens, and give them a foreign 
appearance, but of course more art and genius is requisite for 
these productions. You must remember to be very particular 
to draw your brush one way, and that the way of the fibres, or 
the consequences will be disastrous indeed. You can if you 
like, cut out flowers, etc., in rice paper, and then gum them on, 
but the general effect is not nearly so charming. 

And now cover the handles. Narrow coloured ribbon, plaited 
closely, makes a pretty casing ; handles which are simply 
bound are liable to suggest the idea of sprains and broken 

The last thing to be done is to make two handsome round 
rosettes, large enough to cover all the bare shafts which verge 
towards the centre, and which are lost to view beneath these 
ornaments ; one is stitched on in the front and the other — the 
same size and colour — is sewed on at the back, for the same 
purpose of concealment. The fastenings of the handles should 
also be hidden by these rosettes. 

We will now bid adieu to screens big and little ; but I 
imagine that for such a number and variety you will have 
made a goodly collection of feathers, and in all probability 
you have not found use for them all. It is a pity that any of 
them should be doomed to obscurity, so I will tell you a few 
ways in which they can be exhibited. 

Elegant little baskets may be made of feathers which have 
been taken from the backs and breasts of birds. Cut the sides 
and bottom of cardboard, square or octagon, or with as many 
sides as you please. Cut in buckram as many pieces as will 
cover the sides ; these should be a shade larger than the card- 
board. Sew feathers separately on to each piece until they are 
quite covered ; begin at the top, and work down to the bottom. 
Gum the cardboard together in the form of the designed basket, 
line it with silk, and then paste the buckram on to the out- 
side. If a handle is added, make it of cardboard, cover a strip 
of buckram with tiny feathers, and paste it on to it. This plan 
is more secure and lasting than that of fastening the feathers 
on to the cardboard only with gum. 

Pretty penwipers can be made by cutting a round of velvet 
or cloth, and either edging them or completely covering them 
with breast-feathers. 

You work towards the centre, and when that is reached, you 
complete the useful ornament by crowning it with a thick flat 
button, covered with black velvet, the size of a shilling. 

If you are benevolently disposed, you may delight the heart of 
some little maiden by presenting her with a muff for her own 
small person, or for that of her doll. The former is made of 
black velvet with bands round of peacocks' "eye" feathers, or 
of pheasants', fastened on to strips of jaconet or buckram. 
Tke latter is made of jaconet, on to which small feathers are 
stitched until, the whole is covered. The plumage should all 
stroke one way, as it does when on the bird itself. 
I am afraid you will think that I am always robbing the 



peacock, but really it is in a great measure his own fault, for 
he spreads out his tail-coverts in a vain-glorious spirit, and 
displays such splendours and magnificence, that he inspires 
others with the wish 
to be robed in like 
manner, even though 
it must be in bor- 
rowed plumes. His 
" eye " feathers, laid 
one after another in 
single file on strips 
of jaconet, make a 
rich, unique, and most 
recherche trimming for dresses, and also 
for hats. 

If you happen to have a few wing- 
feathers remaining, you can make 
another kind of basket. Cut a piece of 
cardboard either round or square, to 
serve for the bottom ; cover it with 
watered silk, or else ornament it with 
a butterfly, flower, or bird ; pierce holes 
with a stiletto all round it, near the 
edge, and at perfectly regular intervals 
— they should be pierced on the right 
side, as the part where the stiletto first 




life III 

enters is always neater than that where 
it makes it exit. 

Cut your feathers all exactly tho 
same length, and dip the point of each 
shaft in gum ; push them through the 
holes. They must only just come to 
the surface on the other side, other- 
wise the basket will not stand steady. 
The feathers stand upright all round, 
their fibres reaching down to the 
ground, for no bare shaft 
ought to be seen. Cover 
a wire or a narrow flat 
piece of steel with rib- 
bon wound round it very 
neatly, and place it in- 
side the basket, nearer 
to the top than the 
bottom, and tie each 
feather to it. This is 

done by needle and silk, 

•which should match in 

colour the covered wire. 

Pass the needle from 

the inside through the 

fibres, close to the shaft ; 

just span the shaft, and 

pass it back again. There may be a handle to this basket 

or not ; but two feathers crossed about one inch from their 

tips, and fastened together by a bow of ribbon — their other 

ends being fastened to the wire — form a very pretty finish. 

Before closing this description of feather work, let me say 
a few words relative to the construction of flowers. There is 
certainly something very stiff and formal about feather flowers, 

but then Borne of Na- 
ture's own produc- 
tions are decidedly 
prim, and those speci- 
mens only should be 
attempted with fea- 
thers as the material. 
WW 'Wllflt Tulips, daffodils, cro- 

cuses, anemones, car- 
nations, and such-like- 
flowers will look the most natural. 
The general rules are to take two' 
natural flowers, pull one to pieces, cut 
out the shape of its petals in thin 
paper, and then, with small scissors, 
cut your feathers in like manner (be- 
fore using feathers for any kind of 
work, remember to gum them), then 
bend the foather with your finger and 
thumb to its required shape. 

Supposing you wish to make a. 
"bachelor's button" — it is a pretty 


little flower at all times, and looks 
particularly well when made of feathers; 
it rejoices in the important name of 
Ranunculus acris flore pleno, so don't 
despise it — take a piece of fine wire, 
and about a yard of green sewing silk ; 
wind the silk round the wire half an 
inch; then take four wee white feathers, 
with rounded edges ; put them flat and" 
close together, so that 
they will stand up and 
look like a little tuft; 
fasten them to the wire 
by winding the silk 
round them closely and 
evenly. This forms the 
^.centre of the flower. 
Then take twenty petals, 
irather larger, and, after 
rounding their edges 
and bending them 
Blightly back, range 
them, one by one, round 
and round the wire, each 
row a little lower down 
the wire than the pre. 
ceding one, and no petal directly in front of the one before it. 
Wind the silk two or three times round each petal. When all 
the petals are fastened on in this way, form the calyx by 
winding the silk very closely and evenly over the shafts of the 




feathers, and then cover the stem in the same way. The flower, 
should be kept in one position in the same hand. 

The buds are formed of cotton wool, rolled tightly round one 
end of a piece of wire, in the form of the pattern bud ; the 
little ball is then gummed, and a flnffy part of the feather 
laid on and smoothed down. The leaves are of green feathers. 

Very exquisite carnations may be made in this way, by cutting 
the petals rather larger and gimping instead of rounding their 

edges. When stamens are required for other flowers, those from 
artificial flowers whose day has gone by will stand in good 
stead; frequently they look fresh, although the petals are spoilt. 
In the illustrations on the previous page we give examples of 
flower and leaf drawn from those composed of feathers. 

For fastening the feather petals of larger flowers, fine wire 
will be found better than silk, and narrow green ribbon is 
sometimes wound round their stems instead. 




By A. G. Payue, B.A. 

T is often a difficult point to decide when it is absolutely 
')l\ necessary to use the rest. We have hitherto, in speaking of 
^2sr> striking the ball, taken for granted that it is sufficiently 
near to the player to enable him to use the ordinary bridge 
made with the hand ; but when this is not the case it is neces- 
sary to have recourse to the contrivance represented above. 

Mr. Bennett, in his book on billiards, which, as far as we can 
recollect, is the only one that gives any directions as to how to 

use the rest properly, says : "In using the rest its head should 
be placed on the table about the same distance from the ball 
as the bridge, or a little further. The hand holding the rest 
is to be on the table, with the knuckles downward. The rest 
should be held slightly to the left of the cue, say four inches. 
The cue-butt is to be held between the first finger and the 
thumb, the thumb being under the cue, which should be raised 
about a foot off the table. The hand should be on the same 



level with the elbow. The arm should work from the elbow, 

the shoulder being kept stiff ; and the hand should work under 

the chin. The feet should be two or three feet apart, and both 

at an equal distance from the table." 

We are upon the whole inclined to agree with this, with the 

exception perhaps of holding the rest with the knuckles down- 
ward, which is a point we consider at the least immaterial, 

the generality of players keeping the knuckles up. A more 

important point is to keep the cue as far as possible horizontal. 

Many in using the rest strike the ball too low ; this is to be 

avoided except in screwing, when of course it is necessary, in 

which case the head of the rest should be brought nearer the ball. 
As, however, we have quoted other books on billiards, 

we would warn our readers against the enormous amount 

of rubbish and inaccuracy contained in 

many works on the subject. For in- 
stance, even Mr. Kentfield, speaking of 

aiming, says: "In all strokes where it is 

determined to strike the ball in the 

centre, or above or below it, the cue 

should point with precision to that part 

of the object ball which it is the intention 

of the player to strike." These words 

we have quoted are printed in italics. 

Take a simple case, a very fine cut. It 

is evident that the finest cut possible 

would be to cause the ball to strike the 

object ball on the extreme edge, the limit 

of a cut being an angle of 90° with the 

line the striker's ball traverses before 

contact. Should the player aim as Mr. 

Kentfield directs, he would point his cue 

in a direct line with the extreme edge of 

the object ball, and, consequently, in- 
stead of a cut, the object ball would fly 

off at an angle of 30° instead of 90°. 

It is evident that in the case of wishing 

to hit a ball as finely as possible — should 

the balls be, e.g., two inches diameter— 

the cue would have to point exactly one 

inch away from the edge of the object 


Again, we are likewise informed that 
" there are seventeen different points 
or sides at which a ball may be struck 
by the cue, and each point when 
struck will give rise to a different motion." 

The number of different points in which it is possible to 
strike a ball are of course infinite. 

But we wish to be practical rather than mathematical; and 
as we are writing probably for those who know but little of 
the game, and the majority of whom will not possess the 
advantage of a private table, it may be more to the point to 
give them a few hints how to make their debut. 

Before opening the door, listen for the sound of the balls 
striking, otherwise you may be the cause of what is called 
" putting a man off his stroke." Even one who is not a player 
can readily enter into the feeling of being made to start, if just 
as in the act of striking, after having taken a careful aim, a 
door behind is suddenly opened. 

This is one of many points of what may be called billiard 
etiquette, on which beginners, of all others, should be on their 
guard. Speaking to any one in the act of striking, walking 
across the line of play, etc., may often be done through igno- 
rance, and give rise to extremely unpleasant remarks being 
made, as any of these acts done " with intent " w»uld be 

simply deliberate cheating. We should recommend any indis- 
creet novice to instantly apologise, should he inadvertently 
baulk the striker, and also to remember that some little 
allowance ought to be made for any one who has missed his 
stroke through the fault of another. 

Another point we would warn beginners about is that, as a 
rule, in practising all they think about is malting a score, and 
it is on this account that we would recommend them to com- 
mence practising with one ball only. It will almost invariably 
be found to be the case, that when any one is " knocking the 
balls about" for practice, that the sole object of the striker is 
to make either a hazard or a cannon, and that, if anything, he 
thinks less rather than more about "position" than when 
playing a game. A bad player, too, in his eagerness to play, or 
rather to score, will be often observed not 
even to wait till both balls have done 
rolling before playing again. 

This sort of practice is, of course, worse 
than useless. Let a learner therefore 
take one ball, and, before striking, mark 
with a piece of chalk any spot on the 
cushion, and ask himself the question, 
" If I play at that spot where will my 
ball go ?" By this means he at any rate 
will begin to have some idea of what is 
called the angles of the table. 

For instance (vide Fig. 1), let him 
spot his own ball on the centre spot in 
baulk, d, and, by playing a little above one 
of the middle pockets, let him try and 
run a coup, by sending his ball all round 
the table into one of the bottom pockets. 
This one stroke will teach him, perhaps 
for the first time, many things about the 
game that he did not know before. His 
first impression probably will be, "What 
a capital stroke this would be if both the 
other balls were in baulk near each other, 
over one of the bottom pockets, I should 
very likely make a cannon, or knock one 
of them into the pocket." But by trying 
the stroke over several times he will see 
that different degrees of strength cause 
the ball to rebound from the cushion at 
different angles. Thus (vide Fig. 2), 
Fi<r, l. suppose he plays from the centre spot in 

baulk (very slowly) at the point in the 
left-hand side cushion marked p, the ball will rebound in the 
direction p b ; but if he plays (of course, in both cases, without 
putting on any side) with some considerable amount of strength, 
the ball will rebound in the direction p p.'. 

It has often been laid down as a maxim in billiards that the 
angla of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection ; this is, 
however, never absolutely the case, the nearest approach to it 
being when the ball strikes the cushion with such a small 
amount of force as to scarcely rebound at all. 

If the ball be struck very slowly, the angle of reflection is 
very nearly equal to the angle of incidence. If the ball be 
struck hard the angle of reflection is smaller than the angle 
of incidence. 

Thus, in the case we have mentioned (vide Fig. 2), the 
angle of incidence d p n is the same in both cases, but the 
angle of reflection when the ball was struck gently, viz., B p n, 
is considerably greater than the angle of reflection, b' p n, when 
the ball was struck with force. 

In the old times, when the cushions were made of list, which 



" gave " very little, there was much less difference in the angles 
which the ball made with the cushions at different degrees of 
strength than in the modern india-rubber ones, that yield a 

good deal. Figs. 
3 and 4 are an 
sentation of the 
cushion at the 
moment of con- 
tact with the ball 
— Pig. 3 when the 
ball has been 
struck gently, 
Fig. 4 when the 
ball has been 
struck hard. The 
arrows show the 
direction of the 
ball in both cases, 
and it is evident 
from the compres- 
sion of the india- 
rubber of the 
cushion in Fig. 4 
that in the re- 
bound into its 
original shape it 
will cause the ball 
to fly off more per- 
pendicular to the 
cushion than in 
the case of Fig. 3, 
where it has aot 
been so muchcom- 
pressed, owing to 
the less amount of 
strength with which it has been struck. It is somewhat 
strange that many who have played billiards for years are 
ignorant of this and many other facts which are in reality first 
principles. It is, we believe mainly owing to their concen- 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

trating as a rule their whole attention on making a score, and 
it is on this account we would recommend them occasionally 
to play with only one ball. Let any player take a ball and 
play a stroke gently up the table, striking any spot on the top 

cushion (previously marked) with just sufficient strength to 5 
bring his ball back again into baulk. Let him observo 
carefully the angle at which the ball rebounds, and let him try 
his same stroke 
again with the 
same strength. 

In all proba- 
bility he will find 
that the ball re- 
bounds at a some- 
what different 
angle. He will 
now have ocular 
that he has not 
yet learnt to hit 
his own ball pro- 
perly, and that he 
puts on side invo- 
luntarily. Should 
a somewhat good 
player attempt it, 
and fairly succeed, 
let him try and 
hit his ball with 
sufficient strength 
to send it up and 
down the table 
five times. Even 
the best of players 
cannot do this 
without putting 
on a little side un- 
consciously. It 
will be found very 
good practice for 

a beginner to regulate side, and to accustom himself to put oa 
a small or large amount at will. 

Let him play from the centre of baulk (d, Fig. 5) and 
play at a spot, p, in a line with the spot, and try first to bring 

Fig. 5. 

his ball back straight. Secondly, to put on just sufficient side 
to bring the ball back, as shown in the diagram, first into or 
towards the right and left bottom pockets, and aftarwards into 
or towards the right and left middle pockets. 




By Charles Hibbs. 


T is now about thirty years since attention was attracted by 
*i|j^ some very remarkable reproductions in copper of well- 
-a?-> known basso-relievos, suck as the copy of tke " Last 
Supper" of Leonardo da Vinci, wkick were exhibited in the 
opticians' windows of London, Liverpool, and some other large 
towns. Most faithful copies they were, to the most minute and 
accidental particulars, of the plaster models from which they had 
evidently been taken. There were the initials of the Italian 
image-maker in the corner, and there was the print of the 
fracture which had deprived one of the characters of a nose. 
There was the same blurred indecision about the outline of the 
figures which a plaster cast would naturally present, when it 
had been produced from a mould which had in its turn been 
made from another plaster cast, and so on, in long succession 
from the original. They were not castings, the metal was too 
thin ; and the peculiar appearance of the under side showed 
that they had not been raised with the stamp and die. It was 
rough and granular, like the surface of a rock which had been 
formed by geological deposit in the ocean-bed. The depres- 
sions, too, had a strange minuteness about them, as though the 
metal had not been forced into the hollows of the matrix, but 
had fallen there, as by its own gravity. Curiosity was even 
more whetted than satisfied when it came out that these beauti- 
ful productions were indeed the result of deposition ; that the 
metal had fallen upon the mould, not in a molten state, but in 
the shape of a shower of grains inconceivably minute, which 
had massed together by their own power of cohesion ; and that 
the producing agent was that mysterious force which pervades 
all Nature, of which we know so little, and yet of which every 
new and startling discovery we have made has proved of such 
immense importance to man — the force of electricity. 

At the expenditure of a very few pence the reader may begin, 
on a small scale, to produce such curiosities for himself. For 
apparatus he will require a glass or earthenware vessel (Fig. 1), 
with upright sides preferably, capable of holding about a quart ; 
and also a small porous vessel, narrow and upright, to stand 
inside tho other (Fig. 2). A preserve jar will answer admirably 
for the first purpose, and a very small flower-pot, if tall and 
narrow enough, for the other. But if the latter is not easily ob- 
tainable, a porous cell can be manufactured in a few minutes. Roll 
a piece of brown paper two or three times round the end of a 
ruler, fold over the end as a grocer would make up the end of a 
parcel, closo it well with sealing-wax, and also fasten up the 
side seam in like manner. If there is no passage for liquid but 
through the pores of the paper, it will do well enough. Should 
the flower-pot be handy, it is to be preferred, but the little hole 
in the bottom must be stopped up with a cork tightly pressed 
in, then cut off close, and both sides well covered with sealing- 
wax or shellac. 

Into the outer vessel now put some crystals of blue vitriol, 
or sulphate of copper, procurable at the nearest chemist's shop, 
and pour upon them some boiling water. They will soon 
dissolve, and the water will become of a deep blue colour ; add 
other crystals, till the water will dissolve no more, when the 
solution is said to be saturated. Let it stand long enough to 
test this, and to get cool ; meanwhile prepare the other vessel 
by nearly filling it with water, and pouring into the water 
a small quantity of sulphuric acid, not more than one part in 
ten or twelve. 

The smaller vessel may now be put inside the larger, and 

may rest against its side, care being taken to pour off some of 
the blue liquor if the inner vessel is not tall enough to stand 
well above the surface. 

Now we have to convert this apparatus into a voltaic cell, 
and make it produce electricity for us. Get a small bar of zinc, 
about as thick as a finger, and as long, and attach to one end a 
piece of copper wire. The wire may be wrapped round, soldered 
on, or, best of all, the zinc may be run round it in the molten 

A bar of zinc may be easily made, if there is a melting ladle 
at hand ; and any odd scraps of old spouting, etc., may then be 
used up. Fill a small box with sand, or even fine garden-mould 
will do, and having rammed it down well, push in the end of 
the poker to form a mould. Pour the melted zinc cleanly into 
the hole, holding the end of the copper wire there at the same 
time, for the metal to close round it. It is desirable, though, 
to perform this operation as much at arm's length as possible, 
for the fumes of molten zinc are deleterious. If a piece of thin 
sheet iron can be got, and rolled into a little cylinder, to line 
the mould, the casting will be cleaner and smoother, and better 
for a purpose that we shall shortly have to describe. The wire 
may now be cut off and bent over (Fig. 3), so that when the zinc 
bar is dropped into the porous cell, the end may dip into the 
blue liquid in the outer vessel. Directly this is done, electric 
action begins, and a deposit of copper to form upon the end 
of the wire. 

Now suppose we want to get a fac-simile of a small cast or 
medal. We must first make a mould, and for a medal gutta- 
percha will make as good a mould as any. Warm and pinch 
off a small piece, sufficient to cover the face of the medal when 
spread out to the thickness of about a quarter of an inch, and 
knead it between the fingers till it acquires the proper con- 
sistency to take a good impression without sticking. Then 
press it down on the medal with the thumbs equally in every 
part, keeping the thickness pretty even, or, if anything, greater 
in the middle, where the relief is highest. 

When the substance begins to harden, it is useful to give it 
a good hard squeeze, in order to gain a perfectly sharp im- 
pression. Very little ingenuity will effect this : it may be done 
by placing a pad of cloth upon the gutta-percha, and over that 
a piece of wood with a heavy weight upon it ; or the operator 
may stamp upon the piece of wood ; or, better still, a bar of 
wood may be inserted in some convenient niche, and brought 
down upon the cloth pad in the manner of a lever ; or, best of 
all, medal and mould together may be squeezed between two 
pieces of wood in a vice. For a very small medal a pair of 
nut-crackers may be made to answer the purpose. 

When the mould is pulled away, it will be found to bear a 
pretty correct resemblance of the features of its model, reversed, 
of course. Then take the end of the copper wire, and bend it 
into a loop, and having warmed this slightly in the fire, press 
it on the back of the gutta-percha mould till it buries itself 
in the plastic material ; then close over, and allow it to get 
cold (Fig. 4). 

We have now to make our mould into a conduetor. At 
present it possesses no chemical or electrical affinity for the 
copper particles, to attract them to its surface, and if it were 
immersed, no deposit would form upon it, but only on the 
copper wire immediately above it. It will be necessary to give 
it a coating that shall have an affinity, and for this purpose 



black-lead is the most convenient material. Brush it over 
softly with the ordinary kitchen black-lead brush, taking care 
to reach all the lines in the impression, and also 
to black the top of the mould, and a little of 
the wire ; for if there is any break in the con- 
tinuity the operation will fail. 

All is now ready for work. Place the zinc 
plug in the porous cell, and bend the wire so 
that the mould may hang freely in the blue 
solution, not touching the bottom or the side 
of the vessel, but still as far away from the 
porous cell as conveniently may be. In about 
two days there should be formed upon the face 
of the mould a complete fac-simile of the original 
in good tough copper. 

Some ludicrous mishap may possibly have 
occurred, the cause of which will 
be at once apparent, and which 
will only increase the interest taken 
in the experiment. For instance, 
the black-lead coating may have 
been imperfect at one place, when 
it will be found that the deposit 
has carefully avoided that spot, 
and left a gap in the impression. 
Or perhaps the black -leaded finger 
may have touched the back of the 
mould, near the wire, in which case 
a faithful copy will be presented 
of that too. If the face of the 
mould has been touched by the 
finger before immersion, the chances 
are that the print of the skin will 
be found on the metallic copy; or 
even a breath upon the mould may 
leave an impression. These little 
tricks of the volatile agent will only 
cause laughter, and give zest to 
the pursuit. " 

Bat failure may sometimes oc- 
cur from causes which are not 
so obvious, and require explana- 
tion, and of which the tyro will 
require some further knowledge of 
the subject to enable him to detect. 

We hope that by the time he has finished 
the experimental course through which we 
propose to lead him, he will not only be an 
expert manipulator, but will have acquired 
a fair knowledge of the theory and principles 
of the arts of electrotyping and electro- 
plating, together with some general idea of 
the marvellous agent which produces the 
effects. But we must start with small be- 
ginnings, and get together a few concrete 
facts before inquiring into the why and the 

The most likely forms of failure, then, are 
these : — The metal may deposit in the form 
of coarse dark grains, like sand, having littlo 
or no cohesion, and will crumble to pieces 
under the touch. In that case the action 
has been too quick. The acid in the porous cell may have 
been too strong, and must be weakened ; or the surface of zinc 
acted upon has been disproportioned to its corresponding 
opposite, the mould in the outer cell ; or lastly, the mould 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5 

has been hung too near, and the particles have been attracted 
to it too violently. We may get over the one by resting the 
arch of the wire on the edge of a piece of thin 
window-glass, placed upright on the top of the 
jar, so that the plug may not dip so far into the 
acid ; the other may be got over by simply 
altering the bend of the wire ; but, for the 
latter purpose, the following is a convenient 
arrangement : — Let the wire bend over from the 
zinc in the form of a straight horizontal arm, 
and let the mould be connected with a separate 
short wire, having a loop to slip over the other ; 
it can then be shifted backwards at pleasure, 
and taken out occasionally, to see how the 
deposit is getting on (Fig. 5). 
Or the contrary result may have taken place — 
the action may have been too slow 
' — and the copper deposit will then 
be perfect to appearance, but of a 
pale colour, and so brittle that it 
could not be pulled off without 
breaking. In this case the reverse 
precautions must be observed; but 
only repeated tests, and perhaps 
a tantalising process of trial and 
error, will ensure a good malleable 
deposit. The experimenter will find, 
however, that he will readily feel 
his way ; no difficulties will occur 
that need discourage him. Should 
there be an absolute failure of de- 
posit, he must look sharply to his 
connections ; the wire must not 
only touch, but be clean where it 
touches ; and it will be well to 
scrape it where the contacts occur. 
There must be a continuous con- 
ductor; a slight coating of dirt 
might break the continuity. 

Perhaps it may be found that 
the cell, after working well for a 
little time, comes to a dead stand- 
still. If so, look at the zinc plug, 
and see if the acid is attacking it 
in any particular part and eating 
a hole into it. Should this be found, it is 
a sign that what is called local action is 
taking place, and it would be hopeless to 
go on. The remedy for it is to amalgamate 
the zinc with mercury; and, indeed, this 
should always be done before starting ; but 
as beginners are generally a little anxious 
to get on, we have omitted mention of it till 
now. The process is very easy. Dip the 
zinc into the sulphuric acid solution for a 
short time ; then, holding it over a plate, 
pour upon it a little mercury from a bottle. 
It will spread naturally over the surface, but 
it may be helped by rubbing with a piece of 
cork. If there is any spot that will not 
take, touch it with the acid again, and it will 
then pick up a globule of mercury from the 
plate. The advantage of having a smooth plug will now 
become apparent ; if not smooth, it should be made so by 
scraping or rubbing. The mercury does not coat the zinc, 
properly speaking, but forms an amalgam upon its surface, 

Fig. 3. 



which equalises the action of the acid, and performs an electrical 
duty which we shall explain further on. 

So provided, the operator may amuse himself by producing 
an endless variety of little objects with which to furnish a 
perfect cabinet of curiosities. He need not confine himself 
to producing one article at a time ; two or more moulds may 
be hung in the liquid, by arranging the main wire conveniently, 
so that they may hang clear of each other. But he must re- 
member to add a few crystals now and then, as the solution 
becomea exhausted. 

Almost anything can be copied, only there are different ways 
of making moulds to suit the material. Suppose, for instance, 
that he wishes to get a copy of a plaster medallion ; the best 
way to proceed is as follows : — Place the medallion, face up- 
wards, on a plate, into which has been poured a small quantity 
of clean water. The plaster will begin to absorb the water, 
and in due time will become saturated with it, producing a 
waxy appearance upon its surface. While in this state, bind 
round it neatly, with thread or cotton, a strip of thick paper or 
cardboard, so as to form a fence or wall round it a quarter of 
an inch or so in height. Into this pour melted wax — equal 
parts of white wax and bees' wax answer best — till the recep- 
tacle is full. When cool there will be a perfect mould of the 

medallion, which will come away easily, by reason of the 
plaster having been saturated; otherwise it would have ab- 
sorbed the melted wax. The black lead must not be brushed on 
a delicate mould like this, but it must be treated lightly with a 
camel-hair pencil. 

Of course a permanent matrix can be formed at any time by 
simply depositing upon the original article, and backing the 
deposit up with lead, solder, or even wax ; there is only the 
double process to be gone through ; but if a number of copies 
are required, the trouble will repay itself. In depositing upon 
metal, however, either medals or moulds, the back and other 
parts that are to be kept clear must be coated with resinous 
varnish, and the face with black-lead. Otherwise the deposit 
would form all over, and would adhere ; the article would be 
plated instead of copied. 

One little word of warning may not be needless : it is not 
advisable to use as models the Queen's coin. A galvanic bat- 
tery forms part of the stock in trade of the professional coiner, 
and moulds made from new shillings and half-crowns might 
look a little suspicious. Before depositing a mould upon a 
plaster cast it must be saturated with melted wax, or the acid 
in the blue solution will soon destroy it. Pour the melted wax 
upon a hot plate, and let the plaster cast lie in it. 


By J. C. Wilcocks. 


HE writer does not think it 
well for beginners to com- 
mence boat-sailing in the open 
sea, as, owing to the mal de 
mcr, to which the majority of 
unlucky mortals are liable, 
they may lose time on the 
very threshold of the subject ; 
he has therefore chosen for 
the first cruise an expanse of 
tidal water about three miles 
in length by nearly a mile in 
breadth, where the proverbial 
uncertainty of our climate is 
not so likely to interfere 
with daily practice as it is on 
the unsheltered bosom of the ocean. The lower end of the 
estuary is almost shut off from the sea by a sandy beach, 
leaving a narrow entrance on the south-west side, thus con- 
verting the estuary into a harbour, and on the inside the 
beach is rather steep, rendering it accessible to boats at all 
times of tide. 

It is a fine morning in June, not too bright to be disagreeable 
from the heat, and we have a nice breeze from the west, which 
although against us, will be of advantage to a beginner, from 
the many changes of course we shall have to make in beating 
up to Aleport, a distance of about three miles up the estuary. 
It is just 9.30, and as it will be high water at noon, and the 
tide is not strong, we shall probably occupy the greater part of 
the time on the trip, for the boat will not be sailed to advantage 
by a young hand, who should be made to steer and watch the 
sails from the first. 

The tyro, like most others of his predecessors in the art of 
sailing, cannot see how we shall manage to advance against the 
wind by the aid of the Bails, but when it is explained to him 

that progress in this direction is owing to a resolution of forces 
which follows from playing off the powers of two fluids against 
each other, he makes an approach to the comprehension of the 
subject. He has not had much experience of boat work, none at 
all on salt water, or anywhere in fact on water affording sufficient 
room for sailing, but is fond of sculling and pulling, and wishes 
much to become acquainted with the management of boats 
under sail ; he has, however, deferred any attempts in this way 
until the present time, having witnessed occasional efforts 
ignominiously terminated, from want of experience in would-be 
navigators, the unfitness of the boats for the work expected 
from them, or a combination of both. 

But here is the boat at her moorings, let us haul her ashore 
and start with all speed. We have here the contrivance termed 
an " outhaul " for keeping boats afloat at pleasure, by which we 
are enabled to dispense with a second boat to go on board. It 
is a simple plan, not confined to this locality, but often adopted 
where it can be conveniently brought into use, and consists of a 
strong rope passing round a post at high-water mark, and 
through a large block at low-water mark, secured to a heavy 
stone, or as in some cases to an anchor, so that the boat being 
attached to this running rope by another short piece, can be 
hauled in or out as desired. It cannot, however, be used every- 
where, but where you have a steep beach in a sheltered position, 
or the margin of the water consists of a somewhat sloping rock, 
or you have a flight of steps or a landing ladder provided, it is 
an excellent arrangement. 

Having hauled the boat ashore, we jump on board, not, how- 
ever, without the remark from our would-be sailor, that the 
boat appears to be rather a tub, from her considerable breadth 
in proportion to her length. 

This always strikes the eye of those who have been accustomed 
to pulling on fresh water, and whose attention is called to sea- 
going boats for the first time, the requirements for a rowing 
and for a sailing boat being so very different. 



It was formerly the custom to disparage fresh-water boats 
and sailors, which is manifestly absurd, for on some of our 
farger rivers and lakes there are as fine boats, and even yachts 
of moderate size, as can be found on our sea-board, and on the 
larger lakes, where the practice very much assimilates itself to 
that at sea, there are as smart men to work them as are to be 
found on the sea itself. It must be confessed, however, that in 
general both the best boats, and the knowledge to handle them, 
have been imported from the sea-coast, where nautical matters 
naturally have their cradle. 
But to proceed. 

In a locker under the seat at the stern we keep a pair or two 
of crutches of galvanised iron for pulling, and sundry other 
little matters, such as the tiller, some spare rope and twine, 
etc. ; we ship the crutches, as, although we intend to sail, the 
sculls, or paddles, as they are called in sea-going boats, will be 
brought into use at first, to give us a small ofiing from the 
beach whilst hoisting our canvas, for, as the wind has come on 
to blow freshly on the shore, we shall not be able to get off 
from the beach with the sails already hoisted. 

The sails, masts, and paddles, are kept on board the boat, 
laid along the thwarts, and are defended from wet by a water- 
proof cover rather longer than the length of the sails when 
tightly rolled up ; the whole are secured by a galvanised chain, 
which, embracing two of the thwarts and the gear laid on 
them, is locked to itself, thus rendering the whole beyond 
the power of any person to remove them. We unlock and 
cast off the chain, roll up the waterproof cover, stow the 
latter in the side of the boat, and the former in the locker. 
Our next proceeding is to step the masts. On the fore side 
of the lower end or heel of the mizen-mast an r is carved, to 
show the position in which this mast enters its step, and an A 
on the after side of the foremast for the same purpose. The 
masts being both in position, the sails are unfurled, and placed 
conveniently for hoisting. The mizen- sheet is riven through the 
sheave of the outrigger, which is shipped through the transom 
board, the tack is hooked on to the small hook provided for it, 
and the sling on the yard attached to the traveller. 

The fore-lng sail is next to be arranged for hoisting, and as 
we intend first to stretch to the north-westward, we place the 
yard on the right hand or starboard side of the mast, which will 
be to leeward of it ; and as the wind will keep both the yard and 
sail out clear from the mast, they will be hoisted easily. 

The tack of the sail is to be secured in its place through a 
hole in the thwart in which the mast is stepped, or if there be a 
clamp for the mast, a cleat or small brass eye should be fitted 
to the mast to receive the tack, the main-sheet should be fixed 
and seen all clear, and we can now shove off, after slipping the 
buoy of our mooring overboard. 

Pulling out a dozen yards, that we may not drive on shore 
whilst setting our sails, as we are two in the boat, our friend 
aft hoists the mizen, and the writer the fore-lug, leaving the 
mizen-sheet slack until the fore-lug is set, and the sheet 
hauled aft, in order that the boat may keep her head out of the 
wind, which she would not do if the mizen-sheet were hauled 
aft before the head-sail were set. 

Ixl the chart on page 144 the track of the boat is shown in 
zigzag, which is manifestly the only route by which a boat or 
vessel can be propelled by the power of the sails against the 
wind. Each straight line of the zigzag is termed a board, and 
they are for the most part of unequal length, in order that the 
boat may be kept as much as possible in the strength of the 
current, which, during the latter part of the tide, does not run so 
strongly close to the shore as in the body of the river. 

The enclosed spaces in the body and along the shores of the 
river are banks or shoals of gravel, sand, and in the upper 

part of mud, which are more or less found in all estuaries, 
but always in those which form bar harbours close to their 

The arrows denote the direction of the currents: the first 
close to the beach has but one feather on the shaft, and 
signifies that there is a return stream or eddy from the direc- 
tion shown ; the other four arrows point out in succession the 
set of the flowing tide or flood stream. 

The track crosses the various banks, there being ample 
water over them for boats of moderate size on the last two 
hours of the flowing tide. 

The compass is given at the top of the chart for the con- 
venience of reference, by which the course of the boat or 
direction of wind or current can be ascertained. The scale 
of the chart is on that of two inches to one mile. 

It will be observed that the boat makes ten different boards 
or courses of varying length, and tacks or goes about no less 
than nine times before arriving at her destination, in conse- 
quence of the adverse character of the wind. 

We stand away from the beach on the port-tack, that is to 
say we have the wind on our left with the boat's bow to the 
north-westward. The actual direction of the boat's head is 
north-north-west, but on account of the eddy stream setting 
to the south- south-west against the lee side of the boat, she is 
helped so much against the wind as to be enabled to make 
good the course of north-west by north. 

This is what is termed amongst sailors " checking the tide 
under the lee," and the course of the current against the wind, 
whether it be directly or obliquely opposed to it, is called a 
"weather set." When the wind and tide are in unison or 
approximate to the same direction obliquely, the course of 
the current is termed a " lee set." In a strong lee set and 
a narrow channel no ordinary small boat will make head 
against the wind. 

A certain amount of adverse tide may be overcome, which 
process is termed beating or overturning it, but that amount 
will depend both on the sailing qualities of the boat or vessel, as 
well as on the capacity of the helmsman to make the most of 

This power of overturning the tide may be often seen at the 
entrances ef such harbours as that here delineated, where one 
boat will succeed in making good her entrance whilst another 
will be staggered in the narrows, and, after an ineffectual 
struggle, be obliged to run out again, or anchor, should the 
ground admit of it. -But we are now standing out from the 
beach, and have trimmed our sails so that they work well to- 
gether, the foresheet — or as it is in fact in this boat, the main- 
sheet — having been hauled aft until the boom forms an acute 
angle at the mast with the line of the boat's keel, the after end 
of the boom being just over the gunwale. 

As there is a good breeze, the writer sits on the weather 
side and close to the helmsman, holding the sheet in readiness 
for any requirement, whilst our would-be sailor gives his whole 
attention to steering, which is quite sufficient for a beginner 
to undertake for the first time. 

After having become a little familiar with steering, the sheet 
should occupy one hand and the tiller the other, but at first 
it is difficult to manage both at one and the same time. 

The helm ie to be kept a little up to enable the sails to be 
well filled, and the luff of the fore-lug carefully watched, for if 
it shakes, the helm must be put a little more up until the sail 
is properly filled. 

We will make only a very short board, as the eddy or 
weather-set does not extend very far out from the beach, we will 
then tack and stretch to the south-westward, in order that 
we may check the tide under our lee on the starboard tack. 



which we shall then be on, having the wind on the right-hand 
side of the boat. 

On the word being given the helm was put down, but, as is 
commonly the case with begin- 
ners, much too suddenly, the 
consequence was that the boat 
came up to the wind with her 
way so much deadened, that 
the rudder had no longer suffi- 
cient power to bring her about, 
and she fell back again on the 
same tack. 

This mightpossibly, after the 
commission of the error, have 
been prevented by the writer 
taking certain prompt mea- 
sures with the helm and sails, 
but he is of opinion that it is 
preferable to allow the conse- 
quences of an error to follow, 
when no danger is involved, 
rather than prevent them, be- 
cause these consequences will 
impress the error on the mind 
of the learner, who will there- 
fore, on being instructed, take 
the required measures to pre- 
vent it in future. 

The beginner almost always 
requires to be told that a boat 
should be sailed round to the 
next tack, and that no attempt 
should be made to force her 
head suddenly to an opposite 
direction. It should be man- 
aged as the writerisaboutto de- 
scribe in the present instance. 

The beginner was instructed 
to keep the boat what is termed 
" a good full," that is to say, 
to put the helm up to cause 
the boat's head to fall off, until 
the sails felt the full power of 
the wind, then letting her run 
four or five lengths, so that 
she had gathered good way, 
the boat on putting down the 
helm gradually came readily 
to the wind, and not losing the 
whole of her momentum after 
the sails had shaken, passed 
what may be termed the point 
of hesitation, and the end of 
the boom being steadied a little 
up to windward, she fell ©ff, 
the canvas filled, and she 
started on her next board to 
the south-westward. 

The boat will not stand 
nearer to the wind than south- 
west by south, but through the 
assistance of the strong 
weather-set of the flowing tide 
against her lee side, she makes good a course to the south-west. 

The writer has marked the direction in which the boat's head 
points by a dotted line, the difference therefore can be plainly 


seen between her apparent and actual line of progress, which is 
a great gain to windward. If there were no tide in her favour, 
although she might point or look, as it is termed, up to south- 
west by south, she would not 
stand on that course so as to 
make it good, but would fall 
somewhat to the southward of 
it, so that her advance to 
windward would be but slow, 
and should the tide have 
turned, and have made with 
any strength, she would have 
the ebb stream on her weather 
side, and the most she would 
do would be to sail to and 
fro on the same or almost 
the same line of direction, 
until she must drive away to 
leeward by the power of the 
lee set, if sailing were still 
attempted on the increase of 
the ebb stream. 

As long as the strength of 
the weather-set of the current 
continues to be the same the 
difference between the real and 
the apparent courses would bo 
alike, it is therefore not con- 
sidered necessary to continue 
the dotted lines, but only one 
line has been marked, so as to 
show the agencies that are at 
work, and how they affect the 
movement of a boat through 
the water under certain given 

Our second board has brought 
us nearly opposite the entrance 
of the harbour, where we are 
in the strongest part of the 
weather-set of the tide, and as 
there are cliffs and very high 
land behind them to the south 
and south-westward of the 
beach towards which we are 
standing, we determine to go 
about again and, without fur- 
ther delay, commence our 
third board. 

Under high cliffs, when the 
wind draws off them, it is often 
very uncertain and baffling, and 
frequently ceases for nearly 
half a minute at a time, and 
again returning in flaws or 
blasts of more or less violence, 
is the very opposite of con- 
ducive to a boat's satisfactory 
progress ; we begin to expe- 
rience these calms and flaws 
by turns, and as we shall keep 
in both a better wind and tide 
towards the middle of tho 
estuary, we tack to the northward, and by aid of the tide 
still carrying us to windward, are enabled to make good a 
course of north-west by north again. 




Bt John "Wisker, the English Champion. 
the mtsteet of the automaton checkmate — the notation a problem. 


that singular specimen of mechanical art — the automa- 

■JJTi'EW visitors to the (Crystal Palace have failed to observe 

men of mechanical art — the automa- 
ton chess player. That a figure should be constructed 
capable of playing the flute (as one was by M. de Vaucanson) was 
singular enough ; but the original inventor of the automaton 
chess player claimed for his mechanism the power of analysing 
the intricate combinations of the game of chess. The delusion 
has long been exploded'; but for many years the inventor 

two feet wide, and four feet long. All the portions of the 
apparatus were fixed together, and could be moved to any part 
of the room. 

When an antagonist presented himself, the first proceeding 
was to open all the doors of the chest and expose the interior of 
the figure, so as to show that there was " no cheating." When 
the doors were opened, the chest was seen to be divided into 
two unequal parts, with drawers at the bottom, the whole, 


attained great renown by the possession of a secret which 
seemed to defy analysis. The automaton at the Crystal Palace 
is not the first of its kind, nor is it by any means comparable 
to the splendid original. 

The first automaton was constructed by a Hungarian gentle- 
man, Wolfgang de Kempelin, in 1769, after a promise to the 
Empress, Maria Theresa, that he would produce a piece of me- 
chanism more striking than any she had ever seen. The period 
was marked by a mania for inventions of this kind — extraordi- 
nary clocks, flute-players, and the like, but de Kempelin kept 
his word. In a few months he excited the enthusiasm of 
Europe by a mechanical chess-player, capable not only of 
playing chess well, but of defeating the best practitioners of 
the time. 

The delusion was complete. The automaton was a figure 
attired in Oriental costume, seated on a chair. Before him was 
a chess-board fixed upon a chest about three feet in height, 

including the body of the figure, being filled with wheels, 
springs, and other apparatus of clockwork. After the inspec- 
tion was finished, the doors were closed and the automaton 
began to play. His movements were deliberate. His arm 
moved slowly to the piece he intended to play ; it was delibe- 
rately grasped and deposited on the destined square. All the 
while a noise of clockwork was heard. If " check" was given, 
an inarticulate sound was emitted from the figure ; if any rule 
of the game was infringed, the automaton would make the 
offender lose a move. Napoleon I. himself made three illegal 
moves in succession on one occasion, whereupon the figure 
swept the pieces from the board, and declined to proceed 

Such was the marvel which at once amused and baffled 
Europe for many years. It was bought at great cost by 
Frederick the Great, who threw it aside after the first charm of 
its novelty had passed away. But in 1804 it reappeared, in the 




possession of M. Maetzel, and made the tour of Enrope with 
unabated success, visiting England in 1819. About this time, 

easily be removed from one part of the interior to another. The 
hidden player was seated on a stool, and could transfer himself 


■mim>. my///, 

% y ^..Wzzk- 

JH v///// 

■mm m 

w // ' 

mm 1 WP%pP"ti ^ 

v //': 

Fig. 3. WHITE. 

most scientific men had come to the conclusion that the 
" inanimate reason" was really human agency; and that a 

n#n hi 

mi imii miim/i 

WW,. W(m vmm. Mm 

9/ W/ Hi H 
iLll m Mi Hi 

'W////& '-W^ M - " ,/ ///y/// k 

Fig. 5. 


as readily as the pasteboard machinery. "When a door was opened, 
the man was in the other compartment or in the body of the 


Fig. 1. 

living person was concealed within the figure. But nobody 
oould explain in what way. The crowd of wheels, springs, 


Fig. 2. 

automaton. (See Figs. 1 and 2.) The mode of conducting the game 
was of course the most ingenious and difficult part of the con- 



mi s ii tm a III 


I W M 

Wm., wm y/ wm 

Fig. 4. 


Fig. s. 


tubes, etc., seemed completely to fill the small space within the 
chest and figure. They did not, however, fill either. The 
apparent mechanical apparatus was of pasteboard, and could 

trivance. Under the chessboard, which stood upon the top of 
the chest, was a converse board, exactly representing the one 
above, except that each square was numbered according to chess 



notation, and that nnder each square of the inside board was 
suspended a small metallic ball by a silken thread. On each of 
the pieces above was a magnet. The mystery is now plain. 
Whenever a piece was moved to a square, the magnet at the 
bottom of the piece drew up the ball below ; whilst the ball 
suspended below the square from which the piece was moved 
immediately fell to the extent of its silken thread. Thus the 
hidden player could watch every operation on the board above. 
He repeated the moves on another board, decided upon his 
course of action, and then worked the arm of the automaton by 
springs. The player who conducted the operations with so 
much success for many years was a, M. Mouret. He was not a 
first-rate ; but the advantage of being enabled to try conclusions 
over the board, while the adversary was not allowed to touch a 
piece unless he moved it, enabled him to win against almost all 
comers. The original automaton was lost somewhere inNew York. 

But to return to our lessons. 

It often happens that checkmate is given through the king 
being blocked up or surrounded by his own pieces. The last 
example I shall give is a singular specimen of this class (Fig. 3). 

Here white began by advancing his king's pawn two squares 
or to the fourth square of the king's file. This move would be 
called pawn to king's fourth. Black answered also with pawn 
to king's fourth. White then played his king's knight to 
king's bishop's third, and black answered with queen's knight 
to. queen's bishop's third. White then moved out his queen's 
knight in like manner, and black brought out his king's knight. 
Abbreviated, these moves would stand thus : — 


1. P to K 4. 

2. K Kt. to B 3. 

3. Q Kt. to B 3. 


Q Kt. to B 3. 
K Kt. to B 3. 

As it is highly desirable that the learner should become well 
acquainted with this branch of the subject, without which he 
cannot follow the games and problems I shall submit to him, I 
subjoin two diagrams, showing the notation of all the squares 
from the white and the black sides respectively. For the 
sake of clearness, the distinction of colour is omitted. The first 
diagram gives the moves of all the squares, counting from the 
white side. (See Figs. 6 and 7.) 










8 8 

K E 





Q B 






K B 



K E 





Q B 





K B 


K E 



Q B 




K B 





K E 

K E 





Q B 






K B 








K B 


K E 




Q B 






K B 




K E 









K B 




K E 


Fig. 6. 

1 'be 












a 3 

•bs | - bs 

ra 3 ; u 3 

\ 5 





a 3 

z z 
ra 3 J a 3 




13 5 


a t> 













a 3 



a 3 



a t> 




a 3 


a 3 











a 3 




a 3 



a b 



a 3 


a 3 








a 3 




a 3 


Kg.' 7. 


• Here the king is surrounded on all sides by his own pieces, 
so that he cannot move. He is checked by the knight, which 
can leap or check over the heads of his foes. As the knight 
cannot be taken, it is checkmate. 

The learner is now in possession of the primary elements of the 
game. Before he can go further he must attain a knowledge of 
the notation by which the moves are described, for unless he does 
this, further attempts at book-learning are impossible. The nota- 
tion is very simple, but absolute mastery of it is indispensable. 
In Fig. 4 the men are placed again for the beginning of a game. 

The square on which the king stands is called the king's 
square, that on which the queen stands the queen's square. 
The pieces on each side are named after the king and queen, 
thus: — king's bishop, king's knight, king's rook; queen's 
bishop, queen's knight, queen's rook. The square on which 
each piece stands is called its own square, that in front of it, 
its second, third, fourth, etc., to the eighth. Thus each piece 
has a file of its own. King's first, which is simply oalled king's 
square, is followed by king's second, king's third, king's fourth, 
king's fifth, to king's eighth. Each player notates from his own 
side. If a white piece is played to any square, that square is 
calculated from the white side, if a black piece, from the black 
side. Thus the learner will readily see that the white king's 
rook's sixth is the black king's rook's third, the white king's 
fifth the black king's fourth, and so on. Fig. 5 will afford an 
illustration of a few moves on each side. 

It will be seen that the expressions for the various moves are 
abbreviated in the diagrams. This is always done in practice. 
We do not write king's square, but K sq. ; not king'3 bishop's 
sixth, but KB6; not queen's rook's seventh, but QE7. 

The beginner will easily perceive from the diagram how each 
player records his moves from his own side ; so that the black 
king's fifth is the white king's fourth; the white queen's 
bishop's sixth the black queen's bishop's third; the queen's 
rook's seventh of one the queen's rook's second of the other ; 
etc. He will also observe that there is no "first" square. The 
first square is " the" square ; the next is the second. 

Having given a few examples of the king in actual check- 
mate, I will now proceed to offer a few simple cases where the 
king, not being in mate, may be easily forced into it. 

In the position shown in Fig. 8, white can compel checkmate 
in three moves. 

White begins : — ■ 

1. E to K B 4. 1. K to Q sq. 
He has evidently no other move. 

2. E to Q B 4. 2. K to K sq. 
The black king is evidently forced to return. 

3. E to Q B 8. — checkmate. 

And the position is similar to the first simple example of 
checkmate we considered. 





Bt a Professional. 

-the magic wand the critical moment — the denouement the 

burning the handkerchief. 

O one can be a good conjuror 
unless he is able to "palm" 
well. Those of our readers 
who ever saw Herr Wiljalba Erik ell — 
whom we take as the model conjuror 
of modern times — will perhaps be sur- 
prised to hear that very many of his 
tricks depended on his skill in "palming" 

We will explain, for the sake of those 
who do not know the meaning of the 
term, what " palming " is. It is simply 
taking anything in one hand, and appa- 
rently placing it in the other, when 
all the time it is retained in the first 

Now, to do this effectively is exceedingly 
difficult, and perhaps no sleight-of-hand 
requires more practice. Let a learner of 
the art of conjuring take any article — a 
cork perhaps is as good as anything to 
begin with — and try and palm it ; and 
suppose, to start with, he palms it from 
the right hand into the left. 

First take up the cork between the 
finger and thumb of the right hand, and 
in pretending to place it in the left hand, 
shut the left hand, but keep the knuckles 
bulging out as if there was really some- 
thing in it, and at the same time retain 
the cork in the right hand, concealed in 
the palm as much as possible. 

Bear in mind. First : To hold the left 
hand naturally. To do this, place the 
cork, or whatever is being palmed, really 
in it, and see how the hand looks, and 
then imitate as nearly as possible the posi- 
tion when the hand is empty. 

Second : Do not be in too much of a 
hurry to take away the right hand with 
the cork concealed in it after pretending 
to put it into the left, as it will at once 
excite suspicion. 

Third : Try and attract attention to the 
left hand, by pretending to squeeze what 
is in it, this can be done by slightly and 
quickly moving the tips of the fingers, 
which are just, or nearly touching the 
hand, as it must be borne in mind that 
it looks more natural — i.e., more as if 
there was really something in the grasp 
— if the tips of the fingers are an eighth 
of an inch away from the hand. 

Fourth : Be very careful to keep your 
own eyes fixed on the left hand. If for 
one instant only you allow your eye to 
glance at the right hand slowly conveying 
away the concealed object, you will te 
certain to be at once detected. 


People are very apt to watch conjurors' 
eyes, and it is often and well said, that if 
you want to find out how tricks are done 
don't watch their eyes, watch their hands. 
However, you may depend upon it that 
they — i.e., the audience — will watch your 
eyes," and will persist in watching what 
you watch. 

In fact you may so safely depend upon 
their doing so sometimes, that you can 
purposely look in order to make them 
think they have found something out. 

When speaking of the trick of bring- 
ing the bowls of gold fish out of the 
empty cloth, we recommended the per- 
former, sometimes, after he had safely got 
the india-rubber cover in his pocket, to 
purposely pull about the cloth in a ner- 
vous manner. Now, to call general 
attention to this, it would only be neces- 
sary to glance at it. Some one is in- 
stantly sure to want to examine the 

So in palming, it may occasionally, but 
very seldom, be desirable to really put 
the object into the hand, and then take 
away the other hand rather awkwardly, 
and at the same time let the eyes follow 
the hand going away. Some person is 
instantly (especially that fearful bugbear 
to the amateur, a horribly sharp child) 
sure to exclaim, " Ah, you have got it in 
that hand ! " 

Of course you can instantly open the 
hand, and show that the speaker is 
wrong. You by this means turn the 
laugh against him, and, what is still more 
importe.nt, in all probability stop him 
another time from saying something un- 
pleasant, when he really does see that 
which you do not intend him to see. 

The next point for consideration is 

" what is to be done with the article when 

it is safely passed away. This depends 

very much upon where the conjuror 

stands. * 

For instance, if he is behind a table 
with a cloth over it, the article is easily 
dropped, but palming is much more com- 
monly required when the performer is 
walking about the room away from any 
confederate or any article of furniture. 

This brings us to another point in con- 
juring which no doubt many people when 
they read it will be very much surprised 
to hear, viz., the use of the magic wand. 

We have often heard it remarked, " Of 
course we know that that wand is all 





Is it ? That magic wand is much more useful than most 
people imagine. In fact, some tricks absolutely depend upon it. 
But we will confine ourselves now to its general use. We left 
onr novice in palming in the following position :— We suppose 
him to be standing — of course in an easy and graceful position, 
and with a pleasant smile on his face — with his left hand slightly 
stretched out, the knuckles of which are bulged from what is 
inside, so much so indeed that the tips of the fingers can scarcely 
touch the inside of the hand, he is evidently squeezing what 
is in it, from the slight motion observable of the top joints of the 
fingers ; his eyes are fixed intently also on his left hand. The 
right hand, the back of which is turned towards the audience, 
has dropped naturally down, but, oh, deceitful creature ! in 
that right hand is concealed the cork (or other article) — and 
were we to stop here, he would not know what to do with it. 

But we will suppose him to possess two things, a magic 
wand and an inside pocket in his coat. 

We will, for the sake of boys who long to begin at once, very 
quickly tell them how to make a magic wand. Get a small 
round ruler about a foot long, and cover it over with a sheet 
of bright tinned 
paper, such as 
grocers use to wrap 
tea and cocoa in. 
A little glue or 
strong gum will 
fasten the paper on 
securely, and all 
that is required is 
a little patience to 
wait till the glue is 
dry : we know that 
this is hard, and 

Suppose that the 
happy moment has 
arrived, the wand 
at last completed 

and placed in the Fig. 6 

pocket for use. 

Then, to continue the palming, in taking the wand out of the 
pocket with the right hand, drop the article concealed into the 
pocket. And now again we must recommend patience. The 
trick so far as the palming goes is complete. The mind is 
at ease, which can never quite be the case as long as the article 
is in the hand, but do not use the wand directly, still keep the 
eyes fixed on the left hand ; and still pretend more than ever 
to squeeze what is in it. Wait at least half a minute after 
taking the wand out of the pocket, and then holding it loosely 
between the finger and thumb (thereby showing for the first 
time the right hand really empty), tap the knuckles of the left 
hand gently, say, " pass ! " open the hand, and, lo, it is empty ! 

Very few would believe from merely reading this account how 
exceedingly effective this trick, which is in fact the very 
backbone of all sleight-of-hand, really is. And we would recom- 
mend any one who wishes to learn how to do it, to go and see 
some good conjuror perform. We can assure him that even 
now, after being told about palming, that were he to see 
Frikell, for instance, palm a handkerchief, he would feel. 
inclined to declare that it was really in the hand, so wonderful 
was his power of deceiving the eyes. 

In all tricks it is an important point to allow a certain time 
to elapse between what in future we shall call the " critical 
moment" and the " denouement." Thus, in the gold-fish trick, 
the critical moment was bringing the bowl from the pocket and 
getting it into the cloth. The denouement was of course pro- 

ducing the bowl. It is of considerable importance that one 
should not follow the other too quickly. Again, in palming, 
the critical moment, or rather the critical moments, are pre- 
tending to place the object in the hand, and managing to drop 
it unperceived into the pocket when getting the wand. 

If the left hand were instantly opened after pretending to 
place anything in it, there would be no trick at all, or should 
the performer instantly, on taking the wand out of the pocket 
use it, and open the left hand, suspicion would fall directly 
on the last movement, and very likely some one would say, 
"Ah, it is in that pocket!" but by waiting, the attention is 
distracted, and the general impression after, is that somehow 
or other you have worked it up your left coat-sleeve. If 
you are asked to pull it up to satisfy them, don't. They 
are on the wrong scent, and palming is so often used, and 
is so important, that they had better so remain. 

The trick that we mentioned in our last article (p. 82) under 
the name of the great portfolio trick, is one of the best 
instances possible of the importance of waiting some time 
between the critical moment and the denouement. We will 

at once proceed 
to explain how this 
clever trick, which 
for a large one, is 
one of the very 
simplest, was per- 

We described the 
portfolio as being 
about six feet long, 
by rather more 
than three feet 
wide, though when 
closed it was not 
more than three or 
four inches in thick- 
ness. Now it will be 
at once seen that 
when open with the 
inside away from 
the view of the audience, a considerable amount of space would 
exist, and that if placed upon a table covered over with a cloth 
down to the ground, there would be no difficulty in bringing 
out very many articles of a considerable size, as it would be 
impossible to say whether they came from under the table, or 
from the interior of the portfolio. But then we also stated 
that the portfolio was placed on a small stand, beneath which 
it was possible to look, and impossible to hide anything. 

How then was it possible to bring out a little boy and girl, 
besides live ducks and geese, and other things ? 

Those who ever witnessed the trick carefully would have 
observed that, while the stand beneath which it was " possible 
to look," was being placed in position, the portfolio was just 
for one instant placed on another table (a covered one), and 
there opened, and quickly lifted forward on to the stand, and 
that the conjuror allowed some little time to elapse before 
producing anything very wonderful from the inside. 

By this time, however, the majority of the audience had 
forgotten that it had been opened on the covered table. This 
opening period, although a very short one, was the " critical 
moment " we speak of, as, almost as quick as a flash of light- 
ning, were then lifted from behind the table, a boy, girl, ducks, 
geese, etc., and placed inside the portfolio. Of course, after 
the performer had brought out a few trifling things, such 
as children's toys and sugar-plums, and thrown them right 
and left, the audience were amazed to see a real little boy 



and girl make their appearance out of what, when closed, was 
not more than three inches in thickness, but having brought 
out these, which it is evident could not have been confined in 
the space, as well as live ducks and geese, the performer again 
closes the portfolio and shuts it up, so that everybody can 
see that it is not of greater thickness than we have mentioned. 
He then re-opens it, and produces, as we said in our last article, 
a wire bird-cage some two or three feet square, and a large wooden 
box about three feet long, two feet wide, and two feet deep. 
Where can these possibly come from ? From the portfolio 
really. Both are made to lie flat by means of hinges at their 
sides, and when pulled up, shut with a spring which keeps 
them steady. 

A spring opera-hat will give some little idea of what can be 
done in this way, as it must be borne in mind that these articles 
are not afterwards handed round for inspection, in fact, con- 
jurors very rarely give boxes to be examined. 

We will now proceed to explain how a very ingenious small 
trick is performed, which can be bought at some toy-shops for 
as little as sixpence. Fig. 1 is a round box, which opens in the 
centre, and discloses a small black ball inside (Fig. 2), which 
can be taken out and examined. The black ball can then be 
placed in the pocket, and the empty box closed. On opening 
the box, the black ball appears inside, on re-closing and re- 
opening the box, it is again empty, and the black ball can be 
produced from the pockets. The illustrations will explain how 
this is done. 

The box opens in two places. If opened between Figs. 4 and 
5, the box appears empty, if between Figs. 3 and 4, it has the 
appearance of containing the black ball, though Fig. 4 is not a 
ball, but hollow, and with the top painted black to resemble one. 

If the box is a pretty good size, and well made, Fig. 3 will 
fit on to Fig. 5, in which case the box can be given to be ex- 
amined by placing the black ball inside, and removing the part 
(Fig. 4) altogether. Of course the box is by this means made 
shorter, and this may be noticed, we would therefore advise that 
it should not be given to be examined, still it is worth knowing 
how to do so, if it is particularly asked for. Or the box can be 
placed in the pocket for some little time, and then (after Fig. 4 
has been removed) placed on the mantelpiece carelessly ; some 
one of course will go and examine it, but they can find nothing 
out, and, owing to the lapse of time, the slight difference in the 
height is less likely to be noticed. 

To show how useful palming is, we will explain how much 
more effective this little trick can be rendered by its aid. Take 
out the black ball, and close the empty box, having the wand 
ready in the pocket, place the black ball (apparently) in the 
left hand, take the wand, and touch first the hand, and then 
the box, and say "pass." Open the hand, which is of course 
empty, open the before empty box in the top place, and there 
9eems to be the black ball. 

Another small and amusing trick, which can be bought for a 
shilling, is that of boring a hole through the nose, and passing 

a piece of string through it. The nose is apparently pierced 
with a small blunt kradall, of which there are two, one to be 
examined and the other not. The one retained is made like 
the small daggers used at theatres, which go up into the handle 
when pushed, and which gives the appearance of going into 
the body. The one which is given to be examined is of course 
a real one. 

Fig. 6 represents a small wooden bridge, which is placed over 
the nose immediately after it is pierced. The string works 
round inside the woodwork, but looks on pulling it as if it went 
straight through the nose. The bridge (Fig. 6) can be easily 
made with the help of a glue-pot, two or three sticks of fire- 
wood, and a piece of whipcord, which is better than string, as 
it is less likely to catch. 

The tools required to make this are very simple — in fact a 
plain pocket-knife would do, but we will refer our readers to our 
papers on joinery, should they wish to turn out a neat and 
workmanlike article, and we would recommend them also to 
read and study those same papers very carefully before pro- 
ceeding to make a proper conjuring table, which we intend 
before long explaining how to do. 

But we have not yet explained how to pick out the marked 
shilling from the hat. We have no doubt but that many have 
guessed it, but we are still more confident that many have not, 
and we would remind the latter class that we before told them 
that conjuring generally depended upon very simple means. 
And the very simple means by which this trick is done is as 
follows. The marked shilling is sure to be warmer than the 
others, owing to its having but very lately been in the hands of 
those who marked it, and all the conjuror has to do when he 
puts his hand into the hat is to take out that shilling which is 
perceptibly warmer than the rest. Care, therefore, in per- 
forming this trick must be taken to have the shillings cold at 
starting. For instance, it will not do to take them fresh from 
the pocket, and place them in the hat, as the warmth of the 
body is as bad as the warmth of the hand, and it would be 
impossible to distinguish the shilling which had been in 
the latter. Care, too, must be taken that only one shilling 
is removed from the hat, as sometimes people will take them 
all out, and look at them, marking only one of them ; of 
course when this is done, you cannot determine which one 
has been nmrked. 

The trick called " burning the handkerchief " is one that re- 
quires no apparatus, but simply depends upon sleight-of-hand. 
Ask any lady to lend you her pocket-handkerchief, and have a 
lighted candle somewhere near, pull the centre part of the 
handkerchief between your finger and thumb, and thrust it 
into the candle while it is blazing ; you can call her attention 
to the name in the corner, in order to prove that it is really 
hers. You can afterwards roll it up into a small ball, take 
your magic wand, and touch it, shake it out, and it is re- 
stored again as it was before. We will explain how this trick 
i3 done in our next paper. 


By Wat Bbadwood. 



FEW more standardaphorismsmaynot be out of place for 
the benefit of the tyro. Let him commence by casting 
an eye over his harness ; at first, rather that he may 
learn by inspection the place for everything and everything in 

its place ; but later, when he has passed his apprenticeship, still 
he should do the same, and this time with a master's eye, to see 
that nothing is wanting before he mounts to his seat. Let him note 
that the breeching, if in single harness, is neither so loose as to be 



useless, nor so tight as to hamper the action of the horse and to 
rub the hair off. Let him see that the rein is on the proper bar 
of the bit ; else if the horse has been accustomed to be driven 
from one bar, and his bitting is suddenly altered, his manners 
will probably change at the same time. If he is driving double 
harness, let him note the length of his traces, and see that his 
horses are properly "poled up," else the carriage will overrun 
them down hill. 

In very light single two-wheel harness, breeching is some- 
times dispensed with, and the holding back done from the 
saddle. It looks more elegant and shows more' of the horse ; 
but of course it adds to the wear and tear of his fore-legs down 
hill, by throwing the whole weight of retention upon them, 
instead of letting the hind quarters bear their share with the 
breeching ; and with a heavy load, such a system is unsafe, 
however good the horse may be on his fore-legs. 

Having cast a careful glance round his harness, the driver 
will then proceed to mount. 

Let him take the reins in his hand before he mounts the 
box, then, when seated, let the " near " or left-hand rein pass 
between the forefinger and thumb, the "off" or right-hand rein be- 
tween the fore and middle fingers — palm of the hand uppermost. 
Then let the grasp of all the fingers close tightly on the loop 
of the rein, which should pass out under the remaining fingers. 
Though the grasp should be tight the touch should be light ; 
let not the exercise of the muscles of grip confuse the driver 
into adding to this a tug from his shoulder upon his horse's 
mouth. However light a horse's mouth is, or supposing 
he is a slug, that does not take his collar and run up to his 
bit, still the driver should always feel the mouth, else he 
has no control ov&r him in sudden emergency if the reins 
are hanging loosely. There is more danger in driving a 
sluggish or dead-mouthed horse in a crowd, than a free goer. 
The latter runs up to his bit at once, and so feels your orders ; 
the slug does not feel, and may interpret a touch of the reins to 
direct him into an order to stop in the teeth of a Pickford's van, 
«r on a level railway crossing in sight of an express. Whipcord 
must keep a slug to his collar, and so to his bit, or the absence of 
constant communication between his mouth and his driver's hand 
may lead to collisions. And now in the seat, and the grasp of, 
the reins first secured, let the tyro make a start ; not in a hurry, 
not with an instant dose of whipcord — a word of encouragement to 
his horse should suffice at first. Even supposing he knows before- 
hand all the characteristics of the animal, warranted quiet in 
harness, he had best progress steadily and surely, till he feels 
that he has even this docile beast fully under his control. Let 
him learn to allow free room for his own wheels in turning. 
corners or passing obstacles : he has got two things to provide 
for,"his vehicle as well as the horse. Better give a wide margin 
at first than collide ; though before long his eye will guide him, 
and he need not then make himself conspicuous as a greenhorn 
by giving too wide berths at corners and rencontres. Go steadily 
round a corner ; remember there is such a thing as centrifugal 
force ; and a two- wheel vehicle, high hung, may easily be upset 
to the outside by a hasty whisk round a sharp corner, even 
without the help of a bank to lift the inner wheel. 

Then, as to the rule of the road. If he meets anything coming 
the opposite way, he must take it on his right hand ; if he over- 
takes it, on his left ; if he is overtaken he must keep to the 
left, and be passed on the right. 

" The rule of the road is a paradox quite, 

For if you go right you go wrong, and if you go left you go right," 

is an old saw which he may bear in mind as implicitly as do 
sailors the rhymes which tell of the rule of the road at sea. 
Down hill he should progress carefully, especially when on 

two wheels, for then the extra weight of the cart hangs on the 
pad or saddle on the horse's back. A stumble and fall will 
probably break the shafts, certainly cut the horse's knees, and 
may pitch the occupant over the splash-board. Let him hold 
well in, sit well back, play firmly and lightly with his hand, 
ready to hold up sharply in event of a stumble. Even a sure- 
footed horse may make a false step from the pain of a loose 
sharp-pointed bit of stone cutting his frog. A judicious and 
timely support from the rein may save the horse and preserve 
his balance, by thus suddenly shifting part of the weight of his 
head and neck on to the carriage itself. When the tyro 
has forfeited that name, it will be time enough for him to 
indulge in a little extra steam towards the bottom of a valley, 
so as to " cheat " the next hill of some of its terrors by the 
impetus thus gained. On four wheels, and with sure-footed 
horses, these tactics are safe enough. 

Next to a powerful seat the mouth of the horse, and the 
lightness of the hand upon it, are the requisites. " Half the 
value of a horse is in his mouth," is an old maxim. Few owners 
are aware how much " manners " depend upon the bitting and 
handling of a horse. Shifting the rein from one bar to another 
makes all the difference in the going of the horse. The mouth 
is the link of communication between him and his driver ; the 
bit must control him without fretting him, and the touch of the 
hand, unless light, deadens its own injunctions. 

As he progresses in his craft, he will note many other minor 
details, apart from mere safety, which conduce to the welfare 
of his horse and carriage also. Though he is bound by rules 
of road at rencontre, he may choose his own path when all is 
clear ; he need not take his share of rolling into shape newly- 
laid stones, if a smoother passage presents itself. Even if he 
cannot altogether avoid stones, he may yet ease the draught if 
he can manipulate only one wheel on to a smooth surface. 

But suppose all this time we have been talking to a lady- 
Well, the opening sentences, as reins, rule of road, care at 
corners, and such-like aphorisms, apply equally to her, for her 
strength is less and her seat less advantageous than that of a 
man. The latter we have already condemned ; but since ladies 
will insist upon fashion at all hazards, we must assume that 
our fair friend in this case is making the best of a bad job, and 
is driving from one of the stereotyped powerless lounges of a 
lady's phaeton. It is more because of this sacrifice to elegance, 
than to the difference in physical strength between women and 
men, that "manners" command so high a price, apart from 
make and shape, in ladies' harness horses. Artificial high action 
is also inculcated by early lessons at draught across deep- 
ploughed furrows, to give the animals an appearance of higher 
mettle than they can safely possess. Now and then mistakes 
are made, and animals are selected which a lady could control 
from a box seat, but which are beyond her powers from the arm- 
chair seat of a phaeton. Even if no bad casualty occur, a dispute 
with the trader for breach of warranty as to " quietness" is the 
result of the system. Well, it cannot be helped. Let us assume 
and hope that the pony is a quiet one, and that the lady has 
nerve. Though the pony is quiet, we also hope that he is a free 
goer ; if not, he will work only as much as he likes. A lady at 
the best of times has no great strength of wrist to wield a whip, 
and with a splash-board as high as her face between her and 
her quadruped, she can only administer a "reminder," which 
may suffice if he is free, and springs to a touch of the lash ; 
but real " punishment " is out of her power. 

But of all ladies' phaetons the most dangerous are those in 
which four occupants sit inside, those riding backwards sitting 
vis-a-vis to the driver, who thus has to drive over their heads, 
and is farther removed than ever from control of her pony, for 
which propinquity as well aa elevation is essential. It may 



seem a light matter that a lady should be so placed as not to 
be able to punish her pony severely ; her gentler nature of 
mercy may lead her to think this but a slight drawback, involv- 
ing only slow progression at worst. Yet, with a slug or a shier 
there is danger ; for the former, if he cannot be made to run up 
to his bit, may bring her into danger where she seeks to guide 
him clear of passing vehicles, especially in a crowd ; and 
though it is always best in the case of a shier to undeceive his 

terror, by leading him gently up to what frightens him that ho 
may smell and reconnoitre it, and so reassure himself for the 
future, yet there are times when a shy horse that cannot 
be whipped up to his bit may involve those behind him in a 
dangerous predicament. Shiers are prima facie outside the 
warranty of "quiet to ride or drive," but slugs are compatible 
with the terms. He who caters for a lady in horseflesh should 
avoid the latter almost as scrupulously as the former. 


Bx J. C. Leake. 

^HE plate will now be ready for exposure in the camera, 
and it should be kept as nearly as possible in the same 
position as that shown in the last Figure (p. 93), until 
the exposure takes place, and on no account turned over or 
laid flat, or the solution will run about the plate and cause 
stains and marks in the picture. 

All this time, however, our sitter has been anxiously waiting 
the advent of the magical tablet which is at once to prove her 
beauty and our skill ; we therefore wrap our slide in a cloth, in 
order to exclude any stray light 
from the plate, and proceed to take 
our first portrait. 

The first thing will be to arrange 
our sitter so as to secure the best 
view of the face, and we soon find 
that any position is better than one 
which Beems to be the favourite 
with many photographers — that of 
sitting directly in front of the 
camera and looking into the lens. 
We therefore turn the head slightly 
round towards the shaded side of 
our studio, until we get a three- 
quarter face, and instead of holding 

the head np, so as to produce an idea of a stiff neck, we ask our 
sitter to look slightly down, not merely turning the eyes down, 
but slightly inclining the head. 

As we only intend taking the bust, we need not trouble to 
arrange the hands, but we turn the figure so that it may not bo 
in exactly the same plane as the face, in order to secure as 
graceful a pose as possible. 

This being secured, we return to our camera, and by means of 
a line drawn with a pencil upon the ground glass, adjust it so 
that the head occupies a nearly central position upon the 

The focus is now finally adjusted, by means of the rackwork, 
and the cap replaced upon the front of the lens-tube. The 
focussing screen is now withdrawn — taking care not to move 
the camera — and the slide containing the plate inserted in its 
place, the whole of the camera being covered with the cloth in 
which the slide was wrapped. 

The hand is now inserted under the cloth, and the sliding- 
shutter gently drawn up to its full height. Now all is ready, 
so, with a final glance to see that our sitter still retains the 
position in which she was arranged, we draw the cap to the 
edge of the tube, so that it may be removed without shaking 
the camera, and observe, "Now, miss, please to let the eyes 
rest upon that spot, to remain perfectly still, and to put on a 
pleasing expression." As soon as the smile caused by the 
repetition of Mr. Helio's formula has Blightly subsided, we slip 
off the cap, count one, two, three, four, five, pop the cap on the 

and there, no doubt, we have secured our first 


lens again, 

As, however, this remains to be developed — an operation 
which must be performed in the dark room — we again re-insert 
our hand under the cloth, close the slide, and take our plate, 
slide and all, still enveloped in the cloth, into the laboratory, to 
undergo the process which will at once prove the success or 
failure of our operations. 

It is with no slight anxiety that we retrace our steps to the 

dark-room, slide in hand, in order 
to develop our first picture. Shall 
we succeed ? Have we left any- 
thing undone ? Has our sitter 
moved ? These, and twenty other 
questions rise in our minds in the 
few moments between the exposure 
and development of out plate. 
Well, if we have, the murder will 
soon be out now, we think, as we 
place our dark slide down upon the 
operating table, and carefully re- 
move the plate. Shall we see our 
picture now ? 

We hold our plate so as to ex- 
amine its surface, half expecting to see some trace of a picture 
upon it, but no, there is not even an outline. 

We look through it and find no suggestion of a picture ; 
simply a clean flat film of a yellowish creamy tint and charac- 
ter, without any alteration whatever through exposure to light. 
Stay ! is this correct ? 

That is what the first experimenters thought before the idea, 
of a latent impression was hit upon. 

To them our plate would have been a failure. They expected 
that the image would develop itself in the camera, so that when 
the plate was removed, the picture would be visible, and at most 
only require fixing. This was the object aimed at for some time, 
but it was found that it was only by prolonging the exposure 
for an enormous period that any impression could be produced 
directly in the camera. 

Fancy, if you can, the sufferings of the enthusiast who really 
did sit for three mortal hours in the full blaze of a summer sun, 
in order to be photographed, and then bless the happy genius 
who discovered that in less than three seconds the picture had 
been perfectly impressed, and only required the persuasions of 
a little developing solution in order to induce it to reveal itself. 
Let us therefore try what our developer will do for us. We 
pour our solution of sulphate of iron into a measure — about half 
an ounce will suffice — and holding our plate by the same corner 
as we did while applying the collodion, and, as shown in the 
illustration, we by a dexterous turn of the hand at once, in a 
clean even wave, cover its entire surface. 



We do not, however, pour the whole of the solution off ; but, 
by raising the plate, so contrive matters as to keep enough of it 
on to flow gently backwards and forwards over the film. For 
a few seconds there is no perceptible change, and we begin to 
doubt our success; but, stay! there comes something. The film 
begins to darken, and now — there is no doubt about it — it is the 
outline of the white lace collar. More and more distinct it 
grows every moment, and now we can trace the outline of the 
head againt the background, then the light over the face — now 
we see the eyes, and now one or two of the higher lights of the 
dress — Stop, we must wash off the solutisn now, or we shall go 
too far. 

Very thoroughly indeed must this washing be done, or our 
plate will become stained in the fixing process. And now, it is 
a picture certainly, but one of a very remarkable character. In 
the first place — as we look through it — we observe, that what 

should have been a white lace collar is decidedly the blackest 
part of the plate. Then we see that the black silk dress is in 
its darkest shadows represented by the lightest parts in our 
picture. And finally, to crown our work, our fair sitter is repre- 
sented as having a slightly slate-coloured face, and white eyes. 
This does not look very promising at the first glance, but it is 
worth our while to stop here and consider for a moment what 
has been effected up to this point. 

In the first place, when we dipped our plate in the nitrate of 
silver bath we formed the fine even film of cream-coloured iodide 
and bromide of silver ; which, as we before stated, was capable of 
receiving an impression by the action of light. This action 
having been set up by the exposure in the camera, the plate has 
been brought to the dark room for development. At this point 
the picture really exists in the film, but it is what is termed 
latent, and invisible. 



Br W. A. Blakston. 


"HAT a suggestive title ! There is no place like home! 
depend upon that ; and there are no pleasures so 
'■-C genuine, so enduring, so really enjoyable as those 
which belong to home. And is there not a heart-stirring ring 
in the word ? Poets have sung its holy happy delights ; pain- 
ters have expended the richest treasures of their genius and 
the most skilful witching of their art in depicting fireside 
scenes ; patriots, great and noble men, inspired by fervent love 


for the country which gave them birth, and undying affection 
for their own hearths, have bled in their defence ; and men of 
all shades in all times have ever held dear the little spot they 
call home. 

Sitting, as I do now, in my quiet study in my own quiet home 
surrounded by my own " home pets," how my mind wanders 
back through many a long year, to the home of my childhood, 
when I, like this little " home pet " climbing on my knee, stood 



by the knee of my father long since gone to that home from 
■which there is no returning. And I remember how he used to 
make my kites, rig my ships, fit pegs to my tops with some 
miraculous compound warranted to make them hum, construct 
me rabbit-hutches out of sixpenny tea-chests, and pigeon-houses 
out of old barrels, how he taught me to set up a brick trap, 
make horse-hair snares, and set limed twigs ; how he gave me 
my first lesson in gardening with a saucer, moist flannel, and 
mustard and cress arrangement, and how when he planted some 
scarlet runner beans in a mignonette box, I stealthily exhumed 
them day by day to see if they were sprouting. 

I still think there are no bows such as he made me, and no 
arrows such as he feathered, nor did I ever see so true a stock 
to a cross-bow, or such clever mechanism in the wheel and 
trigger as there was in mine, which was fashioned in the sanctum 
sanctorum where his joiners' tools lived. 

To this day a fishing-tackle shop window, with the-everlasting 
staffed and well-varnished pike in a glass case, has strong 
attraction for me, but I see no apparatus so complete as the 
multum in parvo walking-stick rod my father gave me, no 
fishing lines, no arrangement of hooks so effective as those he 
used to fashion for me, with which I secured many a good basket 
of fish. And I could go on enumerating a thousand and one 
recollections of home pleasures and healthy amusements. 

I say it again, there is no place like home. Stick to it, and 
■when you are called on to fight the great battle of life let 
the memory of its happy hours, its holy lessons, nerve you to 
grapple with duty as good, noble, honest men should. 

I have always been among boys ; my whole life has been 
spent with them ; and it is with a desire to furnish a fund of 
recreative enjoyment that I have undertaken to give a series of 
papers on home pets, how to breed and feed thorn. 

I don't believe in boys, or girls either, work, work, working, all 
day long. The old saying is a wise one, " All work and no play " 
you know the rest as well as I do, and say Amen to it. 

A reasonable amount of work being ddne — honestly done, mind 
you — turn your back upon it to go in as heartily for recreation, 
every one to his own hobby ; and in recreation, what you 
undertake to do, do it well. Never do things by halves. 

Assuming, then, that your taste lies, as mine does, in keeping 
pets and, in particular, birds, let us begin with the most inte- 
resting of all, the bird which is found in nearly every home, 
gladdening many a heart by his lively sprightly ways and his 
cheery song. Need I say I mean the canary ? 

Perhaps your idea of a canary is what mine once was, a hand- 
some little chap in a handsome little cage, whose chief merit lay 
in his song. But I am going to tell you something more' about 
him. I am going to tell you how to make his house and how to 
furnish it, how to find him a wife, and how to assist them to 
bring up their nests of young ones. When I was a schoolboy 
I was, as most schoolboys are, very fond of birds'-nesting ; 
and, properly managed, it is a most interesting pursuit. 

There is a lot of sentimental talk about the sin and 
cruelty of robbing birds' nests with which I have no sympathy. 
I know very well that the traditions of our old nursery lesson 
books teach that the cruel boy who robs a bird's nest must of 
necessity be a bad lad who plays truant or selects the hours of 
the Sabbath for the purpose. The woodcuts which illustrate 
his ill-doings always represent him perched in a tree, drawn 
with most painful disregard of perspective, from which he 
generally falls and suffers injuries greater or less according to 
his moral character; or else, in beating a retreat with his 
spoils, he is overtaken by the traditionary farmer with a horse- 
whip, who inculcates powerful moral teachings with its aid. 
Failing the farmer there is always a dog handy, or he tears his 
clothes, or tumbles in a pond, but he invariably comes to grief. ' 

I think the Popular Eeckeatob will teach something of a 
healthier tone than this. By birds'-nesting I don't mean an 
indiscriminate wholesale robbery, going out early in the morning 
and returning late in the evening with a dozen or two of eggs 
of one variety, the spoils of many a ravished homo, ruthlessly 
torn from some quiet resting-place. That is not my idea of 
legitimate nesting. 

Study the habits and habitats of the birds to be found in 
your own immediate district, learn the times of the arrival and 
departure of those which visit you only for a season, hunt up 
their nests and take from them a single egg, one here and 
another there; but, enough of this, for I am straying on to 
another's ground. You will hear enough of eggs from the papers 
devoted to them. Whatever you do, don't take any young birds. 

This is what I wanted to be at when I said I was, as a boy, 
fond of nesting. The temptation of a nest of lusty fledglings 
was sometimes too strong, and occasionally we would smuggle a 
nest contrary to the school law in such case made and provided. 

Three or four young thrushes or blackbirds or starlings 
looked so tempting that we were not at all times proof against 
them, but the end was always the same — they died on our hands. 

I remember one or two instances in particular. One was the 
case of a nest of starlings, which we had marked down in a hole, 
far up in an old ash tree. We — for schoolboys usually hunt 
in packs — had set our minds on the eggs, but never could find a 
favourable opportunity to get them, for our nesting was a pur- 
suit of knowledge under difficulties. I was at boarding-school 
in a village not far from Dover, and it was usual for the Principal 
to take us for long rambles on half -holidays. 

Playing at Indians, waylaying and scalping each other in the 
woods had " gone out," and had given place to the charms of 
nesting, which was forbidden, but winked at ; and our chief con- 
cern was how, as soon as we were allowed to break from our 
long two-and-two string, to slip away. Our favourite walk 
was through a large park, the boundary fence of which was not 
many hundred yards from our playground. 

We had to pass through a field, over a stile into a plantation, 
through another field, and through a second plantation, before 
getting in to the park proper. 

If there had been any depredation or trespass committed 
there was no hope of an early " break," but if we had been cir- 
cumspect in our walk and conversation, and the Principal was in 
a good humour, the rule was to " break " in the first field, in 
which case two or three of us were not long in reaching the 
second plantation, where we used to hide in the long grass and 
under cover till the whole troop had gone by, our Principal 
carefully bringing up the rear. 

Once through the plantation, then up a gentle rise, and they 
were lost in the park, or, as we had it in Indian tongue, 
"swallowed up in the depths of the forest," and we had the 
afternoon to ourselves following in their trail and falling in on 
the return. 

On one of these occasions we took the starling's nest. She 
had sat so long that our eggs were hatched, and I suppose we 
thought we had a right to the produce. 

We kept them in a basket and fed them on chewed bread, 
and for a while they did very well, but too much chewed bread 
did not suit them, and one by one they died. 

This is what I want you to eschew ; and in the place of this 
unsatisfactory sort of work, I will tell you how to breed your 
own birds, and then you will have the pleasure of seeing them 
brought up from the egg under your very eye, and will have the 
opportunity of observing every detail of bird life, which the 
instincts of your' " home pets " will lead them to follow out as 
minutely as if they resided in some old hawthorn bush instead 
of in your room. 




By E. B. Woemald. 

Hand the Second. 
*HE following is an instructive hand, and affords a good 
illustration of the importance of observing the fall of 
the cards, and playing to the score. 
A and C are partners against B and D, and sit round the 
table in the order indicated below. 

The card led to each trick is denoted by a double rim. 

C's Hand. 
Spade— 9, 8. 
Club— Ace, 9, 8, 7. 
Diamond — Knave, 3. 
Heart — Ace, Knave, 10, 9, 8. 

°* «i °° *-" 

- <*3 § 
_ s p 




Score, 2 all. 

D turns up the king 

of hearts. 

Or a 

? s 







"A '01 '3ra3;— pnonrBid 

•01 'uaonfr 'Surg;— qn^) 

•3 'OX 'eAuu^j 'Sutg; — ep^dg 

•aNVH S <Y 
Trick 1. 


D knows that unless his partner holds an honour, with some 
strength in trumps, the game must be lost. He plays accordingly 
to strengthen his partner. The lead by the king of trumps is, 
however, open to question. Many players would prefer to tap 

the diamond suit. 

Trick 1. — Won by D. Score, 
BB,1; AC, 0. 

A opens his strongest suit, and having king, knave, ten, and 
another, very properly leads the ten. This lead is an exception 
to the general rule of leading the lowest from a suit of four not 
headed by a sequence. 

Inference : — It is clear to D that the two of spades is in A's 
hand, for if either B or C held it he would have played it in 
preference to a higher card. A also knows that the spade ace 
is against him. 

Trick 2. 





Trick 2.— Won by C. Score, 
BD,1; AC,1. 

Trick 3. 






9? <? 


Trick 3.— Won by B. Score, 
BD, 2; AC,1. 

C being strong in trumps, returns the adversary's lead in the 
suit. From the fact of B being compelled to win the eight 
with his queen, it is clear to D that the opponents hold between 
them the three best trumps, and A of course knows that they 
must all be in his partner's hand. D's discard of the club 
informs his partner that his suit i3 diamonds. 

Trick 4. 

* * 




Trick i.— Won by C. 
BD,2; AC, 2 


B returns the trump with the object of drawing two for one. 

Trick 5. 


4* 4* 

+ + 

4* 4- 


Trick 5.— Won by A. Score, 
AC, 3; BD,2. 

C having the command of trumps, opens his own strong suit in 
preference to returning his partner's original lead. Having four 
clubs to the ace he leads the lowest of the suit. C's reason for not 
continuing the trumps is that he cannot tell from the fall of the 
cards in trick 5 whether the seven of trumps is in his partner' 3 

hand or in B's. 

Trick 6. 





Trick 6. — Won by A. SeorOj 
AC, 4; BD, 2. 



A returns his partner's lead. Having originally only- 
three of the suit, he properly returns the higher of the two 
remaining. After this round A is in a position to place all 
the clubs. 

Thus : B having dropped the knave to the king, can have no 
more of the suit ; for he cannot hold the ace, otherwise he would 
not have allowed the queen to make in the previous trick. C's 
original lead was the seven of clubs (see Trick 5), and as he 
subsequently played the eight to his partner's king, it follows 
that the seven must have been the lowest of a suit of four at 
the least — consequently he must have in his hand two cards 
higher than the eight, i.e., the ace and nine (the ten being in 
A's own hand). The remaining club, the six, is of course in 
D's hand. 

Trick 7. 










+ * 
* + 


Tiick 7. — Won by B. Score, 
AC, 4; BD,3. 

The lead of the ten of clubs is open to criticism, as A knows 
that B has no more of the suit, and must hold the seven of 
trumps (see Trick 4). At the same time A is very unpleasantly 
situated. He clearly cannot lead a diamond np to D, who has 
declared it to be his suit (Trick 3), and if he lead the king of 
spades, and finds the ace in D's hand (which is an even chance, 
as C cannot have it), the latter will win the trick, and then lead 
the club, on the chance of his partner holding the seven of 
trumps, which will save the game. 

After Trick 7 it is clear that the thirteenth club— the ace — 
is with C. 

Trick 8. 





Trick 8.- 


-Won by B. 
4 all. 


B on getting in plays to his partner's discard (see Trick 4) 
Having only three diamonds, which D has clearly intimated to 
be his suit, B properly leads the highest. 






Trick 9.— Won by C. Score, 
AC, 5 j BD,4. 

B continues with his nest highest diamond (the eight), to which 
C plays the knave. D is now placed in a very critical position. 
The adversaries are two up (see score) ; they have made four 
tricks, and C has three certain tricks in his hand, viz., the two 
long trumps and the thirteenth club. In addition, it is clear 
that the tenace in diamonds (the king and ten) is against him, 
of which the ten at least must be in A's hand (B cannot possibly 
have it, as the lead of the ace followed by the eight with the 
two declared in his hand, showed that he had only three of the 
suit). B and D consequently require one more trick to save 
the game. 

The question is, What is D's best chance of making it 
certain ? He can expect no assistance from his partner B, 
whose hand obviously consists of the two of diamonds and three 
small spades. A holds, for certain, the king, knave, and two 
of spades, and ten of diamonds ; his fifth card is doubtful, but 
it must be either the king of diamonds or a small spade. Simi- 
larly C has the two long trumps and the ace of clubs ; his fourth 
card must be either the nine of spades (as he played the eight 
to his partner's ten in Trick 1) or the king of diamonds. The 
probability is in favour of the spade, for two reasons : — In the 
first place, if he has the king of diamonds he could have had 
only one spade originally ; and in the second place, the nine of 
spades must be in either B's or C's hand, as, if A had held it, 
in addition to king, knave, ten, etc., he would have led it at 
Trick 1 in preference to the ten. Under these circumstances 
D is justified in " placing " the nine of spades in C's hand and 
the king of diamonds in A's, and on this assumption passes C's 
diamond knave. 

On reference to the "Hands" it will be seen that the 
two doubtful cards are in the positions assigned to them by 
D, and that he consequently adopted the only course by 
which it was possible to save the game. Had he covered 
the knave of diamonds with the queen, A would have won the 
trick with the king, and then led the ten of diamonds, to which 
C would have discarded his losing spade — and then won the three 
remaining tricks ; whereas, by passing the knave, D prevents 
C from getting rid of the spade, which he is ultimately com- 
pelled to lead, and D makes his ace (see Trick 13). 

Trick 10. 




Trick 10.— W< 
AC, 6 


; BD, 


Trick 11. 





Trick 11.— Won by C. Score, 
AC, 7; BD,4. 

Tbick 12. 

7 9 
7 9 
7 7 
7 7 7 


Trick 12.— Won by C. Score, 
AC, 8; BD,4. 

Tbick 13. 






Trick 13.— Won by D 
B D make the fifth trick 
and save the game. 


By LiMBTON Totjno. 

S a rule the pair-oared outrigger 
is much the same as the sculling 
boat, but longer, wider, and 
generally with a keel. They 
are built much stronger and 
heavier than the ordinary scull- 
ing boat, from the strain not 
being even on the two sides, 
owing to the alternate fixing of 
the outriggers on each gunwale. 
Unless a boat is reasonably stiff 
in her length she will not row 
well, because at the moment 
she is being impelled by the 
oar she trembles and twists, 
changing for that instant her 
proper form, as well as taking a slightly serpentine course. 
The racing pair-oars are usually about thirty-four to thirty- 
six feet long, and from seventeen to nineteen inches wide ; but 
they are always built in proportions suited to the weight of 
the men they have to carry. These boats are usually covered ! 
in at the bows and stern with canvas or duck, in place of 
mahogany or cedar, as in former days, in order to save the 
weight of the wood, and their skin is usually of yellow pine, 
though in some cases it is made of mahogany or cedar. The 
greater length in comparison with the sculling boat is placed 
in the middle, so as to give room for two men instead of one ; 
and when steering is required, more room is given for the boy 
to sit when handling the yoke lines. But this addition is only 
allowed in winding rivers, where it is impossible to avoid 
running on shore without a coxswain. r On the Thames such 
a thing is never seen in a race, but boats do not always follow 
a straight course, and, as a consequence, lose some distance by 
overshooting the line to the right or left. 

The two rowlocks are known as the after or " stroke row- 
lock," and " bow rowlock ;" the former is generally bolted to the 
left side, in front of the " stroke " man's thwart ; and between 
the two thwarts on the other side is bolted the bow-rowlock; 
the exception to this is when the stroke-oar cannot row on the 
stroke side, in which case the rowlocks are reversed, and he is 
said to row stroke on the bow side. The oars are in form 
merely enlarged sculls, being somewhat longer, and the square 
of the loom is gradually rounded off into it for about five or 
six inches, for the greater convenience of holding it with the 
inside hand. When all are on board, pair-cars are very little 

higher out of the water than sculling boats, being about four 
and a half inches between the water-line and edge of the gun- 
wale. The strakes or skins are put on in breadths or sheets 
of the same size as the boat from keel to gunwale, and are 
generally in two lengths, scarfed together about four feet 
apart on the two sides, so that each side is divided into two 
unequal portions, one having the greater length of plank for- 
ward, the other the greater aft. The skin is of the same 
thickness or substance as the sculling boat, but the timbers or 
ribs are considerably stronger, and are carefully framed into 
the keel, which is now usually strengthened by what we may 
call a backbone, which is a piece of deal, or other light wood, 
running longitudinally fore and aft along its surface, and 
shaped so as to rise up to the under surface of the thwarts", 
which are securely nailed to it. 

The four-oared outrigger of the present day is constructed 
just like the pair-oared ; except being some eight feet longer. It 
is generally forty-two feet long, from twenty to twenty-two 
inches wide over all, and one foot deep amidships, seven and a 
half inches at the bow, and six and a half at the stern ; the 
distance from the thwart to the thowl of the outrigger one 
foot one inch. The midship oars are twelve feet five inches 
long, and the buttons are fixed on at a distance of three feet 
five inches from the end of the handle ; the bow and stroke 
oars are twelve feet four inches long, and have the buttons put 
on three feet four inches from the end of the handle. The 
space between the coxswain's thwart and the stroke's stretcher 
is one foot, the breadth of coxswain's thwart being eighteen 
inches. Formerly these boats were built forty-eight feet in 
length, and only twenty-one inches in width, even for a heavy 
crew, but the present proportions are found to be a marked 
improvement, for when they were so very narrow and long they 
did not offer sufficient resistance to the burying power of the 
stroke, and were forced deep into the water while " on the 
hand," rising again in what is technically termed " the shoot," 
the consequence being that the boat made a succession of dips ? 
causing a great loss in her speed. For many years the idea 
prevalent was, that the only limit to diminution of breadth 
and increase of length was the difficulty in making the boat of 
such stiffness as to stand up under the weight of her crew. 
These reasons, derived from experience, have been the chief 
cause of the length and breadth and depth now adopted, these 
proportions offering the right amount of resistance to the 
downpull when the rowers are in full swing. Up to the present 
time rudders have always been used in four-oared boats, a 



•thwart being fixed for the coxswain, who is usually chosen for 
his light weight ; but in racing he generally sits on the floor 
of the boat, so as to give her greater steadiness. Within the 
last few years, however, the Americans have taught us to 
row four-oared races without coxswains, the stroke or other 
chosen man steering by means of an ingenious apparatus 
coming to his feet as they are on the stretcher, when he 
is rowing. This and the old method will be described at length 
further on. 

The eight-oared outriggers are constructed "in exactly the 
same manner as the pair-oared boat, except from requiring more 
space for extra men. They are much longer in form, being 
fifty-six feet in length, two feet two inches wide over all, and 
one foot one inch deep amidships. The old-fashioned boats 
were commonly sixty-five feet long, in some cases even seventy 
feet, and two feet three or four inches wide. The outriggers 
are placed four on each side, and must be suited to the men 
who are to row in her, as the position that will suit one will 
not do for another ; the six amidship oars are twelve feet six 
inches long, the bow and stroke twelve feet five inches in 

Twelve-oared outriggers have been built, but are not often 
used. They are simply elongated eight-oars, and need not be 
further described. 

Before purchasing any of these boats, or taking them over 
if built to order, they must be carefully tested and examined, 
to see if they are sufficiently stiff to prevent their getting 
" screwed," i.e., getting out of shape when rested on either 
end. A crooked keel, resulting from a strain, is always an 
annoyance, as it causes the boat to bear more on one hand 
than the other, and, from requiring constant steering on the side 
affected, impedes her way. Of course no boats are mathe- 
matically correct, as a practised eye will detect some little 
deviation from an exact correspondence between the two 
halves of the boat when standing at head or stern, and looking 
down the centre line. 

In the act of rowing men should be careful not to kick their 
stretchers, or row too much with their legs, but should as it 
were lift their bodies off their seats, so that all their weight 
may rest on the handles of the oars and stretchers. Whilst 
they are rowing the stroke through the water they should sit 
quite lightly on the seat, being careful not to kick, as that 
always leads to moving about on the seat, and dropping the 
knees too low, which is inimical to a quick recovery, the great 
essential to good rowing. "Argonaut" says the oar should 
be brought straight home to the chest, the knuckles touching 
the body about an inch cr less below the bottom of the 
breast-bone, where the ribs branch off, thus every inch of 
water is made use of ; when there, the hands should be 
dropped straight down, and then be turned over and shot out 
again close along the legs, and the body should follow without 
the least pause. If this is not done, the oar will be feathered 
under water, and thus the boat will be buried, water will be 
thrown on the next oar, and the recovery will be impeded. 
To effect a quick recovery the back must be perfectly straight 
the knees must not have been dropped down too low, and the 
straps must not be used too much, a light touch iF all that is 
proper ; the muscles of the body — in this case those that cross 
the stomach — must be used, and not the boat itself, of which 
the strap is a part. The body should be swung evenly forward 
from the hips, not with a jerk or a plunge, or quicker at one 
time than another, but freely and easily, as if the hip-joint 
worked well, and not stiffly. Much benefit may be derived 
from watching some of the best oarsmen that can be found, 
observing them carefully, forming an ideal model, and then 
endeavouring to copy it. 

Two or three points should particularly be borne in mind : 
First, that when the hands are raised at the commencement of 
the stroke, and the oar ipso facto struck down below the 
surface, the whole of the power should be brought to bear 
at the moment of the oar's contact with the water, so as to 
create the greatest effect in the first or vital part of the stroke, 
one of the most important and too oft-broken laws of rowing ; 
secondly, that the pull home to the chest should be in a per- 
fectly straight line, thus causing a horizontal stroke through the 
water, which is another law frequently disregarded ; thirdly, 
that the finish of the stroke should be as quiet and easy as it 
is possible to make it, but without lessening the force applied, 
which naturally diminishes, because at the first part of the 
stroke, before the rowlock, the oar is at an acute angle to the 
boat, and after that at an obtuse angle. Here it is that one so 
often sees the stroke wind up with a jerk, as if to make some 
use of the little strength remaining in the human frame, the 
oar flirted out of the water, the elbows dug sharply back in an 
awkward and unsightly manner, and the body harshly and 
suddenly jolted forward. 

The next in importance are the movements described by the 
oar itself, starting from a state of rest, i.e., feathered, and at 
right angles to the keel of the boat. 

When the forward reach is taken, the blade of the oar should 
travel backwards in the air, horizontally, at the distance of a 
few inches from the surface of the water — of course, depending 
upon the state of the surface, whether smooth or rough — until 
dipped for the stroke. As regards this dip, it is imperative 
that the blade descend to the proper depth before any force is 
applied, otherwise the stroke will be cut. To effect this, the 
hands must be raised sharply, and the stroke must be instan- 
taneously commenced. In a word, the oar must be put into 
the water with energy, not suffered to drop in of its own 
weight. When on the feather, the oar, after passing the 
knees, should be gradually turned preparatory to immersion, 
the feather concluding and the stroke beginning at once, with 
no interval whatever. Hence it will be perceived that the 
line described by the end of the blade —about which there are 
numerous theories and a variety of opinions — will be nearly 
parallel with the water until entering it, when it will be 
immediately dipped with a powerful scoop. 

The entry of the oar into the water cannot be too sudden or 
too decided, so that it be not a chop and a splash ; and for this 
purpose the muscles of the arms should be gathering them- 
selves together as the hands rush forward. It is a well-known 
and indisputable law that the greatest power can be applied in 
the first half of the stroke, that is to say, before the oar 
becomes level with the rowlock, and that the further aft it goes 
subsequently to passing that point the more that power 
decreases. Such being the case, it is only common sense to 
endeavour to do as much work as possible when it will tell 
most, and when it contributes to lift a boat lightly along the 
top of the water. On the other hand, if the application of the 
strength is deferred until the last part, it is brought to bear 
when it is of the least service, a great and useless expenditure 
of power ensues, and the boat, instead of being assisted over 
the water, is driven down and buried in it, the way being 
necessarily checked thereby. The same result ensues from 
letting the weight rest on the seat, and then giving a wrench, 
and feathering under water, instead of letting the weight rest 
on the stretcher and handle of the oar — in a word, from rowing 
with the arms rather than with the body, instead of using both. 

We now come to the position in which the blade is immersed, 
and would observe that this is a most important point. It is 
said that the blade Bhould descend at right angles to the 
water. In this opinion we cannot altogether coincide. 




By Eliza Cheadle. 


1 T last we approach the queen of 
flowers, the "fairest of the fair" 
— the Eose — and endeavour to 
learn how her beauteous robes are 
formed and donned. This floral 
beauty possesses such an infini- 
tude of variety and withal each 
year adds some fresh fashion to 
her already extensive wardrobe, 
that it is indeed difficult to know 
which of her numberless styles of 
costumes is best worthy of our 
notice. And then, to add to the 
perplexity of choice, her family is an 
uncommonly numerous one. She has very many sons and 
daughters, all of whom vary considerably in form, feature, and 
apparel. Some are giants, and some are pigmies ; some have 
a jovial countryfied air ; while others are " delicate exceed- 
ingly and wondrous fair." 

Therefore, to attempt a minute description of all the roses 
— each one beautiful in its way — would be futile, seeing that 
they all differ so materially. But indeed there is not the least 
necessity to enter into such lengthy details. Eoses are always 
roses, and if we succeed in making our comparatively few 
instructions clear to our readers, they will doubtless feel 
themselves quite able to understand and cope with the many 
idiosyncrasies of that extensive family. 

There is one kind of rose which looks particularly natural 
when made in paper, the full-petaled formal open flat flower, 
Rosa gallica, which grows in clusters. A description of this 
specimen will serve as a type for many others of the same 
class, which differ but in size or colour. 

It will be seen by the patterns given that there are five 
rounds of petals of different sizes, and of these, two of each 
size are required for one flower. This rose may be made either 
a white or pink one, when of the latter colour, the two rounds 
of Fig. 5 should be of a lighter shade of pink than the others. 

The process that each row of petals has to undergo is as 
follows : — The petals of Fig. 1 are pinched with finger and thumb 
down their several centres, half the petal being turned back, so 
that it resembles a folded leaf. 

The petals of Fig. 2 are pinched twice, in this case both the 
edges of each petal being turned back to its centre. 

The pinching or creasing of these first four rounds is for the 
purpose of giving to the centre leaves of the flower that crum- 
pled appearance which roses of this genre invariably present. 

The petals of Fig. 3 are indented with the small ball tool. 
And here let us pause for a moment while we explain the meaning 
of the terms "indent " and " mould." To indent with the ball 
tool is simply to press the petal, which action produces that 
softness of texture possessed by the petals of the living flower. 
To mould is to put the petal into the hollow of your hand, 
and then to press it with the ball until it has not only lost all its 
original stiffness, but until it has assumed a cup-shaped form. 

Thus, the petals of Fig. 3 have the impression of the ball tool 
just in their centres, their edges being allowed free play. 

The petals of Fig. 4 are in the first place treated like those of 
Fig. 3, after which each petal has the upper edge of its right 
side turned back with the pincers. The petals of Fig. 5 are 
also indented with the ball tool, and then both portions of the 

edges of their petals are turned backwards, just to give them a 
slightly curled look. So much. for the petals. 

The stamen is formed of a little green fluff fastened on to a 
fine piece of wire, and then several tiny pistils are placed round 
it, such as were made for the primula (Fig. 6.) A small globule of 
wax the colour required dropped on to the end of a bristle, makes 
a capital representation. Well, with some of these fixed in round 
the stamens, the centre of your rose is complete, there now only re- 
mains the calyx, which is made of stiffened green cambric, and cut 
out in the form and size given (Fig. 7). We must not forget to 
mention the calyx cup, a tiny object, hard and globular, and which 
consequently is better bought ready made. It cannot be neces- 
sary to repeat the directions for mounting the flower, suffice it to 
say that none of the rows of petals should be placed either imme- 
diately in front of or directly behind one another, every one of 
them should be seen. If, when finished, the flower looks too 
" stiff and starched " squeeze it gently in your hand, this will 
soften it, and also make the petals cling more to one another. 

Such is the method for constructing what are termed " Cluster 
Eoses." Let us now turn to what are called " Cupped Eoses." 

We have arrived at the most troublesome and difficult part 
of our ground. It will be observed that as yet we have only 
treated of flowers whose petals are not entirely divided from the 
! corolla, or of that class which have their petals ranged round 
their stamens in such precise and mathematical order by Dame 
Nature as to allow her imitators the liberty to copy her regu- 
larity without giving themselves the extra trouble of making 
separate petals. We have an instance of this in the rose 
lately described. The living specimen would of course have 
each petal distinct, but the order in which they are placed being 
so exact, the effect is precisely the same if the petals are cut 
in " rounds." But in some classes of flowers the petals must 
be cut separately, and mounted separately, and this is the case 
with cupped roses. Therefore, I say, we have now begun to 
climb the hill of Difficulty. And yet be not discouraged, when 
I tell you that nearly if not all the help and guidance to be 
afforded by words consists mostly of general hints. The living 
flower will best tell its own tale. Place before you your own 
special favourite, and Carefully note its specialities — which of 
its petals curl this way and which that ; how that some nestle 
one inside another, and others keep to themselves. Every little 
detail thus observed can be faithfully copied ; but of course it 
is essential that you should possess the knowledge how to pro- 
duce these different effects before you make the daring attempt 
to construct a rose of this sort. 

Listen and learn. If the petals of the rose are cupped, and 
at the same time the edges of their leaves are curled, you first 
mould them in the hollow of your hand with the ball tool cr the 
end of your finger, and then take a paper-knife, and by the help 
of your thumb draw it carefully up the petal, which will then 
curl towards the knife. Sometimes this process is better done 
after the flower is mounted, namely, in those cases where the 
outer petals only require to be curled. 

Again, the centre petals of some roses lie one inside another: 
when this is so, cut a pattern like Fig. 8, and then fold back one 
petal on to another, until they all rest one on the top of the 
other, as shown in Fig. 9. When in this position, crease them up 
the centre, and then indent them in the centre of petals with 
the ball tool. There should be four sets of these, and they 
should be placed next to the stamen. The remainder of the 



petals of such, a rose are cut and mounted separately. Some- 
times roses have little imperfections — one of the petals in the 
centre is behind-hand, and has not yet unfolded itself. To 
imitate this will give your flower a more natural appearance, so 

flowers which are of cup like shape, gradually place each 
row of petals lower and yet a little lower down the peduncle ; 
this is one of the secrets of success in forming correctly 
flowers of this description. 

Fig. 1. 


Fig. 3. 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 8. 

take a square inch of paper, of the same colour as your rose, 
slightly crumple it between your fingers, and then screw up the 
four corners together, and place it close to the stamen when 
you mount your flower. 

If you wish your rose to have a thorn, cut a strip of green 
crape on the bias and roll it round the peduncle. In fitting the 
petals which are separate, and more particularly of those 

Fig. 5. 

There is also a great diversity of stamens in this class of 
roses, both as regards colour, size, form, and what not, so that 
again reference must be made in each case to Nature. Some 
stamens are represented by green fluff, like the one before 
described, others have to be made smooth and round like the 
head of a jet pin, and others again are formed of a cluster 
of little knobs of wax. 




By C. W. Aicock. 


v/T'AKE way for Eobert Bobinson, if you please, for he was 
'" :X an inventive genius, in the days when there was rather a 
dearth of invention. The instrument he used (see p . 1 00) 
in batting was made with a double handle, for his hand was burnt 
when a child, and 
to suit his stunted 
fingers he had an 
iron, which was 
fitted to his wrist 
and enabled him 
to grasp the up- 
per handle. 

I have said that 
he was an inven- 
tive genius, and 
so he was, for he 
was the first player 
who used to " cut " 
balls from the 
bails, and he not 
only introduced 
"spikes," but also 
created ridicule by 
the invention of 
leg guards, which 
consisted of two 
anglewise, off 

which the ball 
glanced with great 
sharpness and 
noise. All honour 
to him, say I, as a 
great inventor ! 
though the respect 
is diminished by 
the admission that 
he was laughed out 
of this latter in- 

Up to this time 
every man had 
done that which 
was right in hi3 

own eyes, 


there had been no 

restrictive mea- 
sures to determine 

the size of the 

bat. But one 

White of Keigate 

went in with a bat as wide as the wicket, we are told, and the 

law interfered to discountenance such artifices. 

I may be very wrong, but I fancy in these civilised days there 
are a few cricketers of both sections who are not beyond origi- 
nating the addition of an extra inch of width of the bat. " 'Tis 
true, tis 'pity; pity 'tis 'tis true," I know, but it is sharp 
practice, to say the least of it, and you ought to be well 
ashamed of yourselves. 

If there were a frame through whica ail suspected bats 

should be passed, as had the Hambledon club after the little 
fiasco of "White, I fear that many of you would have to invest 
in other instruments of the regulation size. You might not be 
so fortunate as " Three-fingered Jack " for one of his bats did 

not pass through 
the ordeal as it 
should, and sum- 
mary reduction 
was made of its 
size by the aid of 
the knife. 

He vowed ven- 
geance, and ful- 
filled his vow. At 
least, " I'll pay 
you for spoiling 
my bat" was his 
answer, and so he 
did, history re- 
lates, by the 
achievement of one 
of the longest 
scores that he 
ever made. Still, 
though, non cwivis 
contingit adire Co- 
rinblieum ; and if 
I mistake not any 
reduction of the 
forces would con- 
siderably reduce 
the average that 
some of you erect 
with so much 

It is difficult in- 
deed to tell when 
bats commenced 
to assume their 
present shapely 
form. Tou have 
s;een the old spe- 
cimens in the illus- 
tration, and you 
can j adge for your- 
selves the principal 
stages through 
which they have 
passed. No one 
can doubt that in 
the old days, as 
they were used by the less skilful followers of cricket, they were 
clumsy, ill-shaped, manufactured no doubt by hands far from 
efficient, but it is open to doubt whether the more prominent 
professionals were not more favoured in the possession or 
fitting weapons. 

Honest old John Bowyer, who lives and flourishes at Mitcham, 
in his eighty-fourth year, under the care of a right hearty 
supporter of cricket, says that the bats used by the players 
were much superior to those specimens of old bats which are 





occasionally now found in country villages, but though they 
were heavier and thicker than those now in use, the weight and 
balance were carefully considered. 

I place implicit reliance on the statement that emanates from 
the old man eloquent. It is heresy to believe that in the brave 
daj-s of old, men who could play cricket under circumstances 
vastly more unfavourable than we do now, when grounds were 
rough, and not tended as now to reach the perfection of billiard 
tables, when knee-breeches and stockings were w«rn without 
the protection of leg guards, and when cricket flourished under 
the patronage of the highest in the land, were careless about 
the formation of the weapons on which their reputation had 
chiefly to rest. 

It was the creed of cricketers of the last century that John 
Small "found out cricket," and old John once kept up his 
wicket for three days, and was not out after all. He was the 
last of the Hambledonians, and he played in all the great 
matches till he was turned of seventy. I wonder how many of 
the present order of cricketers would venture to hope to attain 
such eminence. It is not your fault, you will say, you Brown, 
Jones, and Robinson, who represent the present generation of 
professional cricketers. I know that well enough, and so does 
every one who has had any chance of comparing the old with 
the new dispensation of cricket. It is rather your misfortune 
than your fault that you have to tear through the world at an 
express pace in pursuit of your living. It is not your fault that 
you have to play cricket six days in the week, until your feet 

Nor is it precisely your own fault that you are exposed to 
temptations that unfit many of you for a sober and steady life, 
that you have to listen to the fulsome adulations of brainless 
noodles whose only delight is to call you by your Christian name, 
as Tom, or Dick, or Harry, and who worship the rising as much 
as they try in their small way to stifle the setting star. All 
this is not your fault, grant you, and you would like well 
enough to have the chance of doing as old John Small — there 
were father and son, a pair of Smalls, and hence the adjective — 
did of playing at seventy, instead of being considered stale and 
effete at forty. 

But old Small was in his way a wonder, or I should not have 
spent so much time over him. I have said that in the last 
century he was known as " the founder of cricket," so that all 
the honours must be paid that are due to a creative brain. ©Id 
John was not only an excellent cricketer, but he could skate 
right well too ; and he was no mean musician, to add to his 
other accomplishments. Tou can read for yourselves, in the 
chronicles of Old Nyren, how the Duke of Dorset gave him a 
fiddle, and how he soothed the savage breast of a wild buM by 
his Orphean strains, when Taurus and John had the misfortune 
to meet one another in the middle of a not very extensive field. 

This is a true bill, though I should not advise any of you 
ambitious cricketers to attempt a similar experiment unless 
you are well insured, and the insurance is safe. 

Tou must wait a moment though, if you please, for I have 
not yet done with John Small. I devoted so much space to 
bats that I had almost forgotten balls. And here too Small 
was a public benefactor, for if all accounts be true, to him 
is due the merit of having invented balls that would last, 
in place of the half- streaked apologies that were previously 
in vogue. 

"He excelled," says an old authority, "in making bats and 
halls," and it is not unlikely that he was the first genuine manu- 
facturer who was connected with the active pursuit of cricket. 
Indeed, in the matter of ball-making he was considered peerless, 
for when he was eighty years of age he sold the last six balls he 
ever made to Mr. E. H. Budd, and a guinea a-piece was after- 

wards offered for them by Mr. W. V/ard, whose name still 
remains fresh to fame as the batsman who enjoys the honour 
of the largest number of runs ever made in a single innings. 

At first the balls in use were made of wood, but that was in 
all likelihood in the incipient stages, when the game was known 
under the title of " Cat and Dog," the bail being designated 
by the canine appellation. Before the days of John Small, 
so say the records, a ball would not last a match ; the stitches 
would give way. Now turn and look at the neat spheres 
of leather, as they are made by the great makers who share 
among them the principal manufacture of the thousands upon 
thousands of balls that pass through England's every corner, 
and cross the sea to every portion of the habitable globe. 

In great matches it is true that a new ball may be called for, 
and is usually"at the end of each innings, but this is at the 
best an expensive luxury, for balls are now manufactured with 
such slaill and care that they will stand any amount of rough 
usage, and resist almost everything but wet weather. 

It is not so easy to discover definitely any traces of what 
composition the old balls used in the cricket of the last century 
were formed. Bats are more easily followed through their 
different stages, for they were not so likely to be lost or discarded, 
from their superior size aad substance. When, therefore, the 
present style of ball was first introduced'must remain in mystery. 
Others interested equally with myself in the solution of the 
difficulty, have failed in their efforts, and how shall I hope to 
succeed ? 

A recent application was made by an old friend to a maker 
whose name has been identified with the art of ball-making for 
upwards of a century, but no antique relics were discovered to 
reward his perseverance. The only result of the quest was the 
discovery that the great-grandfather of the present head of 
the firm had presented the first treble-sewn ball to the Prince 
of Wales of his day. 

The balls were said, too, to be by no means so good nor so wel 
made as at the present time, though the weight seems to have 
continued the same — from 5.| to 5foz. — as it is now defined, 
according to the laws made and provided. I have heard, too, 
from another good authority, that the only difference between 
the balls of the old and the new dispensations was, that they 
were in the former oblong, while now they are as round as art 
and experience can make them. 

In the olden times Kent was the county for their manufac- 
ture ; and one Clout, who hailed, I believe, from Southborough, 
is said to be the first who brought them to their present 
state of perfection. The demand for them now is so great that 
one of the most celebrated manufacturers long identified with 
the Surrey County Club, tells me that he alone makes and 
disposes of as many as ten thousand every year. 

Bats and balls ! How essentially English is the combination ! 
cud what happy h«urs has this strife between wood and leather 
produced for thousands of every grade, from the prince to the 
peasant ! You do nmt want me to picture the animated scene 
to be witnessed at every cricket match. You have marvelled, 
some of you, I dare say — some of you who have not caught the 
inspiration of the game, nor drank of its joys and its hearty 
fellowships — at the attractions of a sport that to the cynical 
possesses so little charm. 

Y«u wonder, possibly, but you have not realised, what a glo- 
rious sensation it is, as Miss Mitford says, to be "winning! 
winning ! " " Who would think," she coHtinues, " that a little 
bit of leather and two pieces of wood had such a delightful 
and delighting power ! " 

Who would think, I venture to add, that from such trifling 
causes such great effects would spring ! Who would think that 
" this little bit of leather and these two pieces of wood " should 



be worshipped all over the globe as passionately as the idol of 
Juggernaut, with much less- detriment ! 

It is difficult, you say, to estimate the moral attributes of 
cricket. See how the senator, on whose every word the Com- 
mons of England hang in devout attention, sways calmly 
the feelings of an eager critical assemblage, and see how he 
trembles and turns pale when the field watches with steady 
gaze in awful silence his, capacity of resisting the insidious 
movements of that little bit of leather. 

See how men of every grade meet on equal terms. With a 
fair field and no favour, Giles Scroggins has as good a chance as 
the young stapling whom flatterers love to call " My Lord" or 

" Your Grace." Bats and balls ! the very sternest moralist has 
failed to discover a flaw in your armour. It may be that at 
times the idolatry is too passionate, and that you do divert the 
attention of many from the stern realities of life, but your 
transgressions have never exceeded this charge, and the most 
prejudiced judge that ever sat could not do otherwise than treat 
you leniently on the score of a first offence ! Ton would hardly 
accuse such a man as Richard Cobden of an intentional perver- 
sion of facts, and he was bold enough to describe cricket as 
" the most innocent of all out-door amusements." Tou can 
stand down, I think, old Sir Willow, for, with such testimony- 
en your side, no indictment against you can be sustained. 


By Jaites Mason. 



LL votes were now given for a romp, and Emily said 
nothing could be better than Hot Coclcles. 

" How did it get its name ? " said Notes-and-Queries. 
"I'm sure I don't know," answered she; " but if John wfll 
kneel down I'll blindfold him." 

John knelt down, and little Emily tied a handkerchief over 
his eyes, and told him to lay his head on a chair. 

" Now place your hand upon your back with the palm 

John did as he was bid. Then Mary and Maggie and the 
Laughing Hypena advanced, one after the other, and gave a slap 
to the open hand. John tried in vain to guess who hit him. 
After the Laughing Hyaena came Alice, and just then Notes-and- 
Queries, who had been fishing in his brain for a piece of useful 
information, said, " Gay, the poet, has an allusion to this game 
in oae of his pieces : — 

' As at Hot Cockles I laid me down, 
And felt the weighty hand of many a clown ; 
Buxoma gave a gentle tap, and I 
^uick rose, and read soft mischief in her eye.' " 

As he was speaking Tom gave John a great slap. " That is 
Tom ! " cried he, so Tom had to take his place. Tom guessed for 
a long time quite unsuccessfully, but at last Alice was caught, 
and she looked so attractive, kneeling, with her long black hair 
hanging over her shoulders, that one might have done nothing 
else but look at her all the evening. 

When Hot Cockles was played out, Tom, who had been whisper- 
ing with the Laughing Hytena in a corner, asked if any of ns 
had seen The Wizard. Some said " Yes," and some said " No." 
For the benefit of the ignorant, then, Tom agreed to play the 
Wizard. " I shall go ont of the room," he said, " and on return- 
ing shall discover any artiole you choose to fix on." He went 
out, and we fixed on a paper-knife. Tom was then called in, 
and the Laughing Hysena began to question him. 

"Is it a book ?"— "No." 

" Is it the carpet ?"— "No." 

" Is it a picture ?"— " No." 

" Is it a mirror ? "C-" No." 

" Is it an album ?"— " No." 

"Is it a chair? "—"No." 

" Is it a paper-knife ?"—" Yes." 

Tom might have kept his secret, and mystified people with 
the Wizard for a thousand and one nights, but he never was 
easy in his mind till he told us that the Laughing Hysena was 

his confederate, and that his confederate had engaged to name 
j' - the article after an object having four legs. 

Whilst the Wizard was entertaining the rest, John and Kate, 
who knew the secret weld enough, got off into the background, 
and amused themselves with a pack of Conversation Cards. " I 
shall take the questions and you the answers," said John ; " or 
will you have it the other way : will you take the questions?" . 
"Just as you like," said Kate. So John had his own way. 
They shuffled their: cards, and read aloud to each other the 
questions and answers, one by one, just as they canto to their 
hands : something in this way : — 

"Are you a spiritualist ? " says John. "Never you mind," 
says Kate. 

" Have you a will of your own ?" — " Get out !" 
" Is there any love lost between us P" — " Not to-day." 
" Can you keep a secret ?" — " For a week now and then." 
" Are you fond of music ?" — -" Not if I know it." 
" Should I despair?" — "When there is nothing else to do." 
" Will you remember me ?"— " It isn't likely." 
"Does beauty know its own strength?" — "After dinner." 
% They went on thus for a while. " These are rather curious 
cards," said Kate ; "I wonder if they are prepared on a regular 
plan." " I think Maggie made them," answered John; " we'll ask 
her. Maggie," he said, turning to that young lady, " how did 
you make up these cards." " It"was no difficult matter ; I just 
took a number of cards, and wrote a question on each of them, 
Then I took an equal number, and wrote a set of answers, 
managing so that each of the answers would fit in a sort of way 
any one_of the questions. That's all." 

" Some one must go out of the room for the next game," 
said David. " Who is it to be ? " 

" The best guesser," said Kate ; " and I think that :a Notes- 

Notes-and-Queries said he was a poor hand at Yes and No, but 
he would go out if it pleased the rest. So out he went, and 
Tom made quite sure that he did not station himself at the 
keyhole t& overhear what passed. 

" Now we must fix on a subject'' David remarked. 
" What sort ? " saiQ Emily. 

" Oh, any well-known person, place, or thing, for instance. 
Can .none of you suggest anything ? " 

Some made suggestions, and mentioned Dickens, Thackeray, 
Gladstone, James Watt, the Tower of London, Noah's Ark, 
the first steam engine, Mohammed's coffin, the lightning 



conductor of the tower of the Houses of Parliament, and the 
Coronation Stone. 

" A happy thought strikes me," said the Laughing Hyaena ; 
" let us take ' Robert Burns.' It is not too difficult a subject, 
and, besides, it will tickle Notes-and-Queries' vanity, for he is a 
Scotchman, you know." 

Agreed to by the company. 

Notes-and-Queries was called in. 

" I suppose," said David, " you are aware what you have to 
do. We have chosen a subject, and you have to try to dis- 
cover what it is, by asking a question at each of us in turn. 
Wo are bound to return no other answer than " Yes " or 

" Yes," returned Notes-and-Queries, ,; I know my work well 
enough. I'll ask my first question at you. Is it a thing ? " 


Ind then the question went round the company. 

" Is it a place ? "— " No." 

"Is it a person ?"—" Yes." 

" Is it a man ? " — "Yes." 

"Is he living ? " — " No." 

" Dogs he belong to the Christian era ? " — "Yes." 

" Is it five hundred years since ho died ? " — " No." 

" Is it one hundred ? " — " No." 

"Is it fifty? "—"Yes." 

This line of questioning he pursued till he got at the date 
1796, which fortunately somo one remembered, and then he 
went on : — 

" Was be a foreigner P "— " No." 

" Was he English? "— " No." 

" Was he Scottish ? "— " Yes." 

" Is he celebrated ? "—" Yes." 

" Yfas he celebrated in action ? " — " No." 

" Was ho celebrated in thought ? " — " Yes." 

" Was he a poet ? '*— " Yes." 

Notes-and-Queries asked one or two questions more, and then, 
evidently with considerable confidence in the result, ventured 
on a guess at the subject. " It is Eobert Burns— he 

'"Who walked in glory and in joy, 
Following his plough along the mountain side.' " 

" Yes," said David, " you are right." 

" I think," remarked John Fergusson, " that you have a knack 
of ferreting out information. I watched the order in which you 
put your questions, how you began with the most general, and 
by degrees came to the particular." 

"To be sure," answered Notes-and-Queries; "that is the 
proper plan ; one should narrow the field of inquiry with every 
question, till the answer is at last arrived at." 

" And now who is to go out ? " said the Reporter. 

" The one at whom the last question was asked," said David. 
That happened to be Alice. She went out, and we chose Alice 
herself, which subject she took longer to discover than you 
would think. Then the Laughing Hycena went out. And then 
we thought we would have a new game, and Throwing Light 
was fixed upon. 

" I don't know in the least what Throwing Light is ! " said 

David undertook to explain. " It is a game," he told her, 
" in which two players fix on a subject, and hold a conversation 
about it befcra the rest of the company, discussing its appear- 
ance, its uasrv its merits, and so on — throwing light on it, in 
fact. They rover introduce its real name, and the business of 
•the rest is to find that out." 

" And if one should discover it," asked Maggie, " what should 
one do ? proclaim the fact, I suppose." 

" Not at all," said David, " he must just join in the conversa- 
tion held by the two, also taking care not to mention the na,me. 
So the fun goes on, till at last only one poor thick-headed player 
is left in the dark, wondering what all the talk is about." 

John Fergusson and Notes-and-Queries were selected to puzzle 
the rest. They retired into a corner, and, thinking it was best 
to choose a word having two or three meanings, such as Pear 
(pair, pare), Flower (flour), and Awl (all) — they selected Bells 
(belles). Then they came forward, and began to talk before the 

" They are put to different uses," said Notes-and-Queries. 

" I have seen many with great power," said John. 

" And very harsh voices too." 

" How high they are sometimes." 

" Yes, and how old some of them are." 

" I think they should be courted." 

" There should be at least two at a marriage." 

" And one at a funeral." 

At this early stage the Laughing Hyaena, who had an old 
rhyme about inagpies, and marriages, and funerals, running in 
his head, made up his mind that the word must be mag- 
pies ? So he said, " They are black and mischievous, and 
have the central feathers of the tail nearly eleven inches 

This showed at once that he was wrong. " A handkerchief 
must be thrown over your head," said David, " and it can only, 
according to the rules of the game, be removed on your arriving 
at the correct solution. " 

The two went on. 

" What airs some of them give themselves," said Notes-and- 

"And what frights they sometimes give other people," said 
his companion. 

" They used to say they were good for thunderstorms." 
This is an old superstition, and a scrap of Notes-and-Queries' 
antiquarian lore. 

"There is some music in them." 

" Not always, some have no taste for music." 

" Some can dance." 

" But they swing when they move." 

Here our sharp-witted Alice chimed in with an observation 
which showed that she understood what the word was. " Whis- 
per to Notes-and-Queries or to me," said John, " what your 
guess is." She whispered. "Yes, that's it;" and the black- 
haired beauty took her part in the conversation. Then one 
after another of the players made the discovery, and the 
Laughing Hysena had the handkerchief removed from his face, 
and wo came to the conclusion that there was no necessity for 
throwing light any more. 

After this there was an interval of talk, preparatory to 
breaking up tho party for the evening. 

" Maggie ! " cried Emily, from one end of the room. 

" Who wants me ?" 

" I do. Come and be the fourth in this Game of Contrary 
before we go." 

There were Emily, and Tom, and John Fergusson, all holding 
the edges of a handkerchief. Maggie went and took hold too. 

Emily, who was playing the part of leading player, held the 
handkerchief with her left hand, and with the forefinger of her 
right traced mystic circles on the handkerchief, saying : " Here 
we go round by the rule of contrary " (she pronounced it " con- 
trary " as is always done in this game) : " When I say ' Hold 
fast,' let go, and when I say ' Let go,' hold fast." 

She then cried out " Hold fast," or " Let go," just as sho 
pleased. When she 6aid " Let go," if any one of the three 
did not hold fast, he cr she had to pay a forfeit, and those 



had to pay them who did not let go when she said " Hold 

Bat it was too lata to play long at this ; so late indeed that 
the sottling of the forfeits had to be left overt-ill another oocasion. 

"It is a pity, it's a great pity," said David, as the company 
made ready to go, " that we have to break up so soon." 

" We won't be long of coming back again, you may be sure," 
said Emily. 


By Geeville Fenneix. 

UE. heavy lines for deep quick-running water for general 
~y float-fishing are fitted thus : — First a hook-length of 
'-e2js&" ^j. or g^t, with one small shot on, six inches from the 
hook., next a length of strong double hair (if hair has 
been used for the hook length) looped at each end, on 
which, slide two or three small perforated shots, then 
one length of the best and strongest hair to be pro- 
cured, then another short length of double hair, with 


I bream, or barbel abound, and take the bait in the same swims 
! as the roach, it would be folly to use single hair. 

The recommendations, however, of single hair are, that it is 
more elastic and yielding than gut, and, consequently, 
will kill a fish of greater weight than its actual 
A strength would suggest, and from its more compact 

structure, and the absence of gum or resinous sub- 
stance in it, it is not liable to swell in the water or 

the remainder of the shots necessary, and, 
above all, about three feet of twisted human 
hair — German female hair being the best. 
This is laid up in three strands, each centain- 
ing from six to nine hairs; the lengths are 
either looped together, as before described, or 
fastened in the manner gut lines are gene- 
rally made, the ends being whipped down 
neatly. To this the running line is fixed, the 
latter being mostly made of fine silk either 
twisted or plaited. 

The Nottingham make is unsurpassed ; 
those lines principally manufactured for 
roach and dace fishing are very fine, and only 
weigh from one-eighth to one-sixth of an 
ounce avoirdupois per hundred yards. We 
have one which was made as long since as 
1860, by John Morley, of Nottingham, and 
which even now would cut our fingers to the 
bone if we attempted to break it with our 
hands. Although, as we have said, we give the preference to 
hair, yet there are many occasions when gut will kill equally 
well. If the water be at all discoloured there is very little 
difference in their killing properties, but wherever large carp, 


Fig. 6. 

give off air bubbles, which gut does, and 
which bubbles, attaching to the side of the 
line, give it an appearance of undue thick- 

However, in these cases the gut ought to 
be stained. Many like it of a pale green, or 
sometimes an inky colour, but we, for our 
own use in Thames and general fishing, dyo 
it of a dark brown. It should likewise be 
very fine and round ; and these qualities have 
in modern days been acquired by " drawing" 
the gut, a process similar to that to which 
wire is subjected. The same precaution 
should be taken we have before recommended, 
of doubling and whipping over the gut 
wherever the shot are to be nipped on. 
Gut maybe purchased of almost any shade 
Fig. 11. or colour; but if it is desired to colour at 
home nothing is more simple. First moisten 
the gut in tepid water, then steep it in some 
ink diluted with water to the tone required, and let it remain 
until the tint is obtained, and a bluish hue is the result. For 
amber, take tea or coffee remains, and the outer walnut shells 
steeped will give a yet deeper colour, more or less brown. 




green is got by wrapping the gut in a piece of green baize, and 
a Bhort or longer dip in warm water will suffice, according to the 
shade required. The knowledge here is most important to fly 
fishers, who may thus with facility obtain almost the exact hue 
of the water they are about to fish. 

We always fish with a running line, but some are so accustomed 
to a tight line, more particularly the best Lea anglers, that they 
cannot fish in comfort with a reel, in consequence of the slack- 
ening of the line. This inconvenience may be avoided by tying a 
small piece of brass wire or wood, by two half hitches, at the 
proper distance above the float, and then drawing the running 
Tine tight ; the stop will rest against the wire laop at the top of 
the rod, and all the advantages of a tight line will be obtained 
without losing the convenience of the reel. ■- 

Many good fishermen who use tight lines of all hair, loop at 
the top about eight inches of double thread, with which to loop 
it to the rod. By adopting this plan you will be able to throw 
your line out, and to strike your fish much better than you would 
if your hair or gut itself were fastened to the top ring. 

A compromise is sometimes made between the use of the reel 
and a tight line by having only a few yards of extra, spare fine, 
to which a check i3 attached to prevent it running entirely 
through the rings of the rod. This we have found of essential 
service in streams in which large chub abound — the first dash of 
this fish when pricked by the hook being of a most formidable 
and tackle-trying character ; but as his rush, however powerful, 
is seldom beyond a short distance, he is brought under command 
at once, after this trying ordeal for a single hair line is sur- 

Let the angler bear in mind that, although he may kill fish 
vrifh coarse tackle, he is the greatest sportsman who can do so 
by the simplest appliances and the finest tackle, without con- 
sidering the thrill of gratification which is induced by mastering 
a heavy fish with an elastic hair line and light pliant rod. 

Some anglers make their roach and other lines half single 
hair, and half two hairs twisted, or as much single hair 
from the hook as will nearly reach to the float, because if 
the line breaks, the single hair will go first, and, in that case 
having the float on the stronger part, you save it. Thcro are 
other anglers who have gut fines with single hair bottoms ; but 
we totally object to this arrangement, as the want of elasticity 
in the one has a tendency to bring about disruption in the other, 
which want of sympathy of action is proved by the breakage 
under such conditions almost ■ invariably taking place at the 
junction of the two. 

With regard to lines adapted to less general styles of fishing, 
it will be well to treat of them under the respective heads. 

The tumbler or balance float (given in Fig. 1) is much, and 
almost exclusively used in the Trent. It is made by fixing a 
swan quill into the base of a pear-shaped piece of cork, and a 
short wooden peg into its apex by means of cement ; but, pre- 
vious to doing so a large shot pellet must be dropped into the 
end of the quill at a, and secured there in its place by a few 
drops of cement. The quill must project above the cork con- 
siderably msre than the peg doeaftelow it ; b is the cap, as in the 
ordinary float, and if this is made of metal, the shot pellet in the 
cap may be dispensed with. This float is intended to lie'-flat 
upon the water instead of upright, as is the ordinary kind; 
the line next the hook must not be weighted with sinkers so 
heavily as to cause it to cock vertically. Thus the cork will act 
as;a fulcrum at about c, and will be drawn upright when seized 
by a fish. A small one of this description, without sinkers 
at all, might be found of great service in ponds and clear water, 
where the fish are shy, as it could be thrown out without any 
roference to depth, and be seen when in action at a far greater 
distance than other floats. It ought to be kept very quiet in 

colour, and the cork either left without paint, or coloured^of a 
sombre green. 

The most primitive float is a quill unadorned, a piece of pith 
or phial cork allowed to lie without any weight but the line 
attached on the water. 

Perhaps the next is a small portion of the stem of a goose- 
quill, fastened to the line by one ring of quill, and allowed to lie 
on the water; we have known the latter used with great success 
when the water is shallow and there is little or no stream, 
the bait being a natural fly of some description, which is per- 
mitted to sink or swim according to chance. 

This simple float is used a good deal in the moats which sur- 
round the fortified towns in France and the still weeded waters 
of the Pas de Calais, a small shot occasionally being superadded 
to the weight of the bait. 

Next in order may come the small porcupine quill, with half 
an inch cut off the thick end, or half a larger porcupine quill with 
the broad part upwards, or a small swan quill. Either of these is 
fit for still water from three to six feet deep ; one small shot 
should be put on about a foot from the hook, and the remainder 
a foot to eighteen inches higher up (Figs. 2 and 3.) 

If deeper or gentle running water of moderate depth is to be 
essayed, a large porcupine quill or large swan quill shotted as 
last described will be found to answer well. Many prefer the 
patent taper quill floats (Figs. 4 and 5) for these purposes, but 
although we have often used them, and they are extremely ex- 
pensive, we much prefer a float of rather larger section where it 
emerges from the water. We have tried many experiments with 
porcupine quiH. floats, using alternately the broad and narrow 
end upwards, but although we were prejudiced in favour of the 
fine tip, experience demonstrated that the stout one was far 
better suited to render visible the very slight depression caused 
by the bite of a heavy fish, which in still water does not exceed 
the sixteenth part of an inch.* 

The subject of the method which various fish use while feed- 
ing is too interesting, more particularly to the float fisher, and 
is in so close a relationship to the subject of floats themselves, 
that we may be pardoned for recurring to the subject of their 
biting. Many persons are under the impression that, for in- 
stance, a roach bite is defined by the fish laying hold of the 
bait. Eut this is not what the fish does, but what he does 
not do. 

We have passed many hours in watching the habits of dif- 
ferent fish, sometimes sheltered behind a tree, sometimes from 
a bridge, or hanging over the end of a punt with our face nearly 
touching the water, and sometimes while prostrate peering from 
amidst a bunch of wild aquatic flowers, with our features 
screened from observation by green crape, and often in the quiet 
of our study by means of a large aquarium, and this is the re- 
sult of our observation — minnows, dace, perch, trout, gudgeon, 
and some others, snap at a bait, and really seize hold of it, 
depressing the float more or less according to their size, but 
the roach generally takes it in a very different manner. 

The roach swims up to the object, opens his mouth, and 
draws in a current of water, together with the subject he is ex- 
perimenting on. Should it please Mr. Roach, it is immediately 
swallowed, and the water ejected through the gills. But the 
moment he finds a line attached, or should the flavour not suit 
his fastidious palate, it is instantly blown out with great force, 
along with the mouthful of water he has just taken in. The 
larger the fish are, as a rule, the more dainty they are, and the 
more cautiously they take the bait into their mouths. 

It will therefore be conceded that our attention cannot be too 
scrupulously directsd to the nicety and delicacy of the tell-talo 

» Vide " The Book of the Eoach," by Greville Fennell. Longman and Co. 



which indicates the presence of small fish, and gives but little 
warning of the proximity of the larger. 

It is a false notion, therefore, that what is termed a " good 
bite " necessarily signifies the touch of a good fish. 

It will be seen by this that roach seldom pull at the line as 

many other fishes do, but deflect it a little when in slowly- 
running waters, which sometimes causes a trifling retardation 
of the float, but more generally a slight depression. 

Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 18 and 11 are the traveller and specimens 
of the ordinary cork and quill float, of which more in our next. 


Bx Majob Hotoh. 



TILITAEIANS muster strong 
in Great Britain, and every 
one who invites attention to 
and encouragement of any 
exercise or sport is expected to 
show some object to be ob- 
tained by it, almost as rigo- 
rously as though he were get- 
ting up a company for laying 
down a railway or digging a 

The task, however, of show- 
ing the advantages of learning 
to fence is an easy one. The 
most obvious objection to the 
art is that most commonly heard: Why acquire the use of 
a weapon which I shall probably never hold in my hand ? I 
might as well seek to become an adept in the management of 
a boomerang as of a small sword. 

Now with respect to men engaged in any military capacity, 
this reasoning was shown to be fallacious in our last paper, 
where it was pointed out that practice with the foil was the 
grammar, as it were, to the use of cold steel in any form. 

The principles of thrust and parry are always the same, 
and should bayonet be opposed to bayonet, the enemy's point 
mast be put aside in quarte, or in tierce, as when swords .are 
the weapons employed, so that the advantage would lie with 
the best manipulator of the foil, though his light and delicate 
tool were exchanged for a heavy aad clumsy one wielded with 
both hands. 

Besides, the mo3t pacific man may be placed in a position 
where the knowledge of how to defend his person effectively 
may be of the greatest service to him. 

Some years ago a French teacher, resident at Clifton, near 
Bristol, was engaged in the instruction of several of the nume- 
rous schools in that neighbourhood ; and as one of these was 
situated at a village about three miles off, on the other side 
of the Downs, where the road was lonely, and he often had to 
return along it from his periodical visits late in the evening, 
he adopted the habit of carrying a sword-stick. 

The precaution proved to be not unnecessary, for he was 
waylaid and attacked one winter night by four men, who had 
contrived by some means to learn that he was that day to 
receive his half-yearly salary, which the mistress of that parti- 
cular school always paid in cash, and not by cheque. This sum 
the rogues reckoned upon easily appropriating, together with 
such little matters as his watch, a diamond breast-pin, etc., to 
their own wants and pleasures, their proposed victim being an 
old and apparently feeble little man. 

But they reckoned without their host. Monsieur had been 
the joy and pride of a famous madtre d'armes in the days of his 

prosperity, when he bore a commission in the Boyal Guard; 
and now, drawing his sword-stick, and getting a tree at his 
back, he stretched two of his assailants slightly wounded on 
the frozen road in a twinkling, and put the others to flight. 

Then he walked quietly home, and gave information to the 
police, who found the wounded rogues in the place indicated, 
and, by a knowledge of their habitual associates, shortly after- 
wards tracked and arrested the pair that had escaped ; so that 
all four were m due time tried for highway robbery, convicted, 
and sentenced to a long term of penal servitude. 

But, says the practical man, people rarely go about armed 
with sword-sticks or any other concealed weapons. He is per- 
fectly right, we are thankful to say ; and it would be a very 
great misfortune indeed if such a custom were to arise in this 

But we carry walking-sticks with or without ferrules at the 
end ; we carry umbrellas. Now an ordinary sixpenny oaken 
stick would be a very insufficient weapon, we grant, in the 
hands of a man who had never learned to fence ; a blow from 
it would merely irritate without stopping an assailant. 

But used by one who knew how to manage the foil, a simple 
walking -stick, if not too supple or fragile, or even the homely 
gingham, would become formidable. A sudden longe. delivered 
secundum artem, would stop the biggest ruffian that ever 
adopted the stern profession of garrotting, or soothed his lighter 
moments by kicking his wife to death, even if it took effect in 
the centre of his chest. Were you to choose the lower line, 
your late apprehension .for your windpipe and pocket-boek, or 
your chivalrous indignation against the man who had dared 
to lay a hand (or foot) upon a woman, " save in way of kind- 
ness," might be converted krto concern for the aggressor. 

A naval officer once killed a man, who sought to rob him op 
the stairs near London Bridge, with one thrust of his umbrella. 

Or should you aim at your adversary's face, the result might 
be still more unpleasant to think about afterwards, for the eyo 
would be the most probable place for youc point to strike, 
either directly or glancing from the cheek. 

But to be effective the longe must be correctly delivered; a 
poke, made by drawing the arm back and then thrusting, would 
not be likely to disable your man, even if he failed to catch or 
ward off your stick or umbrella — not a difficult thing to do in 
that case, but almost impossible against the sudden irresistible 
dart forwards of the straightened arm of a fencer. 

If, then, it is useful to flog the man (supposing you catch him) 
who robs you with violence, it must be still more useful to 
learn an art which will give you a good chance of forestalling 
his intentions by turning his violence upon himself, or there ia 
no truth in the proverb that prevention is better than cure* 

But for the inhabitants of large towns, especially for thoso 
who have but little leisure, fencing has a far higher value than 
the acquisition of a means of defence which may remain a 



hidden power, a sheathed weapon, all your days ; for though we 
insure our houses, we hope that the fire office will never be put 
to the trouble of drawing us a cheque. 

Fencing means health and strength ; there is no other exer- 
cise which brings every muscle of the human frame so com- 
pletely and so impartially into play ; which steadies the nerves, 
opens the chest, 
and teaches the 
eye and hand to 
act together ra- 
pidly and instinc- 
tively in an equal 

It is also most 
salutary in ano- 
ther important 
way. In a na- 
tural state man 
has to earn his 
bread in the sweat 
of his brow, and 
those members of 
a civilised com- 
munity upon whom 
this necessity still 
presses are the 
most hardy and 
vigorous. But the 
great majority of 
those classes who 
wear broadcloth 
earn their living 
by means which 
do not open their 
pores, and half the 
headaches, indi- 
gestions, and ca- 
tarrhs from which 
they suffer are 
owing to this cause 

Half did we say? 
Two-thirds would 
be nearer the 
mark. The rich 
suffer principally 
from high living ; 
the poor from in- 
sufficient food, bad 
drainage and ven- 
tilation, and adul- 
terated drink ; and 
the middle classes 
from a want of 
wholesome exer- 
cise. Many a man 

who has to work with his head has discovered this ; and when 
the article in question aches, and becomes temporarily useless, he 
finds the Turkish bath a speedier and more effective remedy 
than pill or potion. 

■But without undervaluing Turkish baths, we can assure him 
that he will find a bout at fencing to be a more excellent 
sudorific still. It is the recreation in which he can take the 
strongest amount of exercise in the shortest possible time, and 
an hour of it thrice or even twice a week will go far to counter- 
act the ill effects of a too sedentary life. 



We by no means undervalue the inestimable benefits of fresh 
air, or wish to advance that any exercise in a room ean compare 
with that which is taken on the mountain, in the fields, or on 
the river ; the above remarks are addressed to those who are 
debarred for the greater part of the year from the sports of the 
field ; though, indeed, in this climate of ours, the advantages of 

an exercise which 
can be taken under 
shelter address 
themselves to all. 
The uses of 
fencing are be- 
coming better ap- 
preciated than 
they were, and 
many a yonngman 
who is nailed to 
desk or counter 
all day, spends in 
the gymnasium 
those evening 

hours of recrea- 
tion which would 
otherwise be 
passed in the un- 
wholesome atmo- 
sphere of a bil- 
liard-room, spend- 
ing more money 
than ho can pro- 
perly afford, and 
smoking more to- 
bacco than is good 
for him. 

In our last pa- 
per we treated of 
the defence ; we 
now come to 


The thrusts aie 
named, like the 
parries, quarte, 
tierce, etc. So also 
are the engage- 
ments : when the 
foils are joined in 
the inside high, 
you are engaged 
in quarte; on the 
outside high, in 
tierce ; and these 
two engagements 
are almost uni- 
versally adopted, 
though there is no 
rule to that effect; the position of quarte, indeed, is that into 
which you naturally fall on coming on guard. 

Suppose you are engaged in quarte, then while your 
adversary's blade is in a true line it is evident that a very 
slight movement of his hand to the left would turn aside a 
direct thrust ; . or if he were to extend his arm at the moment 
of your longe, you would throw yourself upon his point. You 
therefore seek, by pressing with the forte of your sword upon 
the faible of his, to force it out of the line. 

If he allow you to do this, his breast lies entirely exposed to 




your attack, and a direct thrust will hit it without risk to your- 
self, his point not being directed towards your body ; so that if 
he should thrust simultaneously it must go past you, and he 
will be the only one struck ; and, as Moliere's fencing master 
explains to his pupil, the Bourgeois Gentilhomme, the art of 
fencing lies in two simple things — to hit, and not to be hit. 


But suppose your adversary obtains the advantage in the en- 
gagement, and that his sword commands yours, the direct thrust 
becomes impossible, and you must disengage to get an opening. 

The more completely his inside line is guarded (you are en- 
gaged in quarte, remember) the more exposed must he be on 
the outside line. 

Lower your point then under his hilt, straightening your 
arm as you shift to the outside line, and longe like lightning. 

Rapidity is everything in the disengagement; ec you must be 
careful not to draw your point back, instead of merely lowering 
it, and not to make a wide semicircle round your opponent's blade. 
Tour foil should slip, as it were, from quarte to tierce, closs to 
his, acted on by the fingers only. (Fig. 2.) 

Rapid as you are, your adversary is as quick ; his eye is fixed 
on your wrist ; his foil, touching yours, aids him to divine your 
intentions, and the moment you disengage he is ready -with his 
parry in tierce or seconde before you longe. 

In this case you seek your opening by a second disengagement, 
and hit him in quarte after all. 

This double disengagement is called the " one, two," and is 
very hard to defeat with two simple consecutive parries ; for the 
formation of the first leaves the breast so much exposed, that it 
is barely possible to form the second in time. 

It is therefore met with the counter or round parry ; how art 
you to deceive this ? By a counter-disengagement — that is, by 
letting your point follow his blade round the circle it describes 
until the position of the first disengagement is resumed, and 
then longing. 

The opponent seeks to defeat this attack by a combination of 
simple and counter parries, which is to be evaded by a similar 
combination of disengagements and counter-disengagements, 
unless arrested in their action by a beat, wrench, or pressure 
upon his blade. 

b f 

Fig. 1. 


By J. C. Leake. 


SHALLOW tray of zinc should be procured, which may 
serve to hold the earth in which the ferns are planted, 
•<£&• and in the centre a Bhort pipe should be inserted, to 
allow of the free escape of the waste water into a pan placed 
beneath. This will complete the case with the exception of the 

decoration of the base, which may be effected in any of the 
ways which we have already described. 

A case such as we described in our last may be made at a 
cost of about seven shillings and sixpence. The glass, if of 
the ordinary glazing quality — which is usually quite good 






enough. — may be bought at fourpence per foot — this -will be 
about three shillings and sixpence; the wood for frame say- 
one and sixpence ; the zinc tray, one and sixpenoe ; and tape, 
glue, etc., one shilling. We need bardly observe that no fern 
case anything like this could be purchased for the money ; and 
besides the pleasurable la- 
bour of construction, we 
may rest assured that 
we have one of a really 
effective character, and in 
which the most beautiful 
plants may be successfully 

The onlyprecaution neces- 
sary in a case of this de- 
scription is that of keeping- 
the slips of tape and tin-foil 
weM varnished, in order to 
protect the glue from the 
action of the moisture which 
rises from the earth and 

Having given the simpler 
forms of fern cases, we may 
now proceed to consider 
those which, while they are 
somewhat more difficult of 
construction, are yet of a 
more lasting character, as 
well as more elegant in 

The materials usedforthe 
construction of the better 
forms of fern cases are wood 
orzinc, and, of course, glass. 
And as both of these sub- 
stances are capable of being 
worked by the amateur, we 
shall describe the method of 
construction in both cases, 
commencing with wood. 

We will suppose that it 
is desired to construct a 
case similar in shape to that 
shown in Fig. 1, which has 
been found in practice to be 
an excellent form. 

The first proceeding will 
be to provide a base board 
of strong yellow deal of the 
required dimensions, and 
of the shape shown at 
Kg. 2. 

This should not be leas 
than one inch in thickness, 
planed upon both sides, and 
what is termed "ledged" 
together by nailing across 

its width strong pieces of wood of the same thickness, as 
shown by the dotted lines in the Figure. 

These ledges should be placed upon the underneath side, so 
as not to interfere with the superstructure of the case. 

The exact shape of the case should be carefully drawn upon 
this board, and the corners cut to the required angle, as shown 
in the Figure. 

Tha boards which are to form the sides and ends of the case, 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 4. 

and to hide the zinc trough containing the earth, should next 
be prepared. 

These should be at least of one inch in thicknesss, and (for a 
case of three feet in length) not less than five inches in width, 
and planed upon both sides. These edge board's must be either 

nailed or screwed very 

strongly to the edges of the 
base board, after being care- 
fully fitted at the ends, as 
shown in Fig. 3. The angles 
must be secured together 
by careful nailing ; but the 
nails must not be driven in 
within two inches of the 
top edge, or they will inter- 
fere with the mortices re- 
quired for the angle bars. 

This will complete the 
base of the case, which will 
now be ready to receive the 
upright bars. 

These bars are intended 
to receive the glass forming 
the sides of the case, and for 
this purpose they must be 
grooved, as showi in Fig. 4. 
Perhaps the best wood for 
this purpose is clean and 
straight-grained mahogany; 
but good yellow deal free 
from knots will answer very 

As it is unlikely that the 
amateur may possess the 
requisite tools and facilities 
for making these grooves, 
the better plan will be to 
get the uprights made, as 
he may for a few pence 
at any joiner's shop. They 
should be about one inch 
square, and grooved upon 
two of their sides, as shown 
at Fig. 4. 

Of these bars there will 
be required — for a case such 
as we are now describing — 
eight, one at each angle. 
The lengths will of course 
be determined by the height 
of the case. 

In order to secure these 

bars to the base, as well 

as to the upper frame — 

indicated at A and B of 

Fig. 1 — they must be laid 

together upon a bench and 

carefully markedateachend 

with a fine pencil line about one inch from their extremity, as 

shown by the dotted lines at Fig. 5. This is to indicate the spot 

at which the shoulder of the tenons, A in Fig. 6, are to be cut. 

After the exact length has thus been marked upon one side of 
all the bars, each one should be marked all round. A centre-bit 
capable of boring a circular hole of about five-eighths of an inch 
in diameter should now be provided, and the pin being entered 
into the end of each bar, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 4, 













Fig. G. 

Fig. 5. 

Fig. 11. 



a circle should bo cut by turning the bit round a few times. 
This will mark out a circular pin, which has to be cut upon 
both ends of each bar, and which will, when cut out, form the 
tenons to secure the whole case together. 

The lines marked upon the bars to indicate the shoulders 
must now be carefully cut all round, and the outer portions 
split away so as to form a circular pin or tenon at each end, as 
indicated at B in Fig. 6. In order to fix these uprights into the 
base, holes must be bored in the angles of the rim, as shown at 
A in Fig. 3. It will be observed that these bars, if driven into 
the holes, will assume the position of the angle bars in Fig. 1, 
and the sides of the case will be complete. 

It is seldom,' however, that these bars fit so well as to be 
sufficiently firmly fixed in their places. It is necessary, 
therefore, to secure them by wedging, which is best effected 
as shown in Fig. 7. 

The tenon or pin should be cut longitudinally throughout 
its length, and before driving into the mortice, b, in the bottom 
of the case, a small wedge, C, should be inserted in the saw 
cut, so as to leave a small portion below the end of the pin, as 
shown in the Figure. It will readily be seen that when the end 
of this wedge reaches the bottom of the mortice, it will expand 
the end of the tenon, and fix the work most firmly together. 

This is one of the best methods of securing the bars ; but 
of course the wedging must not be too great, or it is likely to 
split the work. 

Befere fitting the glass into the grooves in the upright 
bars, the upper frame, b, in-Fig. 1 must be put together. 

It would be better if this was constructed before the upright 
bars were fitted in, as the base will in this case form an excel, 
lent guide as to the exact shape and size of the upper frame. 

This frame should be made of wood about three-quarters of 
an inch in thickness, and one and a half inches wide, which 
must be used flat. A groove of the same width as those in the 
upright bars should be made along its bottom side, as shown 
in Fig. 8, which represents this frame in section. 

Slips of the requisite length having been cut, the anglea 
should be halved out, as shown in section in Fig. 9, half the 
thickness of the wood being taken out of the bottom of one 
piece and the top of the other ; so that when fitted together 
they appear as shown in Fig. 10, which represents the parts as 
screwed together. 

The angles will require cutting, as shown in Fig. 11, the pin 
of the upright bars being shown at A. 

When these parts have been fitted accurately upon the base, 
and firmly screwed together, the glass, cut to the requisite size, 
should be carefully placed in the grooves in the upright